RP-Department of Theatre Arts and Film Technology

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    Evaluating Negative, Positive and Neutral Reporting in Newspapers in Kenya: A Case Study of Daily Nation and the Standard Newspapers
    (RJI, 2024-05) Kilonzo, Onesmus Musyoki; Kiilu, Tommy Kibera; Githiora, Barnabas Wanyagi
    In a recent study investigating the nature of reporting in Kenya, the study explored factors that affect reporting of Parliament and parliamentarians in two most popular Kenyan newspapers, namely the Daily Nation and The Standard. However, the study did not evaluate the negative, positive and neutral reporting in newspapers in Kenya, for which this study was conducted. Purpose: This study evaluated the negative, positive and neutral reporting in newspapers in Kenya: A case study of daily nation and the standard newspapers. Theoretical Foundation The study was guided by the Herman and Chomsky’s ‘Manufacturing Consent – A Propaganda Model’ theory Methodology Constructivism philosophical paradigm with mixed method approach through triangulation using structured questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and observations. Results The results showed most of the newspaper reporting on MPs during the period under study took a negative angle. Conclusion The symbiotic relationship between Parliament, the Media, and the Public is expected to endure despite occasional "clashes" between Parliament and the Media, which inevitably affect the Public. These conflicts arise when parliamentary officials perceive negative portrayal by the Media. Recommendations A similar study needs to be carried out to investigate the foregoing phenomena in both radio and television stations
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    African Representation in White Films from 1985-1997
    (EdinBurg, 2024) Gichuki, Atenya
    This paper analyzes the representation of African characters in white films from 1985-1997. During this period, many Hollywood films were produced that depicted African characters in various roles. However, the question arises as to whether these representations were accurate and fair or whether they perpetuated negative stereotypes of Africans. Through a qualitative content analysis of six selected films produced between 1985-1997, this paper explored the ways in which African characters were portrayed in white films. The films were selected using purposive sampling, and it used thematic analysis to get the findings. The paper used Postcolonial theory that examines how power dynamics between colonizers and colonized people influence cultural representation, including media representation. This study examined the representation of Africans in six films: "Amistad"(1997)," "A Far Off Place"(1993)," "The Power of One"(1992)," "Sarafina!"(1992)," and "Out of Africa"(1985)." and "The Power of One". The films were analyzed through a postcolonial theoretical framework to explore power dynamics and cultural representation. The findings revealed that the portrayal of Africans in these films was mostly through a lens of victimization, perpetuating stereotypes of Africans as primitive and inferior. It is based on the understanding that colonialism is not just a historical phenomenon but also has lasting effects on contemporary societies.
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    Bridging the Gap: The Role of Social Media Support Groups in Diabetes Care and Management
    (Universidad Técnica de Manabí (UTM), 2024-01) Githinji, Phrashiah; Githinji, Martin K.; Kariuki, Githinji Scolastica N.
    Background: With the growing prevalence of diabetes in Kenya and the complex challenges of managing the disease, individuals with diabetes increasingly turn to social media (SM) support groups. This study explores how these individuals engage with SM support groups and how they verify the information shared within these platforms. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted from June-August 2022. Participants (n=15) were purposively recruited from Facebook and WhatsApp social support groups exclusively for those with diabetes. Participants included adults diagnosed with diabetes and were active members of the SM support group. Data was collected virtually through in-depth, semi-structured interviews conducted via Zoom. Data was transcribed, coded, and analyzed using content analysis. Results: Five themes were constructed: 1) SM support groups provide accessible and affordable health information, 2) Participants leverage support groups as an alternative to formal professional healthcare engagement, 3) Participants leverage SM support groups to learn from peer-driven experiences and strategies to enhance diabetes self-care 4) Participants value community empathy and peer support in SM support groups 5) Participants strategies of authenticating and verifying information from SM support groups. Conclusion: The study highlights the multifaceted role of SM groups in diabetes care in Kenya, suggesting the need for healthcare professionals to collaborate with these online communities. It emphasizes the necessity for accurate information verification and points to the future integration of SM groups into formal healthcare strategies.
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    Radio Listenership of Zokonda Amayi Phone-In Programme among Women in Rural Malawi
    (JAHSS, 2024) Nthanda, Jacqueline Kakhobwe; Kiilu, Tommy; Githiora, Barnabas
    HIV and AIDS and its stigma are continuing to inordinately affect many rural women between the ages of 18-64 despite various interventions by different players. Thisstudy’s objective was to assess radio listenership among disadvantaged pastoral women on the outskirts of Lilongwe District, in the central part of Malawi. A non-probability purposive sample of 384 women who listen to Zokonda Amayi phone-in radio programme which is featured on Malawi Broadcasting Corporation, the national and largest broadcasting station in the nation was targeted. The respondents were identified by publicizing the study through the village chiefs. Only female listeners who were intrigued in taking part registered for the survey. A mixed approach prototype was used to elucidate the aptness of phone-in radio programmes in elevating HIV and AIDS responsiveness in rural Malawian ladies as well as ascertaining the impact of Zokonda Amayi phone-in radio programme in combating the spread of HIV and AIDS. Data was assembled in a standardized fashion harnessing questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions on the research subjects. Quantitative data was analyzed employing a software called Scientific Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) whereas qualitative data was analyzed through thematic content analysis. The investigation revealed that the majority of respondents were youthful and enthusiastic about the programme. This study concluded that radio listenership among women is very high in the rural areas of Lilongwe District and that content on HIV and AIDS is very enlightening to the audience. The findings of this study clearly authenticate that Zokonda Amayi phone-in radio programme is fulfilling an important educational function in the lives of rural women in Lilongwe District who have low educational attainment. It is recommended, therefore, that Government and development partners should consider subsidizing radio sets so that many women in Lilongwe rural can listen to Zokonda Amayi phone-in radio programme in future. This will result in their empowerment through the information and education derived from Zokonda Amayi phone-in radio programme.
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    The Future of Return of the African Artefacts: A Review of African Union (AU) Vision 2063 on Africa with a Strong Cultural Identity Common Heritage, Values and Ethics
    (EAST AFRICAN NATURE & SCIENCE ORGANIZATION, 2023-12) Ogutu, Wanyama
    The successful return of African artefacts was absolutely echoed by the later Zairian President, Kukugbedu Zambanga Seseseko Mobuto, at the United Nations in New York. The parliaments' legislation, enactment of the national laws, and mutual agreement treaties in the joint International Council of Museums (ICOM) were implemented at a slow pace across Africa. The paper reviews discourse on "Africa with a Strong Cultural Identity Common Heritage, Values and Ethics" since unveiling the African Union (AU) Vision 2063 in the year 2021. It aims to unravel some issues that affect the return of African artefacts and its way forward. The paper has employed qualitative research design and historical methodologies. It has explored the desktop research framework by reviewing related literature on the restitution or return of African artefacts and formulation of the Africa Union's Vision 2063. The paper has analysed the experts' voices, reviewed related literature, and formulated government policies on the return of African art. It has randomly looked at some of the few African countries, such as the Federal Government of Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Republic of Kenya, among others, as examples. The paper is cognisant that the artefacts that were returned and preserved at various local sites of Kenya and African Heritage Houses such as the Murumbi Collection, Koitalel Arap Samoei Museum, and Alan Donovan House of Heritage. It applauds the candid documentation done by the African governments through social media on African culture, arts, and heritage in modern times. The paper concludes by alluding that African leaders should champion the bringing back of remaining African artefacts still held in other countries.
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    The Design of Characters in Tinga Tinga Tales: A Kenyan Animation Film
    (AJOEI, 2023-09) Kihima, Clinton; Shapaya, Beneah
    Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of character design in the Kenyan animation industry. The study specifically focused on the use of character design to convey meaning in the animation series Tinga Tinga Tales. Research methodology: The study used a qualitative methodology. The data was gathered through observation of six selected episodes of the animation series. The researcher watched the episodes and took notes on how the characters were developed using different techniques of shape and color. Findings of the study: The study found that the characters in Tinga Tinga Tales were designed to be simple and memorable. The characters were also designed to be representative of the African culture. The study found that the use of shape and color was an important way to convey meaning in the animation series. For example, the use of bright colors was used to create a sense of joy and excitement, while the use of dark colors was used to create a sense of mystery or danger. Conclusion: The study concluded that character design is an important tool for conveying meaning in animation. The study also found that the use of shape and color is an important way to create visually appealing and memorable characters.
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    Influence of Media Training on the Competence of Journalists in Kenya: Perceptions of Standard Group Limited Managers and Senior Journalists
    (AJOBEI, 2019) Amukuzi, Marion; Githinji, Martin Kuria
    A number of researches have indicated that training institutions have failed to impart skills and knowledge to students that would be transferred to the industry upon graduation and employment, hence the quality of journalists graduating is wanting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of media training on the competency of journalists in Kenya. Curricula were sampled from selected Kenyan universities and adequacy of training material investigated. Non-probability sampling procedure involving purposive and snow-ball sampling methods were used to identify the 9 participants comprising media managers and senior journalists in one media organization. Data was analysed thematically and presented in a narrative form in accordance with the themes. According to the SG media managers and senior journalists, journalists trained in Kenya lack practical skills required in the job market. Consequently, media houses are recruiting graduates in other disciplines such as English, Medicine, and Law while others have resorted to re-training the new recruits. It is recommended that media training institutions, regulators and other stakeholders should revamp existing curricula with the view to making them competency based.
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    A ‘Uses and Gratification Expectancy Model’ To Predict Students’ ‘Perceived Elearning Experience’
    (JSTOR, 2008) Mondi, Makingu; Woods, Peter; Rafi, Ahmad
    This study investigates ‘how and why’ students’ ‘Uses and Gratification Expectancy’ (UGE) for e-learning resources influences their ‘Perceived e-Learning Experience.’ A ‘Uses and Gratification Expectancy Model’ (UGEM) framework is proposed to predict students’ ‘Perceived e-Learning Experience,’ and their uses and gratifications for electronic media in a blended learning strategy. The study utilises a cross-sectional research design, and elicits data from secondary school students through a field survey-questionnaire. The findings suggest that there are significant relationships between five dimensions of students’ UGE for e-learning resources, and their ‘Perceived e-Learning Experience.’ It is plausible that these UGE aspects of students’ ‘communication behaviour’ towards electronic media are important determinants of effective integration of the e-learning resources in school-curriculum. While this research focuses on students at secondary-school level, some elements in the UGE model may apply to students using e-learning resources at other levels of their education. This model gives researchers and educators a new tool to forecast the success of development and deployment of e-learning resources in education systems.
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    Utilization of Films as Wellsprings of Succour, Edification and Repose for Psychologically Lacerated Persons: An Exploratory Study
    (Royallite publishers, 2017) Situma, Eliud; Mugubi, John
    This paper presents an appraisal on Film, principally docudrama as a tool in the psychotherapeutic process among distressed people. The major findings resulting from reviewing several studies illustrate that cinematic techniques and enactment greatly play a role in decreasing psychological distress levels as well as depression. Subsequently, the study concludes that presentation and manipulation of characters effectively may engender positive results on persons healing from psychosomatic anguish and despondency. This study avers that cinematographic techniques carry healing and therapeutic value if utilized in psychosocial supportive environment. Film therapy enables clients to tell their life stories to their therapists. Film is therefore a potentially valuable means for clients to vent out their emotional stress and inculcate optimism. The entertainment aspect may make the client to forget/suspend negative feelings associated with trauma hence reducing negative defence mechanism that could encumber a therapeutic process.
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    Sergei Eisenstein : Contributions to Montage Theory and Cinema
    (African Journal of Emerging Issues, 2023) Gichuki, Atenya
    Background: In this paper, the author will be scrutinizing the theory of Montage, and the contribution of Sergei Eisenstein to it as well as his filmmaking career which he later proceeds after working as an engineer like his father, and as a theatre decorator for a long time before becoming a prominent director and theorist of all time in the world of Montage & Cinema. Eisenstein is known as one of the pioneers who developed the Montage Theory. Albeit, Eisenstein did not invent Montage, he elevated and changed the way film directors use the technique. The study analysed the various literature published by and about Sergei Eisenstein and Montage Theory. Conclusion: In light of Eisenstein's montage theory, the study concludes that a number of montage techniques can be applied to the creation of motion pictures in various distinct ways like putting shots in quick sequential succession to increase the speed of time in a film advancing the plot and ensuring the audience is alert and aware of what is happening in the scene. Using the text primarily to give the audience information and updates about the characters and the narrative as well. Can be used for a purpose of raising the stakes and suspense in films. Montage can also serve the purpose of showing the transformation of the characters. It can help the viewer understand the film's psychological or mental dramatic shift which makes the audience feel from what they see. It can be used to combine two different scenes or stories in a film. Recommendations: The study recommends that more study on Montage can be probed to understand how it relates with the cinematography and editing of animated films.
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    Newspaper Audiences’ Gains from Reading News about Parliament in Kenya
    (Reviewed Journal International of Business Management. www.reviewedjournals.com, 2023) Kilonzo, Onesmus; Kiilu, Tommy; Githiora, Barnabas
    Gate-keeping in journalism is of vital importance in the media environment today. In Kenya, the role of media in the safeguarding of transparency of democratic processes in modern-day politics and society cannot be underestimated. However, in building linkages between the people and their representatives, the gains for audience have remained clouded. This Study sought to analyze the newspaper audiences‟ gains from reading news on Parliament’s activities. The Study was anchored on Habermasian Theory of the Public Sphere as well as the Herman and Chomsky’s ‘Manufacturing Consent – A Propaganda Model’. Constructivist research philosophy adopted a mixed method design in which triangulation of tools was used. This study was conducted within Nairobi County, Kenya. The two main newspapers which were chosen were The Nation and The Standard. The results showed that overall public perception on Parliamentary reporting by print media had a negative score which in quantitative percentages would translate to 37% positive, 11% negative and 52% undecided respondents. The study concluded that Kenyans are not just passive consumers of parliamentary news. Instead, they question - and even react to – news that are likely to have great impact on their lives. The study thus recommended that vernacular newspapers be set up to specifically report on Parliament, so as to enable more people, especially those not conversant with either English or Kiswahili, to understand what happens in Parliament
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    Crises Experienced in Church Organizations: The Case of Parklands Baptist Church Nairobi Kenya
    (IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 2017-03) kuria, Martin
    This study evaluated crisis preparedness in churches and focused mainly on crisis communication in Parklands Baptist Church (PBC) in Nairobi, Kenya. The study’s main objective was to find out the types of crises that have affected the church in the past 5 years. The study employed a descriptive research design. The study established that the church experiences crisis but mostly from a rare to often basis. A sizeable number of PBC congregants indicated to have observed different crises in the church. It was inferred that the church rarely communicates to inform about crises to its congregants and this would explain why most congregants in Churches held the belief that the church is rarely engulfed in crises
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    Factors Contributing to the Onset and Continuation of Drug Abuse among Secondary School Students in Mombasa County, Kenya
    (International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), 2017-05) Omuyoma, Mbayi Oliver
    Adolescence is a period of significant developmental changes associated with the onset of drug abuse worldwide. This study was set up to examine some of the factors associated with the onset and escalation of drug abuse among secondary school students in Mombasa, Kenya. It also investigated the intervention strategies used to control drug abuse among secondary school students. Stratified sampling was used to pick 120 students from secondary schools. A self-report questionnaire was used. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and presented in tabular form. The findings of this study highlighted the importance of peer and family use of drugs in predicting both the onset and continuation of abuse of drugs among the secondary school students. Majority of student respondents reported high levels of awareness of harmful effects associated with substance use. The findings of this study suggest effective health guidance can assist secondary school students make rational choices away from drugs.
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    Theatre as a Campaign Tool against Drug and Substance Abuse in Selected Kenyan Schools Plays
    (African Journal of Alcohol & Drug Abuse, 2020-12-31) Tsikhungu, Shikuku; Minishi, Oliver
    The Kenya National Drama Festival Committee, the organizers of the National Schools, Colleges and Universities Drama Festival usually enters into a sponsorship agreement with other institutions to help in disseminating certain messages through drama. One of these institutions is the National Agency for the Campaign Against Drug and Substance and Alcohol Abuse (NACADA). NACADA has sponsored a number of editions of the Festival in the hope that participants will be sensitized through the performances on the need for demand reduction and supply suppression of alcohol and drugs use. The event targets mostly the youth in Kenya who are said to be at the highest risk of becoming victims of drug and substance abuse. The youth are mostly in schools. This article interrogates some of the plays presented at this festival and their agency at advocating the NACADA course. Specifically, it seeks to respond to the following questions; how are the plays structured to communicate supply suppression and demand reduction? What qualities are assigned to characters so that they act as campaign agents and how are the plays designed to signpost the dangers of drugs and substance abuse? How have they been used for supply suppression and demand reduction of consumption of drug and substances? What are the challenges that this sensitization campaign faced and how can they be overcomed?
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    Corollaries of Size: Encumbrances of Childhood in West-Indian Fiction
    (Royallite Global, 2018) Mugubi, John
    Perhaps the child’s physical and mental sizes contribute more to the position a child is bestowed in a society. Childhood has been viewed as an epitome of weakness and infirmity of both body and soul. This has been the more reason for not holding the child in high esteem. Children have been mistreated all over the world mostly because of their physical weakness. This study is based on the premise that a literary writer has a wide range of narrative agents to choose from. Literary artists discriminate in the choice of both subject – matter and technique. When a writer thus makes a selection, it is assumed that he opts for what is best suited to articulate his vision or ideological perspectives on a multiplicity of concerns. A writer’s preference in terms of character-types should therefore never be taken for granted but rather should be perceived as a vehicle through which the writer lays bare his/her message. Marjorie Boulton (1954) asserts: “a story or essay will achieve an effect on the reader by selection of some aspects of the subject” (p.109). Characterization in Literature is therefore a deliberate enterprise aimed at achieving certain goals.
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    Changing Spectres: Interweaving Loops in Kenyan Theatre
    (Royallite Global, 2020) Shikuku, Emmanuel Tsikhungu
    Theatre critics have proclaimed the death of serious theatre on the stages of Kenya, arguing that all that could be seen are slapstick comedies which cannot survive beyond stage performance. Theatre and art in general is not static; it feeds on the changing needs of humans that produce and consume it. An analysis of the different facets of Theatre in Kenya since 1960 revealed that there is indeed a weaving loop which sustains the interest in theatre, although these genres mutate with changes in socio-economic and political realities of both the producers and the consumers. Noting that there are several milestones that could be used to determine the development of theatre, it is observed that this development, far from being linear, is multidirectional and multi-generic so that theatre could grow out of oral narrative as it has been the tradition as well as comedies off-shooting from day to day life engagements. This article, however, conclusively argues that the concept of intermediality is slowly catching up in the Kenyan theatre and this has blinded many critics into thinking that theatre is dying when in actual sense it is simply fusing itself with other genres/media to come up with other forms of performance.
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    Concomitants of socio-cultural exigencies on narrative preferences in the Kenyan “Riverwood” film
    (Royallite Global, 2017) Mugubi, John; Maina, William Mureithi
    In a report commissioned by the World Story Organization in 2008, Justine Edwards points out that storyline lies at the centre of problems that Kenyan films face in trying to “break down the wall preventing Kenyan films from being shown and celebrated beyond Kenyan borders” (2). This paper goes a step further to interrogate this observation through an analysis of three works by three representative Kenyan home grown film makers: Wandahuhu’s Njohera (Forgive Me), Simon Nduti’s Kikulacho (What Bites You) and Simiyu Barasa’s Toto Millionaire. These film makers have made films under the banner of a Kenyan film industry that has come to be informally known as Riverwood—the Kenyan film industry associated with Nairobi’s River Road Street where cheaply produced independent home videos are made in mass mainly by Kenyan film makers working with a Kenyan crew and cast. By measuring their works against narrative conventions established in classical cinema, this paper evaluates Kenyan home-grown film standards as defined by the narrative choices made by the film makers. In so doing, it is essentially guided by narratological theories developed by the constructivist school of film criticism. Constructivist film theory is founded on the tenet that it is the reader (viewer) of the film text that constructs the story and meanings in the story using the clues that the film maker puts before him or her on the screen. Other relevant theoretical positions are applied as need arises to cater for the multidisciplinary nature of film as an art. The methodology used is textual analysis and interpretation, therefore qualitative in nature.
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    A historical perspective on the evolution and presentations of the ideal in children’s television: A study of Kenyan television from 1989 to 2012
    (Royallite Global, 2017) Shapaya, Beneah
    This paper aims at offering a brief history of children’s television in Kenya since 1989 when Voice of Kenya (VoK) was rebranded Kenya Broadcasting Corporation (KBC). The year 1989 is unique in the sense that broadcasting hours were increased, giving room for more programmes for children. This paper tries to provide a historical progression of Kenyan children’s television programmes, while analysing their portrayal of the world to the child. The paper will also look at notable opinions by Kenyan scholars on what children television ought to be vis-à-vis what it is. This paper concludes that although the Kenyan society (and to a great extent, television stations) still habours the idea that children are innocent individuals being natured to join the society by controlling the content they watch, we may be misleading ourselves. It must be accepted that currently children have multiple venues in which they can access various media with varied content. Thepaper accepts that children have varied intellect, experiences, interests and come from different backgrounds with different expectations of what is entertaining and what is boring. Although the paper does accept that television is a useful tool for culture transmission, it challenges the idea that children are a homogeneous group that can do with a standard offering.
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    The Creative Menopause Syndrome in Nollywood Video Films: A Lingering Deficiency
    (Royallite Global, 2018) Igomu, Samuel O.; Pomak, Frank Tengya
    The Nigerian movie industry, otherwise popularly known as Nollywood, is arguably Africa’s largest film industry and ranked amongst the top three film industries in the world. With a prolific output of over a thousand productions annually leading to a humongous popularity, Nollywood is without a doubt a staple in many African households and beyond. Obviously, the industry has evolved over the years by leaps and bounds giving the top-notch quality of some productions in recent times. However, despite this evolutionary stride being made, the quality of majority of movies coming out of the industry have predominantly remained shaky and dreary. It is seemingly a case of moving in a circle of creative dearth with many Nollywood video films often failing to inspireany major shift in contents and narrative styles. This study, thus, looks at the creativity question as well as the lack of creative impetus which has continued to characterise and constitute a major downside of Nollywood video films. Anchored on the theory of creativity espoused byKozbelt, Beghetto and Runco, this study finds the dearth of creativity to be a serious lingering deficiency which has and or is eating deep into the fabrics of Nollywood, making the industry a subject of protracted scathing criticism and an object of universal derision. Hence, by way of conclusion and recommendation, it is imperative Nollywood filmmakers improve upon their artistry in filmmaking and not sacrifice creativity –what is significantly required to make a movie of good quality –on the altar of rushed production for quick cash
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    The Gender Agenda in Kenyan Children’s Feature Films
    (Journal of African Theatre, Filmand Media Discourse, 2017) Ojiambo-Hongo, Evelyn; Mugubi, John; Nyaole, Rosemary
    The gender agenda has featured substantially in creative works from Africa and particularly Kenya. Although film is considered a new form of creative expression in Africa, compared to the west, it has not been excluded in exploring gender issues. While thegender discussion has prominently featured adults, the Kenyan film has gone a step further and explored gender on a different level. Gender has been explored from the point of view of the child and employed the child character as a suitable medium. Kenyanfilmmakers by employing the child character on the subject of gender seem to suggest that engendering of any member of the society begins in childhood and progresses into adulthood. This is a unique aspect about the Kenyan film yet has not been criticallyexamined. This paper therefore examines the child character and the exploration of gender in Kenyan films about children to ascertain the significance of the child character in exploring gender issues in society. It focuses on three selected films that extensively explore the engendering of children namely: Subira, Malika and Becoming A Girl. The films mainly focus on the engenderingof the girl child by the society and that this happens in childhood. They also employ the girl child as a character in exploring the issue of gender. Examination of the child character will be guided by the Sociological theory of film and the Formalist film theory. The structure of the paper is as follows: A background on the gender issue in creative works,theoretical perspectives on gender, analysis of Kenyan children’s films on gender and conclusions on the use of the child character in exploring gender.