RP-Department of Agribusiness Management and Trade (AMT)

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    Big Opportunities for Tiny Bugs: Rush to Boost Laying Hen Performance Using Black Soldier Fly Larvae Meal
    (Oxford University Press, 2023-12-29) Wamai, Linus K.; Munga, Leonard M.; Osuga, Isaac M.; Munguti, Jonathan M.; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kidoido, Michael K.; Ghemoh, Janice C.; Mwendia, Charles M.; Tanga, Chrysantus M.
    Rising feed cost challenges due to expensive conventional protein sources continue to make headlines in Africa causing drops in profit margins. We assessed the impact of insect (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus larvae meal, HILM) protein as a substitute for soybean meal and sunflower seed cake on layer chicken performance and profitability. Our results showed that apart from the growers, chicks (12.37 g/bird) and layer hens (2.02 g/bird) fed diets with 75% HILM inclusion levels had significantly higher average daily weight gain. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) varied significantly when the chicks and layer hens were provided with the HILM-based diets. For the chicks and layer hens, the lowest ADFI and FCR were observed in birds subjected to diets with 75% and 100% HILM compared to the growers fed diets with 50% HILM. Significantly higher egg production was observed for layer hens fed diets containing 75% of HILM throughout the first (87.41%) and second (83.05%) phase production cycles. Layer hens fed HILM-based diets had a 3–10% increase in egg laying percentage. There was higher profit margins when birds were fed diets containing 75% of HILM (~1.83 and 5.98 US$ per bird), which mirrored the return on investment estimated at 63.95% and 33.36% for the pullets (growers) and laying hen, respectively. Our findings demonstrate that diets with 75% HILM provided optimum growth performance, reduced feeding costs, increased weight gain and egg production as well as improved economic returns for commercial on-farm poultry production systems.
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    Cooking Fuel Demand Patterns among Rural Farm Households in Kiambu County, Kenya: An Application of Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System
    (JARA, 2020-07-25) Mwenjeri, Gabriel; Kago, Elizabeth Wangui; Nigat, Bekele
    Aim: The study was aimed to identify energy consumption patterns with a view to address the persistent problem of fuel insecurity. Materials and Methods: Systematic random sampling was used to select samples while questionnaires were used to elicit data from 200 respondents. Qualitative techniques were employed for data description while Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) was used for quantitative analysis. Results: The main determinants of energy demand were gender, education level, occupation of the household head as well as age and household size, fuel prices and household income. Conclusion: It was concluded that formulation of income oriented policies to augment household earnings which may increase purchasing power. Furthermore, community education and innovation on efficient energy devices would be an option that needs to be supported by both policy and incentives.
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    Determinants of Agro-Pastoralists’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia Vaccine in Kenya
    (Springer Open, 2023) Ouya, Fredrick Ochieng; Bett, Eric; Nguhiu, Purity; Makokha, Stella; Lutta, Harrison; Abwao, Willis Adero; Mwirigi, Martin
    Animal health care is critical for livestock production especially in arid and semi-arid areas where majority are agropastoralists. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious and fatal disease which commonly afects goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The government has been the major provider of CCPP vaccine and few large-scale farmers who are licensed and able to purchase directly from the vaccine producer. Although the vaccine is sold to farmers at a subsidized price by the government, its distribution has been characterized by scarcity, irregular and late administration by the authority concerned. It is envisioned that if the willingness to pay for the CCPP vaccine among the agro-pastoralists was high, the sustainability for the vaccine availability and accessibility to everyone will be assured. This study was conducted in Kajiado and Taita Taveta counties where 323 households were sampled; thus, 276 households who were aware of the CCPP were considered for the analysis. Double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation model was used to elicit agro-pastoralists’ willingness to pay for the improved CCPP vaccine with new attributes. The model revealed that of-farm income, membership to a group, previous experience on CCPP attack on goats and access to extension services positively infuenced households’ willingness to pay for the improved CCPP vaccine. The results implied that provision of extension services by the government through promotion of public awareness on CCPP and on the beneft of vaccination will motivate farmers to willingly pay for vaccination services. This can be done through enhanced trainings, seminars and demonstrations to the village level, encouraging formation of groups which facilitates information sharing between agro-pastoralists as awareness and knowledge can drive the demand for the improved CCPP vaccine.
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    Gains from gender equality in Irish potato production among farming households in Uasin Gishu County
    (Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation, 2022-12) Machoka, B. N.; Mwenjeri, G.; Bett, E.
    Women play a significant role in improving livelihoods and supporting food security and nutrition as they are increasingly involved in agriculture. However, gender differences manifest with women displaying lower agricultural productivity than men. These differences affect agricultural output levels, food security, and livelihoods. This study investigates the potential production and welfare gains from gender equality among potato farming households in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. This study adopted a quantitative survey design to collect data from 256 farmers selected using simple random sampling. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition model was employed to identify the gender difference in production, which was used to analyze the potential gains from gender equality. This study determined that substantial production and welfare gains would be achieved by closing an 11% (P≤0.01) production gap that favours male farmers. 33% (P≤0.05) of this production differential was attributed to gender differences in returns to production factors (P≤0.05) and 53% to the endowment factors. The potential production and welfare gains to be achieved through gender equality in production would be a 6% increase in the total potato output and a 9% increase in per capita consumption in the county, respectively. This study’s general conclusion is female farmers can be as productive as male farmers if their resource endowment and use constraints would be addressed.
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    Composition, Structure, and Functional Shifts of Prokaryotic Communities in Response To Co‑Composting of Various Nitrogenous Green Feedstocks
    (Biomedical Central, 2023) Matheri, Felix; Kambura, Anne Kelly; Mwangi, Maina; Ongeso, Nehemiah; Karanja, Edward; Adamtey, Noah; Mwangi, Elias Kihara; Mwangi, Edwin; Tanga, Chrysantus; Musyoka, Martha Wangu; Runo, Steven
    Background Thermophilic composting is a promising method of sanitizing pathogens in manure and a source of agriculturally important thermostable enzymes and microorganisms from organic wastes. Despite the extensive studies on compost prokaryotes, shifts in microbial profles under the infuence of various green materials and composting days are still not well understood, considering the complexity of the green material sources. Here, the efect of regimens of green composting material on the diversity, abundance, and metabolic capacity of prokaryotic communities in a thermophilic compost environment was examined. Methods Total community 16S rRNA was recovered from triplicate compost samples of Lantana-based, Tithoniabased, Grass-based, and mixed (Lantana + Tithonia + Grass)- based at 21, 42, 63, and 84days of composting. The 16S rRNA was sequenced using the Illumina Miseq platform. Bioinformatics analysis was done using Divisive Amplicon Denoising Algorithm version 2 (DADA2) R version 4.1 and Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States version 2 (PICRUSt2) pipelines for community structure and metabolic profles, respectively. In DADA2, prokaryotic classifcation was done using the Refseq-ribosomal database project (RDP) and SILVA version 138 databases. Results Our results showed apparent diferences in prokaryotic community structure for total diversity and abundance within the four compost regimens and composting days. The study showed that the most prevalent phyla during composting included Acidobacteriota, Actinobacteriota, Bacteroidota, Chlorofexi, and Proteobacteria. Additionally, there were diferences in the overall diversity of metabolic pathways but no signifcant diferences among the various compost treatments on major metabolic pathways like carbohydrate biosynthesis, carbohydrate degradation, and nitrogen biosynthesis. Conclusion Various sources of green material afect the succession of compost nutrients and prokaryotic communities. The similarity of amounts of nutrients, such as total Nitrogen, at the end of the composting process, despite differences in feedstock material, indicates a signifcant infuence of composting days on the stability of nutrients during composting
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    Evaluating the Use of Herbicide-Coated Imidazolinone-Resistant (Ir) Maize Seeds to Control Striga in Farmers’ Fields in Kenya
    (Elsevier, 2006-12) Groote, Hugo De; Wangare, Lucy; Kanampiu, Fred
    The performance of imidazolinone-resistant (IR) maize seed, coated with the herbicide, and conventional maize seeds were compared for the control of Striga during on-farm trials. The researcher-managed trials from 2002 (on 3 farms with 2 replications, using conventional hybrid maize as control) showed good Striga control, especially in the early stages, increasing yields by 2.39 tons/ha. Farmer-managed trials from 2004 (on 60 farms in 3 districts, no replications, using farmer’s maize variety as control) showed good control in two districts, increasing average yield by 0.69 tons/ha. In the third district, the IR-maize and control plots showed similar levels of Striga infestation, probably caused by heavy rains and flooding which can wash off the herbicide. The yield response to IR-maize seed was categorized at two levels. The germplasm effect was estimated at 0.37 tons/ha. The herbicide effect was estimated at 0.13 tons/ha (49 kg/ha for each reduction of the Striga numbers/m2). With maize prices at US$202/ton, seed prices at US$34/ha and herbicide cost at US$4/ha, the overall marginal rate of return (MRR) was 2.4 (good), with an MRR of 1.9 (respectable) for the germplasm and an MRR of 5.6 (very good) for the IR-maize technology. Farmers generally appreciated the technology and indicated their willingness to pay (WTP), which was, however, very price-sensitive. The methodology of on-farm work can be improved substantially by including a sufficient number of sites, by measuring compounding factors (soil fertility, Striga seed bank, rainfall), by involving the farmers more (explain the design better, visit more often), by inviting more farmers for the evaluation and by using experimental auctions of IR-maize seed to estimate their WTP for this new technology
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    Domestication of Terminalia Brownii among Smallholder Farmers in Eastern Kenya: A Double Hurdle Approach.
    (IISTE, 2019-08-31) Luvanda, Albert, M.; . Kamau, Christopher, N; Uchi, Sylvia, M.; Bala, Pauline; Okeyo, Michael M.
    Evidence has shown that the population of Terminalia brownii continue to dwindle in its native range due to drought, agricultural expansion and settlement and over exploitation for charcoal, beehives, carvings and timber. High levels of exploitation accompanied by awareness creation on value addition remains an exit strategy towards poverty alleviation for improved rural livelihoods, hence, the need to support its domestication. Scientists and researchers have prioritized promotion of this species in Eastern Kenya. However, information on intensity of domestication of the species remained scanty. A sample of 346 T. brownii producers were selected using a multistage sampling procedure in Embu, Machakos, Kitui and Makueni Counties in Kenya. Primary data was collected using a pretested structured questionnaire while secondary data was acquired from the Kenya Forest Service offices in the study area. A double hurdle econometric model was used to analyse the determinants of decision and intensity of use of T. brownii. Results revealed that five variables that significantly influence the decision to domesticate T. brownii include; education level of household head, importance of farm to the household income, access to credit, dependency ratio and intercropping. On the other hand, education of the household head, size of the farm and total income from livestock sales influenced intensity of domestication of T. brownii. Therefore, there is need to develop programs to sensitize farmers on the importance of the species on their farms. Lastly, we need to promote structures for commercialization of the agroforestry products from this tree species to reduce unemployment
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    Determinants of Distribution and Utilization of Terminalia Brownii (Fresen) in Eastern Kenya
    (Academic Journals, 2021-04-26) Kamau, Christopher Njuguna; Luvanda, Alert Makee; Uchi, Sylvia Mwalewa
    Terminalia brownii (Fresen) is one of the drought-resistant treespecies that support livelihoods in the rural households of Eastern Kenya. The tree is preferred for its versatile functions such as; medicinal use, carvings, energy, construction, and cultural reasons. In this regard, there has been an increased demand for Fresen products which include; charcoal, poles, posts, bee-hives, nativities among others. Forestry stakeholders, researchers among other tree promoters have been at the pole position to support the propagation of this species through various programs. It is therefore vital to comprehend the determinants of the distribution of the species among farmers in Eastern Kenya. The study documents various uses of the species in the study area. A semi-structured questionnaire and direct observations were used to interview a total of 346 farmers selected through a multistage sampling procedure. Descriptive statistics and a logarithmic logistical econometric model were adopted for data analysis. Results revealed that most of the farmers preferred the species for; firewood, quality charcoals, prevention of soil erosions, poles and posts, medicinal use, and carvings. The size of the farm, income from the sale of livestock, and the land tenure system were the key determinants of the distribution of the species. Policies should focus more on the issuance of legal documents particularly title deeds which will motivate farmers to domesticate the species. Further, programs should be designed to strengthen livestock production and marketing which serves as a diversification strategy given the erratic nature of rainfall patterns.
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    Assessing Economic Viability of Pasture Enterprise as Adaptation Strategy in Dry Land Ecosystems - A Case of Ijara, Kenya
    (IISTE, 2015-11) Mwaura, J; Koske, J; Kiprotich, B
    To adapt to impacts of climate change and variability that outwit traditional coping mechanisms, communities in the semi-arid Ijara, spontaneously took to pasture enterprise strategy. The spontaneity translated into unclear costs and benefits that impeded management of the scarce resources. The study clarified costs and benefits by isolating them for analysis and measuring the strategies’ viability for adaptation. The objective was to measure costs incurred and benefits gained from avoided damages through adoption of the strategy at community farm-level. Costs-benefit-analysis was the design used, complemented by the financial market-driven 15% discounting rates and net present values. Also co-ordinated regional downscaling experiment models were used to ascertain climate performance and projection. Household questionnaire was administered to 240 sample size calculated from 9000 farmer population. Fifty-seven per cent pastoralists had embraced agro-pastoralism to incorporate on-farm rainfed Sudan grass, whose input costs were US$ 1333/ha/season with estimated yields of 1.8 tons/ha of dry matter. Cash flow across three rain-fed seasons netted US$21390, US$45214 and US$67820 per hectare from one, two and three seasons respectively. Overall net present value was US$ 2000p.a. Equal to 50.5% agro-pastoralists produced fodder that cushioned against the high costs on inter-county importation. Land size inadequacy and the communal tenure upset 86.26% producers whereas 47.5% were concerned that drought raised production costs the most after that lack of skills 53.08%, feed deficit at 30.41%, and diseases 20.41% in that order. Overall benefits from the strategy exceeded costs, making the investment viable for adaptation. Going forward and considering the limited adaptation capacities, disease control and feed deficit costs, policies need to focus on formulating livestock improvement guidelines to include revitalizing traditional grazing management practices. Other pertinent investment opportunities include strategic value-chain linkages and infrastructure, promotion of rain-fed and irrigated fodder production technologies incorporating climate-smart water harvesting, supporting post-harvest feed reserves technologies, reviewing land tenure system and investing in local farmer-friendly weather data collection and application
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    Determinants of Adoption and Intensity of Use of Brooding Technology in Kenya: The Case of Indigenous Chicken Farmers in Makueni and Kakamega Counties, Kenya
    (International Scholars Journals, 2017-02) K, Christopher Njuguna; Kabuage, Lucy W.; Bett, Eric K.
    Indigenous chicken (IC) boosts the livelihoods of many smallholder famers in Kenya. IC constitutes 80% of poultry population in Kenya and kept by over 80% of the smallholders’ rural households. To increase IC productivity, use of brooders remains an option. Brooders enhance chick’s separation, reduce predation prospects, boost controlled temperatures and reduce trampling. However, information on determinants of adoption and use intensity of brooders among smallholder IC farmers in Eastern and Western Kenya remained scanty. Therefore, the study aimed at filling this gap. A total of 384 households were sampled using stratified random sampling procedure. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. Secondary data was accessed from Makueni and Kakamega livestock offices. Descriptive analysis and Double-Hurdle econometric model were employed using STATA 13. Results revealed that farm size, training on poultry production and awareness of IC significantly influenced adoption decision. On the other hand, education level, household size, farm size, training on poultry production, distance to the training center and awareness of IC determined use intensity of brooders. We recommend that policymakers should target factors influencing adoption and use intensity of brooders. More infrastructures and extension agents should be deployed to boost information dissemination on brooding technology.
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    Economic Value of Water Harvesting for Climate Smart Adaptation in Semi Arid Ijara Garissa, Kenya
    (Springer, 2017-03-27) Mwaura, Joseph; Koske, James; Kiprotich, Bernard
    Background: The semi-arid Ijara experienced erratic and declining rainfall whereas temperature increased, triggering extreme weather events shocks. Given the shocks that outwitted traditional coping mechanisms, pastoralists spontaneously took to water harvesting pans as adaptation strategy. The spontaneity translated into unclear costs benefits which the study clarified by isolating them for analysis and also measured the strategy’s viability. The design used was costs-benefit-analysis, complemented by the regional financial market-driven 15% discounting rates. Also co-ordinated regional downscaling experiment models were used to ascertain climate performance and projection. Household questionnaire was administered to 240 calculated from 9000 farmer population. Results: Annual water pan cash flow netted present value US$ 5393 and 57% pastoralists had embraced agro-pastoralism. Land size inadequacy and the communal tenure upset 86.26% users and 53.08% lacked requisite skills. Other challenges were feed deficit at 30.41%, and diseases 20.41% in that order. Benefits from harvesting water exceeded costs, making the investment viable for adaptation. Conclusion: Considering the limited adaptation capacities, disease control and feed deficit costs, policies need to focus on formulating climate-smart water harvesting technologies, improve feed to include revitalizing traditional grazing management practices. Other pertinent investment opportunities include strategic value-chain linkages and infrastructure as well enriched soil stabilization using multi-benefits crops and generation and consistent use of weather data.
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    Analysis of Factors Influencing Microfinance Credit Uptake among Smallholder Coffee Farmers in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya
    (International Scholars Journals, 2018-03) Mbuba, Anderson, K.; Bett, Eric K.; Ndenga, Charles; Nyairo, Newton
    Microfinance institutions play a critical role in improving production and productivity of smallholder farmers by availing necessary financial resources when needed. Despite the benefits of microfinance credit on production, its uptake and use in the study region is still low. Consequently, it’s not known what factors influence the uptake and use of microfinance credit among smallholder coffee farmers in Tharaka Nithi county. The objective of this study was to find out the factors that influence the uptake of micro finance credit among smallholder farmers in Tharaka Nithi County. A total of 390 smallholder coffee farmers were selected through multi-stage sampling procedure. Primary data was collected by the use of structured questionnaires. Both descriptive and probit regression methods were used to analyze data. Results indicated that coffee farming experience, gender of the household head, number of coffee trees and access to extension services had significant influence on the uptake of microfinance credit. In conclusion any agricultural policy intervention on financing smallholder coffee farmers should focus on these factors to enhance uptake and efficiency in management.
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    Empirical Analysis of Structure and Conduct of Tomato Marketing in Loitoktok, Kajiado County, Kenya
    (International Scholars Journals, 2018-04) Ruttoh, Joseph Kiprotich; Bet, Eric K.; Nyairo, Newton
    Tomato marketing has great potential of raising farmers and traders’ income and thereby contributing to poverty alleviation. Despite economic potential associated with tomato, producers in the study area receive low price compared to consumer price. Consequently, the cause of huge price differential is unknown. The main objective of the study was to evaluate efficiency of tomato marketing in Loitoktok, and specifically to analyze the structure and conduct of tomato marketing. A total of 174 respondents were selected; 126 producers and 48 traders using multistage sampling method. Semi structured questionnaires were used to collect data, which was analyzed using the structure-conduct-performance analysis tool. In terms of market share, Herfindahl-Hirschman indices of 0.038, 0.076, and 0.2 for retailer, wholesaler and producer levels respectively were obtained, indicating that market was competitive at retail and wholesale but uncompetitive at producer level. Gini Coefficients of 0.6505, 0.5258, and 0.4524 for producers, wholesalers and retailers were obtained showing inequity in income distribution, indicating that market was imperfect. The study did not identify clear policies on price setting nor promotional strategies. From the findings, it is recommended that market actors should have access to affordable credit to invest in tomato marketing and reduce market inequalities.
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    Economic Analysis of Indigenous Chicken Production: The Case of Smallholder Farmers in Makueni and Kakamega Counties, Kenya
    (International Scholars Journals, 2017-05) K, Christopher Njuguna; Kabuage, Lucy W.; Bett, Eric K.
    ndigenous chicken (IC) play a crucial role in addressing food insecurity in rural households. Smallholder farmers rely on IC for income generation, asset accumulation and nutritional requirements. Indigenous chicken products (meat and eggs) are preferred for their good taste, leanness and the organic nature of production. Therefore, improving productivity of IC through rearing improved breeds would enhance commercialization. However, information on profit and determinants of profitability among smallholder farmers in Makueni and Kakamega counties, Kenya remained scanty. A total of 384 households were sampled using stratified random sampling procedure. Primary data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Secondary data was accessed from Makueni and Kakamega livestock offices. Gross margin analysis (GMA) and multiple regression econometric model was employed using STATA 13. Results of the profitability analysis, showed that investing in indigenous chicken production was profitable. However, rearing improved indigenous chicken (IIC) proved more profitable with an annual gross margin of Ksh. 14238 and Ksh. 9824 per 100 birds for IIC and IC, respectively. Flock size, farm size, group membership, access to credit and distance to the training centre significantly influenced profits. Policies should prioritize on formation of social groups to encourage collective action in IC production and marketing
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    Economic Analysis of Consumer Demand for Indigenous Chicken Eggs in Kenya
    (IISTE, 2018) Ndenga, Charles; Kabuage, Lucy W.; Bet, Eric K.
    The World health organization recommends a daily protein requirement of 55 grams per person to avert health and nutritional related problems. This requirement is hardly met in majority of developing countries’ households especially in the sub Saharan African. Indigenous chicken eggs have potential to position themselves as a major source of proteins in these households due to their low prices compared to other sources of proteins. However, average per capita egg consumption in Kenya has remained low compared to the world average. Consequently, no research has been done to determine factors that influence egg consumption in Kenya. It is on the basis of this research gap that this study is conducted with three specific objectives; to characterize indigenous chicken egg consumers, to estimate the level of preferences in different egg types and to determine factors influencing household demand for indigenous chicken eggs in the counties of Makueni and Nairobi in Kenya. A total of 174 respondents were sampled in across sectional survey design using a multistage sampling technique. The data was collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, non parametric Kendall coefficient of concordant test and multiple regression models in STATA 11.0 version. Results showed that there was a significant agreement (p<0.01) among consumers in the ranking of indigenous chicken eggs as the most important compared to all other eggs available in the market. Gender, age, education, price, income and household size had a significant effect (p<0.01) on demand for indigenous chicken eggs. All variables estimated had the expected sign. Policy should focus on these factors in order to increase both consumption levels and competitiveness of the egg value chain
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    Impact Assessment of Push-Pull Pest Management on Incomes, Productivity and Poverty among Smallholder Households in Eastern Uganda
    (Springer, 2017-10-09) Chepchirchir, Ruth T.; Macharia, Ibrahim; Murage, Alice W.; Midega, Charles A. O.; Khan, Zeyaur R.
    The paper evaluates the impact of adoption of pushpull technology (PPT) on household welfare in terms of productivity, incomes and poverty status measured through percapita food consumption in eastern Uganda. Push-pull is a habitat management strategy for the integrated management of stemborers, striga weeds and poor soil fertility involving the use of a natural repellent (push) and an attractant (pull). This biological technology simultaneously reduces the impact of three major production constraints to cereal-livestock farming in Africa − pests, weeds and poor soil. Cross sectional survey data were collected from 560 households in four districts in the region (Busia, Tororo, Bugiri and Pallisa), in November and December 2014. Generalized propensity scoring (GPS) was used to determine the intensity of adoption of the technology (i.e., land area allocated to PPT) and also to estimate the dose-response function (DRF) relating intensity of adoption and household welfare. Results revealed that with increased intensity of reported adoption of PPT, the probability of being poor declined through increased maize yield per unit area, incomes, and per capita food consumption. However, its impact varied with the intensity of adoption. With an increase in the area allocated to PPT from 0.025 to 1 acre, average maize yield per unit area increased from 27 kg to 1400 kg, average household income increased from 135 US$ (Uganda Shilling (USh) 370,000) to 273 US$ (USh 750,000) and per capita food consumption increased from 15 US$ (USh 40,000) to 27 US$ (USh 75,000). The average probability of a household being poor (below a rural poverty line of US$ 12.71) declined from 48% to 28%. These findings imply that increased investment in the dissemination and expansion of PPT is essential for poverty reduction among smallholder farmers in Uganda.
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    Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Collection of Gum Myrrh and Opoponax from the Wild in Wajir County, Kenya
    (CODEN: IJRSFP (USA), 2017-05) Luvanda, A.M; Macharia, I.N; B. N, Chikamai; Wambugu, S.K
    This study aimed at generating information to streamline gum myrrh and opoponax collection andpost-harvest handling activities to support livelihood of local communities in Wajir County. Theresource managers, producer and other stakeholders were interviewed using pre-tested checklists andquestionnaires. A total of 187 gum resin respondents were purposefully sampled. The findings showed that the main economic activity was pastoralism. The gum resins were gaining popularityand were harvested by professional gum resin collectors through either natural exudates or tappingfor domestic and commerce purposes. Each collector harvested an average of 4 kg/day and 3 kg/dayof Malmal and Hagar respectively during the June-September peak production. The household size, distance to the market and number of trees harvested significantly influenced quantity of hagar collected per day at 99% confidence interval. Alternatively, the distance to the market significantlyinfluenced the quantity of malmal harvested per day at 99% confidence interval. Thus to ensureenhanced benefits to collectors, it is recommended that national and county governments enhancetechnical support and strengthen the capacity of collectors and institutions
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    Antecedents to Kenyan Coast Hotels’ Purchases of Agricultural Products
    (International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems, 2011) Mshenga, Patience M.; Richardson, Robert B.; Njehia, Bernard K.; Birachi, Eliud A.
    The paper investigated tourism and agriculture linkages by determining the local agricultural products purchased by hotels, purchase considerations and antecedents to purchase of agricultural products. The study was conducted in Coastal Kenya which is a major tourist destination. A census survey of the hotels was undertaken. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and logit model. The results indicate that the local agricultural products purchased by hotels were eggs, meat, chicken, fish, vegetables, fruits and milk. The purchase considerations were price, quality and supply reliability. Age of the hotel, bed capacity and number of employees influenced the proportion of local agricultural products purchased by the hotels. The results have implications for enhancing tourism and agriculture linkages to improve rural livelihoods.
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    Effects of Nitrogen Levels on Growth and Yield of Spider Plant in Kenya
    (International Scholars Journals, 2019) Mutoro, Kenneth; Mwajita, Mwashasha Rashid; Ndenga, Charles; Mabele, Irendale
    The supply of spider plant (Cleome gynandra) as one of the African leafy vegetables in Kenya is low and this is attributed to poor fertilizer use and limited access by farmers to improved varieties. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different N forms on growth and yield of spider plant. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 in Ruiru and Juja. Objectives were: to determine the plant growth and yield of spider plant cultivars under different nitrogen levels. 8 lines that were developed at the World Vegetable Centre, Arusha, were evaluated alongside the commercial variety (control). All experiments were undertaken for 2 seasons, where both variety and nitrogen factors were investigated under split plot design. Plants were harvested at 7-10-day intervals. Data was analyzed in SAS 9.1.3 software. Accessions were ranked from 1-9 in terms of performance. Results indicated that application of manure resulted in increased yield and other growth parameters compared to other nitrogen fertilizers (P≤0.05). Availability of improved and high yielding cultivars coupled with use of manure will increase supply of spider plant.
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    Analysis of Improved Indigenous Chicken Adoption Among Smallholder Farmers: Case of Makueni and Kakamega Counties, Kenya
    (IJAE, 2019) Kamau, Christopher N; Kabuage, Lucy W.; Bett, Eric K.
    Indigenous chicken (IC) production is a source of food security and income among smallholder farmers within high potential areas and semi-arid lands (ASAL). The demand for IC eggs and meat is anticipated to increase threefold by the year 2020 by health conscious consumers. However, potential of IC to contribute to household incomes and poverty alleviation in ASAL is constrained by slow maturity of IC and low productivity. Hence, to address these constraints improved indigenous chicken (IIC) technologies have been developed and introduced to smallholders in high potential area and ASAL. However, only a few smallholder farmers have adopted the IIC technologies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of farmer socioeconomic characteristics on adoption and intensity of adoption the IIC technology in Makueni and Kakamega counties. A total of 384 households were sampled using multi-stage sampling to collect data through interviews. The collected data was analysed using a double hurdle model. The results suggest that sex of the household head, farm size, group membership, which had not been previously identified in IIC studies as a significant variable, distance to training centre, off-farm activities and IIC awareness significantly affected adoption decision of improved IC. On the other hand, education of the household head, household size, farm size, source of information on IIC and awareness on IIC had significant effects on the level of adoption. The recommendations from this study have an implication on extension policy, land use policy, food policy, collective action and pricing policy in the context of technology adoption in Kenya.