CW-Department of Recreation Management & Exercise Science

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    Anti-Doping Knowledge, Attitudes and Experiences of General Practitioners and Pharmacists In Selected Counties in Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023) Kimtai, Rotich Jonathan; Elijah Gitonga; Edna Thangu
    The Athletic support personnel (ASP) significantly influence athletes' attitudes, perceptions, and use of Performance Enhancing Drugs (PEDs). Among the ASP, General Practitioners and Pharmacists play a substantial role in providing medical and pharmaceutical support to athletes. Health practitioners are in a position to influence, advise, encourage or discourage the use of PEDs to precarious athletes yearning to improve their performance beyond the limit. Nonetheless, the decision of General Practitioners or Pharmacists to encourage or discourage the use of PEDs depends on their knowledge, experience, and attitude toward doping. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate General Practitioners’ and Pharmacists’ doping knowledge, attitudes, and experience from seven purposely selected counties in Kenya and to examine if there were significant differences in doping knowledge and attitude between General Practitioners and Pharmacists in Kenya. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used to examine General Practitioners’ and Pharmacists’ doping knowledge, attitudes, and experiences. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select General Practitioners and Pharmacists from the seven targeted counties. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for the study. Six hundred and fifteen practitioners (250 General Practitioners and 365 Pharmacists) participated in the study. Of these, 151 (60.4%) male and 99 (39.6%) female were General Practitioners, while 209 (57.3%) male and 156 (42.7) female were Pharmacists. Results demonstrated that General Practitioners and Pharmacists in Kenya are well aware of WADA and ADAK. General Practitioners and Pharmacists self-reported average to slightly above average doping knowledge (47.77 ± 14.03 and 46.63 ± 13.36), respectively, where the average doping knowledge was measured at 42.5. Mann-Whitney test results revealed no significant difference in doping knowledge between General Practitioners and Pharmacists (p = .518). General Practitioners and Pharmacists had a negative attitude towards doping (45.23 ± 13.64 and 47.28 ± 13.65), where a score of 59.5 and above implied being positive towards doping attitude. Mann Whitney test showed a significant difference between General Practitioners and Pharmacists towards doping attitude (p = .039). Male respondents demonstrated more doping knowledge, 49.04 ± 13.57, compared to the female respondents, 44.35 ± 13.29. Mann-Whitney test revealed that gender significantly influenced respondents, doping knowledge (p = .006), and attitude towards doping (p = .016). Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that age contributed to significant difference in doping knowledge among Pharmacists (p = .024) but not with the General Practitioners p = .024. Kruskal-Wallis analysis also indicated that work experience contributed remarkable variation in doping knowledge among General Practitioners (p < .001) but not among Pharmacists. In addition, age and work experience demonstrated (Kruskal Wallis test) significant influence on the doping attitude of General Practitioners (p =.003) and (p = .008), but no significant difference was identified among the Pharmacists, p =.301 and p = .063 respectively. Pharmacists in Kenya were an essential source of doping and related information. As many as 155 (25.2%) General Practitioners and Pharmacists had been requested for doping information or substances during their professional work. It was concluded that General Practitioners and Pharmacists in Kenya have unreliable doping knowledge and negative attitudes towards doping. Age significantly influenced the doping knowledge of General Practitioners and Pharmacists. A considerable difference exists in the doping attitude between General Practitioners and Pharmacists. The study recommended more anti-doping education, campaigns, and training that start at the college level to address the low doping knowledge of younger practitioners. An emphasis is needed to involve more female practitioners in anti-doping campaigns to ensure doping knowledge across the board. A study involving all General Practitioners and Pharmacists in Kenya is recommended to provide a comprehensive view of the current doping status in the country.
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    Assessment of Fitness and Training among East African Universities Swimming Athletes
    (ICSEMIS, 2016) Mwangi, F.M.; Mwihaki, M.G.; Wachira, J.L.; Wabuyabo, L.K.; Onywera, V.O.
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    Care and Management of Athletes Medical Issues among East African Universities
    (ICSEMIS, 2016) Mwangi, F.M.; Mwihaki, M.G.; Wanjira, J.L.; Thangu, E.K.; Rintaugu, E.G.
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    A comparative analysis of motor fitness and physical activity levels amongst 10 to 13 years old Kenyan and German children
    (Kenyatta University, 2009) Porsche, M.; Boes, K.; Steiner, H.; Wanderi, M. P.
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    Unbundling the Kenyan Sports Act, role, challenges and opportunities in the kenyan sports Act 2013.
    (University of Dar Es-salaam, 2013-11) Bulinda, Hannington M.; Wahome, Penina
    The Kenya National Assembly enacted the Sports Act 2013 after many years of suggestions, deliberations and proposals over the making of such a law. The Sports legislation is an Act of Parliament to harness sports for development, encourage and promote drug-free sports and recreation, to provide for the establishment of sports institutions, facilities, administration and management of sports in the country, and for connected purposes. This law has come up with various institutions namely Sports Kenya, National Sports Fund and Kenya Academy of Sports. It also provides for Financial Provisions, procedures for registration and regulation of sports and licensing, arbitration of Sports disputes and miscellaneous provisions. Furthermore, the Act has four schedules namely sports facilities to which the Act applies, matters to be provided for in the constitutions of sports Organizations, the conduct of business and affairs of the board of the authority, board of trustees and council of the institute and transitional provisions. As much as the Act is very progressive in the domain of sports in Kenya and the entire East African region because it legitimizes institutions, provide for arbitration mechanisms and recognize research as a core aspect in sports, it has introduced a number of challenges to the sports fraternity. Among these include aligning the constitutions of various Sports associations to the Act and undergoing the new vigorous process of registering, regulating and licensing sports agencies. Sports professionals therefore need to update with the new Sports Act to retain relevance in their profession and warrant them professional growth. Therefore, it was deemed relevant to enlighten the practitioners of this new development and seek for ways to upgrade their administrative strength and correct any inconsistency in this law through amendments to the Act.
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    TowardsUplifting the Standard of Athletic Performance by Universities in Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2013-11) Mwisukha, A.
    The benefits of sport to the individual participant and society are well known and widely recognized. Specifically, the social, psychological and health benefits of sport serve as a driving force for peoples' pursuit of sporting activities. Additionally, the glory, honor, recognition and rewards associated with winning in major international sports competitions have compelled many institutions and government.agencies in various countries of the world to seek and implement strategies for identifying and nurturing sport latent. At university level, sport is an important tool that contributes to the physical, psychological and social welfare ofthe students and entire university community. Given the pressure and stress associated with academic pursuits, sport is ideal for relieving such tensions, giving them a chance to socialize, make friends and improve concentration by being fit and healthy. In the modem world, universities have also used sports to market themselves and their academic programmes with a view to improving their students' enrollment and projecting their images to the public as superior and best institutions. In the developed world, universities have been noted to be ideal sites for preparing, building and exposing sports talent. Evidence is abundant in the developed world where university students participate and win medals for their countries in international sports competitions. For instance, in the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, 80% of the US team was composed of university students who won a total of 19 medals. At the same Games, the British team had a proportion of 52% university students. However, universities in African countries (including Kenya) are yet to fully embrace this practice and implement concrete measures for producing world-class athletes. Given the rich human resource, universities can be relied upon to tap and develop various human talents in various fields, including sports. This paper highlights case studies of performances of athletes from Universities in the developed world in major international competitions and proposes research-based measures for uplifting the standard of sports performance in Kenya's universities.
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    An investigation into differences in modified stork balance abilities between experienced and inexperienced karatekas at Kenyatta University
    (Kenyatta University, 1997) Kinoti, J. W.; Njororai, W. W. S.; Kiganjo, G. M.
    Karate is a martial art sport whose main objective is to develop techniques and tactics for self-defense without the use of weapons. The ability to balance determines how well an individual can perform in this sport. The body's balance is maintained at the hips where the mass of the body is concentrated. A one case shot study was carried out on twelve experienced and twelve inexperienced male karatekas. The subjects were tested on modified stork balance. The two groups were compared using the t-test. Among other findings, it was established that the experienced karatekas had a mean of 111.42 seconds compared to 58.08 seconds for the non-experienced group. The difference in balancing ability was significant at p~ 0.05 level in favour of experienced karatekas. It was evident that the more one engaged in the sport the more one became competent in the balancing abilities. Training and persistent practice are, therefore, vital if one is to perfect the much needed balancing abilities.
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    An assessment of basketball injuries in Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 1997) Akpata, D. O.
    Basketball is, theoretically, a no-contact game, but it has been established that personal contact cannot be avoided entirely when 10 players are moving with great speed over a limited space. Due to this obvious contact, high tempers and friction, so many injuries have occurred during games, which have led to loss of playing time as well as physical and psychological consequences. This study investigated the aetiology and time course of the injuries in both male and female basketball players during the first phase of the 1997National Basketball Classic League, in order to detect a substantial typology of sports injuries and offer special programmes for their prevention. Results indicated that the main aetiological factors were the opponent, the floor and type of shoes. Most of the injuries occurred during pressure defences and inside plays. No major difference was found in the pattern of injuries between the male and female players. Based on results of this study, it will seem that the number and severity of injuries in basketball could be minimised, if the rules and mechanics of officiating pressure defences, charged/ block and inside-plays are amended.
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    Towards the promotion of sports management in Africa for individual and community empowerment: The case of Kenyatta University, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2013-11) Kamau, J.W.; Mwisukha, A.; Wanderi, P.M.
    The pronouncement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) by UN at the beginning of the 2151 Century marked a new beginning for all UN member states on their development agenda. All the eight MDGS have pertinent relevance to every country and especially amongst the developing countries. Consequently, universities as vital centers for generation of research based knowledge and innovation are expected to be on the forefront in developing their curriculum programs in the best way that will lead their communities to the achievement of the MDGS. Additionally, universities are challenged to be at the fore front in the implementation of relevant curriculum content that will empower individuals and communities in various dimensions in tandem with the millennium development goals. In this paper, the authors show case the twin departments namely, Department of Physical and Health Education as well as the Department of Recreation Management and Exercise Science in Kenyatta University, Kenya, as regional models in effectively contributing to regional economic development through training, research, community service and consultancy in Sport Management and related disciplines. In addition to training of highly skilled personnel who are serving in Kenya in the said disciplines, the twin departments have also significantly participated in the establishment of related departments and training of personnel up to phD level at various countries of East African region as detailed in this paper. The paper also serves as a herald for documentation and dissemination of best practices by African Universities on sports management and related disciplines.
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    Towards improvement of sports entrepreneurship in Africa for socio-economic growth
    (Kenyatta University, 2013-11) Murungi, J.; Wanderi, P.
    Entrepreneurship is defined in various ways by different 'authors and professionals. However, in literal sense, entrepreneurship involves an induction of various aspects of business inclination to an individual with a view to assisting the person to identify opportunities for business and utilize them. Most entrepreneurial promotion programs include coverage of areas such as identification of business opportunities, planning and goal setting, marketing, book keeping, negotiations, overcoming barriers, leadership, business plan development and legal issues in business. It is greatly advised that, entrepreneurship should be inducted into every person in all walks of life. If this then happens to the persons who are in sports and related disciplines, it would contribute towards the way athletes and their coaches as well as sports managers view and run business opportunities. For instance, there are a number of indigenous sports all over Africa which are participated in but they have all along gone unexploited financially. Activities such as bull fighting and cock fighting are abound in parts of Africa and they have not been exploited for socio-economic development as has been the case in other parts of the world. The improvement of the economy of the African countries is a vital undertaking especially in any way that could promote youth employment. Sports therefore are a rich forum towards this objective; this will be more viable if the said entrepreneurial promotion cuts across gender, race, and religion. Thus, with promotion of entrepreneurial mindset among the sports men and women in Africa, this will enhance their tendencies towards holding commercially viable sports meets which if well marketed and well organized are likely to lead to high profile sports tourism which ultimately become a cash cow for the organizers as well the governments which would earn a lot through taxes as shall be detailed in this paper.
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    Towards a fashionable attire for women's' sports marketing.
    (Kenyatta University, 2013-11) Kisato, Jacqueline
    Sports marketing, as a business operation is capable of generating billions of dollars in revenue every year. A major source of revenue generation in sporting events, results from ticket sales attributable to spectator attendance. While there has been an increase in spectator consumption in football and rugby in Kenya, there seems to be a perceived barrier in the consumption of sports such as women football. Although many women are fans of men's sports, far fewer are fans of women's sports. Scholars have studied the similarities and differences in the motivation of individuals who attend the different women's sports. Many researchers have found similarities, including entertainment value, vicarious achievement, and social motivation. The desire to attract female fans in male sports, led the sport designers in to create fashionable attire for men and a clothing line for women spectators. As a result, women's spectatorship for men's sport increased, and women participated in sports at higher rates. This paper discussed how fashionable sports attire generally, was a strong motivating factor among fans and also provided evidence that there are unique motives to watching women's sports in Kenya; thus, fashionable attire is vital for sports marketing.
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    The management or athletics high altitude training centres in Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2013-11) Munguti, E.M.
    As sports become more competitive, sports personalities have continually sought the latest scientific knowledge and technology to improve performance. It is in this vein that high altitude areas have been widely acknowledged as being ideal training sites for enhancing performance in the middle and long distance races. The scientific knowledge behind high altitude training has therefore triggered the establishment of many high altitude training centres in the Rift Valley region and some parts of Central Kenya. Currently there are over 30 high altitude training centers in Kenya with most of them concentrated in the North Rift region around Eldoret and Iten.These centres have in the recent past attracted foreign athletes who have come in droves to train and unlock their potential. In order for these centres to effectively bring the desired positive changes in the trainees and oxidative enzymes and remain competitive as a centre of choice, they must be managed strategically. A trainee should acquire these features with minimum side effect brought about by decreased oxygen concentration at high altitude. This study therefore, intends to evaluate altitude training centres management strategies, procedures and activities. It is set on the premise that certain management practices allow attainment of set goals. The study will randomly sample altitude training centres, their managers, trainees and other government officials to collect data on the management strategies used to run the centres. This study will be significant since it will endeavour to evaluate practices used in altitude management and identify those that have been able to bring success in terms of objective attainment. It will discuss programmes that can be implanted to improve elite sports in Kenya and to turn around the non-performing centres into self reliant financially and contribute to the exchequer through taxation on revenues generated.
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    The gap between the management and success of elite middle and long distance runners in Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2013-11) Nyaga, Lewis R.K.; Mwisukha, A.; Onywera, V.O.
    Kenya has dominated middle and long distance races at international competitions for the last five decades. However, Kenyan world record beaters have denounced the motherland flag by switching nationality, sought training in alien bases under foreign managers, neglect-induced death at a prime career age, or living under deplorable conditions after athletic career. Extensive research has been carried on success of Kenyan runners but no study to the knowledge of the researcher has linked the management of Kenyan athletes to that success. As a foundation for further research, the current theoretical study was designed to determine whether elite athletes, their coaches, and administrative officials (Athletics Kenya [AK] officials) differed on the effectiveness of the sampled managerial practices (personnel, equipment/facilities, motivation, patriotism, team selection, and training programs) in facilitating the success of Kenyan elite runners. The study further details the administrative structure of athletics in Kenya, the effect of nationality change, and the role foreign managers in the success of Kenya in distance running. The study took place in Nairobi, Kenya. The sample comprised 185 elite athletes, 49 coaches, and 34 AK officials. The pair wise comparisons showed that athletes differed significantly with coaches and AK officials on the sampled managerial practices while coaches did not differ significantly with AK officials. Suggestions for further research are given.
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    The role of sports in promoting human rights and social justice
    (Makerere University, 2008) Wabuyabo, Issah kweyu
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    Socio-economic factors influencing muslim university student participation in sports in Kenya
    (Makerere University, 2008) Mwihaki, G. M.; Simiyu, Njororai W. W.; Wanderi, P. M.
    There is a strong theological background supporting sports in Islam (Qur'an, 16:8). However, this is on condition that it is lawful and does not hamper other religious obligations (Quran 2: :: 19, 5: 91-92). Conclusive studies validate significant benefits of participating in physical activities. fool' instance exercise has been used in prevention and management of Coronary heart disease, Hypertension, Blood lipids and lipoprotein profile, Cardiac function, Bone mineral status, Smoking risks, Body composition and weight control, Blood glucose regulation, Musculoskeletal disorders and Stress management and mental health among others. Despite this, there is still a gap between the theory and practice regarding participation in sports among Muslim students in Kenyan universities. The purpose of this study was to find out socio-economic determinants of Muslim student participation in sports. The study adopted a survey design. Factors under investigation were gender as an independent variable while determinants were the dependent variables. The study targeted Muslim students from the six public universities in Kenya. i\ questionnaire was constructed on a five - point likert scale and then used to acquire information. Random sampling was used to select a sample size of 252 subjects. Descriptive statistics were used to describe students' participation levels in sport. i\ OV i\ was used to determine gender differences. Results showed. Three out of five structural factors affecting Muslim student' participation in sports showed significance difference (.047 .. 000. and .010); two out of seven of socio-economic factors tested showed signi Iicancc di flcrcncc (.00 I .. (Jon)). Based on the findings of this study the recommendations were suggested to gu ide in pol icy form ulat ion and further research
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    Sports and Politics
    (Kenyatta University, 2013-11) Kalui, B.
    Politics takes place wherever conflict exists about goals and methods of achieving those goals (Renwick, 1987). Politics is defined in terms of the actions of the government, the authoritative use of power to make rules and laws that have precedence over rules from other sources of society (Moodie, 1984). In this paper an attempt is made to focus on the process of governmental decision making and policy implementation regarding sport management. It might be unnecessary to define sport because most people already know through experience and intuition what the word means. Sport implies having fun, but it can also be work for a professional athlete, a means of employment or a business. Loy's (1968) classical definition claims that sport must have five characteristics such as be play like in nature; involve some element of competition; be based on physical prowess; involve elements of skill, strategy and character; and have an uncertain outcome. Pitts, Fielding and Miller (1994) define sport as any activity, experience or business enterprise focused on fitness, recreation, athletics, or leisure. The Olympics have since their inception been closely associated with an ideology of social and technical progress. In particular, these international sporting competitions have been used as a tool for expressing national and political agendas (Lenskyj, 2000). In addition the economic value of the Olympics has increased dramatically overtime, especially through international broadcast rights (Barney et aI2002). For present purposes a distinction is made between politics and sport and politics in sport especially the relationships of politics to sport. For students of politics the stimulus for interest in sport was a product of two major issues in international politics namely the cold war and the campaign against apartheid in South Africa whose end was rewarded by granting of hosting of Fifa World Cup 2010, the highest ranking world event to grace the soil of Africa. Other important aspects of sport and politics include issues of equity both racial and gender involvement in matters of governance. The thrust of the paper therefore is to analyze and stimulate debate on the role and involvement of state/government in politics and sport.
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    Relationship between functional independence and physical activity of elderly persons in selected homes for the elderly in Nairobi, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2013-11) Githang'a, Juliah W.; Wamukoya, Edwin K; Onywera, V.O.
    There is a growing evidence of the contribution of physical activity in maintaining mobility and independence and particularly for certain conditions associated with old age. Previous studies by gerontologists have concluded that where older people have engaged in regular activity, they have increased their muscle strength, balance, joint suppleness and overall physical coordination. This in turn enhances their functional control in carrying out ADLs and mobility in the homes for the aged. This study focused on the relationship between Functional Independence Measures (FIM) and Physical Activity levels (METs) of elderly citizens residing in selected homes for the elderly in Nairobi Province. A total of 144 both male and female elderly 2: 60 years residing in three homes for the aged, registered and affiliated to HelpAge Kenya in Nairobi Province were used in the study. The intensity of activity levels was measured using METs while the independence level was scored using a Modified Barthel Index to establish the FIM. Both type (home activities, recreational activities, mild activities and conditional exercise) and intensity of the physical activity (MET values) were examined along with FIM of ADLs and mobility. Data was analyzed using SPSS where Pearson's Product Moment Correlation coefficient index at significance level of:s 0.01 was used to test the hypothesis. The participation of the elderly persons against physical activity intensities were: 0-3 METs (22.9%); 3-6 METs (31.4%) and> 6 METs (45.7%). Additionally, 71% of the senior citizens were established to be functionally independent having scored between 50-99 FIM. There was a statistically significant relationship between physical activities and the level of functional Independence of the institutionalized elderly in ADLs and mobility. This is because a correlation coefficient of 0.363 was obtained (r =.363, p < .05).Therefore, the study concluded that there was a significant relationship between METs of Physical activities and the level of functional independence of the old adults residing in the homes for the aged in Nairobi Province, Kenya. The administrators and caregivers should encourage more involvement of the senior residents in home activities, recreational activities, conditional activities among other activities compatible with the overall body conditioning of the elderly.
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    Role of significant others in swimming participation
    (Makerere University, 2008) Mwihaki, G. M.; Simiyu, Njororai W. W.; Wanderi, P. M.
    Initiating and sustammg participation in any activity is as a result of efforts and influences of significant others such as parents, who raise the child, siblings with whom ode grows up with, friends in the neighbourhood or in school and teachers or coaches encountered in school. Numerous studies have consistently shown the role of these significant others on participation in physical activities. Their influence has been shown to vary with age of participant and can either be positive or negative. The study set out to establish if there was a relationship between significant others (parents, peers, teachers or coaches) and participation in swimming in secondary schools. Further, the study sought to establish the influence of significant others across gender and type of school. The study targeted a .population of Form three and two students. Purposive stratified and random sampling was used to select the sample, consisting of 24 secondary schools. Six hundred students responded to the questionnaires. T-test for equality of means, multiple regression and descriptive stastistics were used for data analysis. Teachers had the highest positive influence (91.3%) among the respondents followed by parents (30.7%) and peers (13.2%) in that order. Across gender, parental influence was higher among females (44.2%) compared to males (23%).Teachers' influence was higher among females (94%) compared to males (89.8%). Peer influence was higher among males (14.9%) compared to females (10.1%).Across type of school, teachers' influence was higher in mixed schools (92.6%) compared to single sex schools (90.9%). Parental influence was higher in single sex schools (32.3%) compared to mixed schools (25.7%). Peers influence was highest in mixed schools (16.9%) compared to single sex schools (11.9%). Only peers were found to significantly influence participation at p~O.05. They had a negative influence (t=-3.45) as they did not encourage participation in swimming. Specifically, this negative influence was significant at p:SO.05 among males. From these findings the following recommendations were made. Kenya Swimming Federation should improve its marketing strategies so as to attract sponsors, both private and public. This will increase the awards at stake, providing more tangible rewards like school fees payments, local educational scholarships thus attract more participants. This would also reduce or eliminate costs by parents, hence encourage their children to participate.