RP-Department of Educational Management Policy & Curriculum Studies

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    Effect of Classroom Environment on the Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Mombasa County, Kenya
    (IAJSSE, 2024-06) Kamoet, Peter Cheroben; Mbirithi, Daniel Mange
    In the 2022 KCSE examination in Kenya, the pass rate was 61.96%, signaling a poor performance influenced by factors such as poverty, overcrowded classrooms, and insufficient teaching quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the classroom environment on academic performance in public secondary schools within Mombasa County, Kenya. To fulfill this objective, the study concentrated on three key research inquiries: The effect of class size on student academic performance, the effect of teacher-student ratio on academic achievement, and the influence of teaching style on students' academic outcomes. Additionally, the study examined the book-student ratio. Employing a descriptive research design, data were collected to examine the correlation between the classroom environment and academic achievement. The study targeted 1000 participants from four public secondary schools in Mombasa County, with a sample size distributed among principals (0.4%), teachers (9.6%), and students (90%). A descriptive research technique was employed to define the situation, problem, and phenomena without establishing causal relationships. Python was used for comprehensive data analysis and visualizations. The results investigated the influence of class size, teacher-student ratio, teaching style, and resource allocation on the academic success of secondary students in Mombasa County. The findings, systematically depicted through bar charts, underscored the effects of these variables on students' academic performance. The study emphasized the significant role of specific factors in shaping academic achievement. Both educators and students supported the positive impact of smaller class sizes and a lower Teacher-Student Ratio (TSR) on academic performance and engagement. Effective teaching styles, especially pedagogical approaches and individualized instruction, received strong endorsement from students. Educators acknowledged the positive influence of resource distribution, particularly subjectspecific books, on academic achievement.
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    Reforming Education in Kenya for Global Competitiveness: A Case of Competency Based Curriculum
    (EJCEEL, 2024) Nzoka, Francis Katumo
    Education reform demands increased as Kenya entered the twenty-first century. Developing critical thinking, creativity, and practical skills is the main goal of the government's learner-centred Competency Based Curriculum (CBC), which was unveiled in 2017. The goal of the CBC is to develop well-rounded people who can thrive in a world that is changing quickly by placing an emphasis on competency above content. In Kenya, the 8-4-4 system of education has been replaced with the Competency Based Curriculum under the 2-6-3-3 system of education. This signifies the end of a period in which the sector has been dominated by competitiveness and ranking. The primary distinction is that CBC concentrates on the observable abilities and competences that learners demonstrate, whereas 8-4-4 emphasizes content more heavily, which promotes memorization. A requirements evaluation of the curriculum measured against the aspirations of the country, according to the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development, made a curriculum modification necessary. Furthermore, there have been gaps in the educational offerings since 1964 due to the partial implementation of the suggestions made by earlier commissions on education. Curriculum Based Assessment (CBA), the assessment tool provided by the CBC, evaluates students' competency in relation to predetermined performance requirements. A series of systematic procedures that gather data to support the analysis of learners' progress and accomplishments are used in CBA, in contrast to formal assessments. As a result, assessment entails the learners doing specific tasks to evaluate their level of proficiency in completing them in an actual setting.
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    Social-Cultural Factors and Women’s Participation in Higher Educational Leadership in Mogadishu, Somalia
    (EdinBurg, 2024-04) Abdikarim, Shamsa; Otieno, Daniel; Kariuki, Damaris
    Participation of women in leadership, particularly in higher education is an issue that attracts global attention from educational practitioners. The SDG 5 data shows that the world is not on track to achieve gender equality by 2030. Women’s representation in positions of power and decision-making remains below parity. Women’s participation in government, research, and resource management remains far from equitable to that of men. It is with this background that this study sought to investigate the relationship between social-cultural factors and women's involvement in higher educational leadership in Mogadishu, Somalia. The social feminist theory is employed to theoretically anchor the study. Pearson's correlational design was employed. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, frequencies, and percentages were used while Pearson correlational analysis was used to establish correlations. The findings revealed that social-cultural factors (r = -0.631, p<0.05) had a negative and significant relationship with women's participation in higher educational leadership. The study concluded that social and cultural factors contribute significantly to the decrease in women's participation in higher educational leadership in Somalia. The study recommends that university management should discourage gender stereotyping when it comes to leadership by encouraging and training employees to adopt a universal leadership mindset.
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    Social-Cultural Factors and Women’s Participation in Higher Educational Leadership in Mogadishu, Somalia
    (EdinBurg, 2024-06) Abdikarim, Shamsa; Otieno, Daniel; Kariuki, Damaris
    Participation of women in leadership, particularly in higher education is an issue that attracts global attention from educational practitioners. The SDG 5 data shows that the world is not on track to achieve gender equality by 2030. Women’s representation in positions of power and decision-making remains below parity. Women’s participation in government, research, and resource management remains far from equitable to that of men. It is with this background that this study sought to investigate the relationship between social-cultural factors and women's involvement in higher educational leadership in Mogadishu, Somalia. The social feminist theory is employed to theoretically anchor the study. Pearson's correlational design was employed. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, frequencies, and percentages were used while Pearson correlational analysis was used to establish correlations. The findings revealed that social-cultural factors (r = -0.631, p<0.05) had a negative and significant relationship with women's participation in higher educational leadership. The study concluded that social and cultural factors contribute significantly to the decrease in women's participation in higher educational leadership in Somalia. The study recommends that university management should discourage gender stereotyping when it comes to leadership by encouraging and training employees to adopt a universal leadership mindset.
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    Influence of Curriculum Support Officers’ Capacity Building of Teachers on Academic Achievement in Public Secondary Schools in Makueni County, Kenya
    (AJOEI, 2022-11) Kimweli, Alexander Mwau; Nyaga, Peter
    Abstract Statement of the Problem: Curriculum Support Officers have an obligation of ensuring that students perform well in their studies in secondary schools. However, in Makueni County, students register low KCSE performance compared to pupils in primary school and few transiting to universities with quality grades. Purpose of the Study: The study assessed the influence of curriculum support officers’ capacity building of teachers on students’ academic achievement in Makueni County. The theory of educational productivity guided the study. Methodology: A descriptive survey research design was used. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Inferential analysis was also done using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Analysis while presentation was done in tables. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically as per the objectives and presentation done in narrative forms. Results: This research established that academic achievement of students in KCSE is still low and to mitigate this, CSOs have bene tasked to undertake capacity building of teachers. The study recommends that CSOs may devise new approaches of training of teachers which may enable them acquire skills which can help deliver quality instructional services. In addition, the Ministry of Education increase the number of CSOs to enhance the process of capacity building of teachers.
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    Principals’ Conceptual Managerial Skills and Teachers’ Instructional Effectiveness in Secondary Schools, Central Gondar Zone, Ethiopia
    (EOJNSS, 2022-03-11) Ayalew, Habtamu Reta; Itegi, Florence Muthoni; Muchanje, Peter Nyaga
    The purpose of the study was establishing the relationship between conceptual skills of the school principals and instructional effectiveness of the teachers in secondary schools, Central Gondar region, Ethiopia. The study proposed to use a correlational research design. The population of the study were 50 principals, 50 vice principals and 1,500 teachers, totaling 1,588 personnel. Due to their small number and importance to the research, all school principals and vice principals were selected using the census technique. 307 teachers were chosen using simple random sampling techniques by Cochran formula. The closed-ended questionnaire was used as the primary method for both principal and teacher data collection instruments. The expert-judgment methodology was used to verify the validity of the instruments and the reliability of the instruments tested using Cronbach's alpha test score. The data was analyzed by using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The study revealed that there was no statistically significant relationship between the principals’ conceptual managerial skills with teachers ‘instructional effectiveness. The study concludes that principals’ conceptual managerial skills have no significant relationship with teachers’ instructional effectiveness. In light of the findings, recommendations for school principals, teachers, Ministry of Education and suggestions for further research were discussed.
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    Task-Oriented Leadership Style on Students’ Academic Achievement in Public Secondary Schools in Nyeri County, Kenya
    (JEREDA, 2021) Macharia, Samuel Wanyoko; Muchanje, Peter Nyaga
    Introduction:The conceptof school leadership has attracted the attention of many stakeholders in education sector. Students’ academic achievement is greatly determined by the decisions made by the school governance. The leadership style used by leaders influences the decision making process, communication process and implementation of decisions made. Purpose:The study sought to find out the extent to which task-oriented leadership style used by school heads in public secondary schools in Nyeri Central Sub-County affects students’ academic achievement.Methodology:The study used descriptive research design to obtain accurate information concerning the current existing phenomena. The sample consisted 590 statistically sampled using Krejcie’s and Morgan’s table of sampling. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and interview schedules. After pilot study, the researcher checked validity and reliability of the tools. The reliability value of the tool was 0.8. To enhance consistency of the tool, test-retest reliability technique was used and yielded a coefficient of 0.76.Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the relationship between task-oriented leadership style and students’ academic achievement.Results:The study found that principals who practiced task-oriented leadership style posted high mean mark in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE). The study also revealed that majority of principals practiced relationship-oriented leadership style hence, it was the most prevalent leadership style in Nyeri Central Sub-County. The study found a strong positive correlation between task-oriented leadership style and students’ achievement. Recommendations:It is recommended that principals’ should incorporate different leadership styles depending on thesituation at hand to promote high students achievement
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    Individual Consideration Practices of Principals on Teachers Integrating Information Communication Technology in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya
    (IJRISS, 2024-06) Mbune, Beatrice A.; Waweru, S.N; Njuguna, F. W
    Leadership behavior is one of the issues that has received a lot of attention internationally, particularly the personal considerations of a transformative leader. A teacher’s confidence grows under the supervision of a good leader who can handle particular requirements, including a lack of ICT competency and the availability of additional technologies. This study sought to determine the extent to which Principals’ individual considerations practices influence teachers’ adoption of technology in classroom instruction. The present inquiry adopted a mixed method approach built on an explanatory sequential design. Data was collected from 62 principals and 186 teachers using interviews and questionnaires. from public secondary schools in Kakamega county Expert judgment was used to validate the instrument, obtaining a Cronbach coefficient Alpha index of 0.75, while the test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the research instruments. Quantitative data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and Pearson correlations. In contrast, qualitative data were examined by grouping common themes and characterizing participants’ ideas and viewpoints. The findings revealed a significant relationship between principals’ individual consideration and the integration of ICT in teaching and learning (r (108) = 0.584, p<0.001) meaning encouraging the practice of individual consideration would increase use of ICT in Instructions. This paper recommends that principals must prioritize the unique demands of teachers. This will inspire and instill trust in teachers on the utilization of technology.
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    Classroom Assessment Methods and their Influence on Classroom Assessment in Early Years Education in Baringo County, Kenya
    (EdinBurg, 2024-05) Mutai, Jane Jepchumba; Kariuki, Samson; Mabonga, Joel
    The Kenyan Government reformed its 8-4-4 curriculum into a competency-based one (CBC) which emphasized classroom assessment. This would enhance skill acquisition in learners. To accomplish this aspiration, pedagogically skilled teachers were needed. However, several studies revealed that teachers couldn’t implement classroom assessment effectively. The study sought to establish classroom assessment methods and their influence on classroom assessment in early years education in Baringo County, Kenya. The study used a mixed method approach and cross-sectional descriptive survey research design. Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were utilized. The instruments were a questionnaire, interview guide, and Focus Group Discussion. The target population was 700 public primary schools, 650 headteachers, 2800 EYE teachers, and 45 curriculum support officers. The study established that EYE teachers used written tests to assess all learners including learners of pre-primary (pp1 and pp2). This was contrary to the requirements of the Basic Education Curriculum Framework which required teachers of pre-primary level to avoid assessing learners using written tests thus posing a negative influence on classroom assessment. The study also revealed that EYE teachers had not guided their learners to develop showcase portfolios which negatively influenced classroom assessment aim of monitoring learners’ progress over time. It hindered the promotion of creativity among learners. The study recommends that EYE teachers teaching pp1 and pp2 should avoid assessing their learners using written tests as per the CBAF. Moreover, teachers of grades one, two, and three should also vary the assessment methods they use for classroom assessment rather than dwelling majorly on written tests. During pre-service teacher training, teachers should get adequate training on how to design assessment rubrics for different learning areas based on different assessment criteria and the difficulty index of the classroom assessment.
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    Cash Transfer Financing Strategic Alliance and Value Creation in Agency Banking Projects in Kenya
    (JISSBD, 2024) Kioko, Joseph Wambua; Njihia, Mukirae; Mutune, Susan
    This study investigates the effectiveness of bullying interventions in addressing student bullying within secondary schools in Machakos County. Anchored on social learning theory, which elucidates the role of behavior in fostering bullying among learners, the research employed a descriptive survey research design to gather and analyze primary data. A sample of 333 respondents was drawn from a population of 116,053 individuals across 36 schools. Questionnaires and interview guides served as the primary research instruments. The analysis encompassed both qualitative and quantitative methods. Results revealed persistent student bullying despite intervention efforts, with disciplinary measures like suspensions and punishments predominantly employed. Conversely, restorative interventions, anti-bullying programs, and supportive measures were underutilized, demonstrating ineffectiveness in bullying eradication. The study underscores the prevalence of student bullying in secondary schools, attributing it to the inadequate implementation of interventions. Recommendations urge school principals and stakeholders to enhance the efficacy of bullying interventions in secondary education settings.
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    School Based Factors and their Influence on Students Performance at Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education in Public Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (Reviewed Journals, 2024-04) Migwi, Caroline Wangari; Michubu, Mutuma
    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of school-based factors on students' academic performance at public secondary schools in Kiambu County for the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education. Specific objectives were to establish the effects of teacher qualification, school facilities, principal supervision practices, and teacher adequacy on student performance in secondary schools in Ruiru Sub-County. The study was anchored on Educational Production Function, also referred to as the Educational Production Theory (EPF). A descriptive survey was used for the study's research design. The study focused on the principals and teachers who work at the 23 public secondary schools in Ruiru Sub County. 522 instructors and 23 principals were therefore the study's population. 545 persons made up the final target population. Purposive sampling techniques was used in the study to sample the respondents. Seven principals and 160 teachers were included in the sample, for a total of 167 responses, or 30% of the intended sample. Teachers' and principals' questionnaires were utilized to collect data. Testing and retesting techniques were used to verify reliability, and pilot studies were used to test validity. Tables, pie charts, and bar graphs were utilized to present the results, and descriptive statistics was used to analyze the research questions. The study found that teachers give correction and advice on assignment given to students. The study also established that the school had provided sufficient classroom which is equal to the number of students. The study concluded that the schools had a steady increase in KCSE mean score for the duration of five years and that the schools are on tract in in meeting its academic performance goals. The study concluded that teamwork was attributed to the students’ academic performance. In order to improve student performance in the KCSE, the study suggested that MOEST give suitable textbooks, instructor reference books, radios, televisions, laptops, and projectors to public secondary schools in Kiambu County.
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    Text Media and Learning Achievements in Kiswahili Reading Comprehension In Secondary Schools In Nakuru County, Kenya
    (International Journal in IT & Engineering (IJITE), 2019-04) Abobo, Francis; Orodho, A. J; Rugar, T.
    The Ministry of Education initiated the integration of computer aided learning in teaching of school curriculum in order to enhance quality of education in Kenya. Poor performance in Kiswahili reading comprehension has been experienced for a while, among majority students in sub-county secondary schools in Nakuru County, Kenya. The integration of CAI in teaching of Languages, helps to transform pedagogical skills in order to enhance students‟ learning achievements.The main objective of the Paper was to determine the difference in performance in Kiswahili reading comprehension between students taught Kiswahili reading comprehension using text media and those students taught the same content using TTMs; and the hypothesis that: HO2. There is no significant difference on performance in Kiswahili reading comprehension between students taught Kiswahili reading comprehension using text media and those students taught similar content using TTMs. This Paper employed a causal-comparative design. A sample of 750 participants was drawn from a target population of 12900 subjects. Stratified, simple random sampling methods and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the study sample. Questionnaires for students and form two Kiswahili documentary guide analysis was used to collect quantitative data. Piloting was done in three secondary schools to determine the validity and reliability of the research items in two weeks before the commencement of the actual study, whereby the study confirmed that the instruments were valid and reliable; the students‟ reliability was computed using Cronbach‟s Alpha Formula internal consistency and students‟ alpha coefficient yielded an alpha of 0.79 which were considered adequate for the study. Percentages, mean and standard deviations were used to analyze quantitative data. Quantitative data was presented and interpreted in frequency table distributions. While the hypothesis was tested at 95% confidence interval using t-test in order to determine mean difference in learning achievements in Kiswahili reading comprehension between students taught reading comprehension using text media and those students taught similar content using TTMs. The findings of the Paper showed that majority of thestudents agreed that text media enhance students‟ Kiswahili reading comprehension than TTMs. The results also showed that text media improve learning achievements by higher mean of 21.08 than a lower mean of 10.79 scored by TTMs. The hypothesis was rejected at 95% confidence interval level (p=0.00<0.05) indicating that students‟ mean performance in Kiswahili reading comprehension using text media and TTMs is significantly different. The difference was in favour of those students reading comprehension using text media than those students taught similar content using TTMs. The Paper concluded that text media strategies are superior to traditional teaching methods in teaching of Kiswahili reading comprehension. Furthermore, the Paper also concluded that students taught Kiswahili reading comprehension using text media performed better in Kiswahili reading comprehension than those students taught similar content using traditional teaching methods. The Paper recommended that the Ministry of Education should make integration of CAI mandatory for all secondary schools in teaching of Kiswahili writing essays, because it is perceived that Computer technologies improve performance scores in Kiswahili writing essays.The Paper recommended that the The Ministry of Education should make integration of CAI mandatory for all secondary schools in teaching of Kiswahili reading comprehension, because it is perceived that text mediaenhancelearning achievements in Kiswahili reading comprehension.
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    The Influence of Appraisal of Teacher’s Professional Knowledge and Application on the Implementation of Curriculum in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya
    (2024-04) Langat, Kipkirui Geoffrey; Kibaara, Janerose Mutegi
    Teacher Performance Appraisal (TPA) is recognized globally as a crucial tool in managing the performance of educators with the potential to greatly impact curriculum implementation and academic outcomes. However, despite its significance, teachers’ unions often oppose this policy, viewing it as a means to undermine educators. This research examines the influence of teacher appraisal on curriculum implementation in public secondary schools within Bureti SubCounty. By investigating the appraisal of teachers' professional knowledge and application, this study aims to shed light on factors that affect the effectiveness of curriculum delivery. The target population comprises 63 principals and 889 assistant teachers from 63 public secondary schools in Bureti Sub County. Sampling techniques include stratified, purposive, and random sampling, with structured questionnaires serving as research instruments. To test the reliability of the research instruments. Correlation analysis was used to establish if there was a relationship between the independent variables. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to determine the relationship between the two variables with a value of + 1 and – 1. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze quantitative data. To determine the variance of the responses, ANOVA was used. Findings indicate that teacher appraisal significantly impacts curriculum implementation, with pedagogical competence, content mastery, adaptability, and collaboration emerging as key factors. Recommendations include enhancing professional development, fostering reflective practice, aligning appraisal criteria with curriculum goals, and promoting leadership capacity among school administrators.
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    Students Support Services For Virtual and Open Learning and Its Influence on Retention of Students in Kenya: A Case of Kenyatta University
    (JAIS, 2024) Ngaruiya, Lukas Gathui; Ogeta, Norbert; Muchanje, Peter Nyaga
    This study investigated the impact of academic support services, including guidance and counseling, tutoring and mentorship, administrative, and ICT services, on the retention of open and distant learners in Kenyan public universities. The study employed the transformative learning theory and transaction theory as its theoretical foundations and used a descriptive survey methodology. The study's population consisted of two groups: 11 respondents from the Directorate of Student Affairs at the Digital School for Virtual and Open Learners and 2156 final-year postgraduate students from the Digital, Virtual & Open Learning School. The research employed purposive and stratified random sampling methods to select participants. Data collection involved interviews with key informants and standardized questionnaires. The results indicated that these academic support services positively influenced the persistence of postgraduate students, encouraging them to continue their studies until completion. The study recommended that Kenyatta University improve its communication department to provide timely feedback and essential information to final-year postgraduate students. The findings underscore the need for similar investigations at different universities to enhance comparative analysis of support services' effectiveness in student retention.
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    Artificial Intelligence in Education: A Hindrance or an Enabler?
    (AMO Publisher, 2024) Nzoka, Francis Katumo
    Outside of typical educational settings, Artificial Intelligence (AI) may provide realtime feedback, adjust course content dynamically, and evaluate student involvement through interactive learning strategies. By providing learners with a unique educational experience, artificial intelligence improves instructional techniques. Instructors who employ AI in the classroom, on the other hand are most afraid of losing their jobs in large numbers. Workers in a variety of industries, education not being spared in this regard, will eventually be replaced by robots and algorithms as machines grow more adept at handling complicated tasks due to the massive levels of automation brought about by the rapidly advancing field of artificial intelligence. A person’s ability to support themselves and maintain the social cohesiveness and a sense of community that come from meaningful work is negatively impacted by losing their job. Therefore, it’s important to strike a balance between the benefits AI can provide and any potential ethical or other problems
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    Utilization of Textbooks and Its’ Influence on Students' Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Makueni County, Kenya
    (EdinBurg, 2024-03) Mwikali, Agnetta; Kiende, Hellen; Ogeta, Norbert
    School resource utilization is important in the functioning of learning institutions as it enhances better achievement of school goals. There is evidence of poor performance in public secondary schools in Makueni County hence the reason to have conceptualized this study. The purpose of this study was to examine utilization of textbooks and their influence on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Makueni County. The objective of this study was to establish the level of utilization of textbooks and its influence on students’ academic performance in county secondary schools in Makueni County. The study adopted a mixed methods research design, specifically a convergent parallel research design, and was supported by Education Production Function Theory. Research instruments were questionnaires and interview schedules. Validity was achieved through expert judgment and reliability by testretest technique. The target population was 60 county secondary schools, 60 principals, and 1004 teachers. Simple random and stratified sampling techniques were used to select the schools while systematic and purposive sampling was used to sample teachers, HoDs, and principals. The selected sample was 30 county schools, 30 principals, and 286 teachers inclusive of HoDs. Total number of respondents was 316. Descriptive and inferential statistics (means, percentages, and multiple regression) and thematic analysis worked out the level of utilization of textbooks on students’ academic performance. The findings showed that the utilisation of textbooks had a mean of 4.06, high correlation coefficient of 0.664. Multiple regression showed that textbooks strongly influenced learners’ academic performance. Qualitative data revealed that effective utilization of textbooks positively influenced students’ academic performance in county secondary schools in Makueni County. Major conclusion was that there was need to ensure effective utilisation textbooks resources in order to improve academic performance.
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    Institutional Information Communication Technology Capacity influence on E-Learning Utilization for Instruction in Kenyan Universities
    (Kenyatta university, 2024-03) Shisakha, Mmbaka Bonface
    E-Learning is globally recognized as a significant strategy in improving relevancy, efficiency, costeffectiveness, and quality of higher education. The paper presents a discussion of Information Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure capacity influences on e-Learning utilization in instruction in Kenyan universities, with a view to determining strategies that universities employ to enhance e-Learning utilization. It opines that e-Learning has not been very popular as a method for instruction in universities, due to limited institutional ICT infrastructure capacities to fully implement e-Learning. The study used the mixed methods research design methodology to debate, reflect, critique, and discuss institutional capacities by universities in utilizing e-Learning in instruction. The reviewed different data sources, borrowed and immensely used government publications, e-Learning books, journals and research articles were used in document analysis. The researchers also used own intuitive experience and knowledge in e-Learning utilization in instruction. E-Learning utilization demands for collaborative effort between government, universities, faculty and students, as well us bodies like the Commission for University Education (CUE). It was found that there are several major barriers to institutional capacities of universities in utilizing e-Learning in instruction. First, was the procurement of technology and sourcing of funds. It was seen that the total capitation for funding the programs was as low as 3%. Secondly, internal barriers arising from within individual institutions and faculty. Majority of the universities for a long time have relied on face to face interaction between students and faculty. However, in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic, all learning institutions including universities, colleges and schools were forced to close down and seek alternative methods of instruction. It was found that most universities have moderate capacities to utilize e-Learning, but are yet to exploit its full potential. The study also established that nearly all the faculty were aware and used e-Learning for instruction but to a limited extent. Findings revealed that faculty prefer blended mode of instruction, but complained of limited bandwidths and poor connectivity for faculty and students far off from the university campuses. To mitigate the challenge, universities must strive to train and retrain the faculty on how to use technology and not about technology. Based on the review carried out in six universities; all the universities have some technologies in place including Computer Based Learning, Virtual Learning, video conferencing, content delivery via networks, use of memory sticks and emails. All have an e-Learning portal, module and platforms used for e-Learning. Majority of the university dons consider bandwidth, networking and a reliable Learning management system (LMS) as critical infrastructure for e-Learning utilization. Development and improved utilization of e-Learning is practically possible with enhanced institutional capacities. Enhanced use implies enhanced information transfer, reduced movement of faculty and students allow adequate time for faculty to invest in innovative teaching; enable faster transfer of information while students actively learn on their own. This would help bridge the gap and reduce pressure on existing resources. E-Learning could be the solution to the problem of increased student enrolment and reduced quality of university education. However, to ease the burden of financing university programs, public- private sector partnerships need to be encouraged. The study established that universities must provide students with affordable internet. To a large extent it delves into possible benefits and opportunities that would arise if universities realize and utilize fully the available institutional infrastructure and e-Learning resources. Demand is made upon the universities to develop and operationalize e-Learning policy and invest more in capacity building, set up infrastructure to deliver instruction online
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    Blended Learning System Quality as an Antecedent to Completion Rate among University Students: Insights from Private Universities in Kiambu County
    (IAJSSE, 2024-03) Ngao, Shadrack Muuo; Kinyanjui, Gladys
    The introduction of blended learning by combining traditional classroom and online learning has presented immense learning opportunities for university learners in Kenya and beyond. However, despite its growing popularity and demonstrated capability, the completion rate of university students is still below 70%. Moreover, the existing literature is indeterminate on the influence of blended learning system quality on student completion rates in Kiambu County. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of blended learning system quality on the completion rates of university students in Kiambu County. The study was guided by the Information System Success Model Theory. The study adopted an explanatory sequential research design. Primary data was collected using questionnaires. The target population was all the 7 Private Universities in Kiambu County. Purposive sampling was used to select 139 respondents representing. Descriptive statistics and inferential analysis were used in data analysis. Tables were used to present quantitative data. The study findings revealed that a significant positive relationship exists between blended learning system quality and the completion rate of university students in Kiambu County. The study recommends that all universities private and public should invest in quality blended learning systems to enhance the completion rate of university students. Universities should ensure they use updated technology and train their instructors on the use of online learning resources to improve efficiency. The study contributed to existing literature on blended learning, particularly in the Kenyan context by presenting empirical evidence on the impact of blended learning on student completion rates of university students in Kiambu County which was earlier missing
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    Keeping the Research Thesis on Course: Case of Kenyatta University Doctoral Students Experiences during the COVID 19 Pandemic
    (UNESCO, 2024) Kariuki, Damaris; Muthima, Purity
    Completion of doctoral studies is the apex of academic accomplishment. Postgraduate studies, particularly in Africa have been dogged with a myriad of issues that derail the process, thus hampering completion rates. However, among the many issues that affect the doctoral students’ completion, it’s not yet largely evidenced the extent to which the COVID 19 pandemic affected the doctoral student’s thesis writing, despite the fact that the pandemic had other far reaching ramifications on higher education with many universities having to shut down albeit temporarily. The objective of the study was to establish doctoral students’ research thesis progress and experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic period. The study utilized descriptive survey design with an online survey being used to collect data. The sample comprised ninetyone PhD students from the Department of Education Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, School of Education, Kenyatta University. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics while thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. The study established that the majority of the students 57% had made some progress in their doctoral studies thesis writing during the pandemic period through online engagement with faculty and from insights gained in the interactive research-related webinars organized by the department. Additionally, students indicated that they experienced work related (36.2%) and institutional (29.8%) challenges. However, the majority indicated that their greatest need of support to enhance progress in their thesis work is improvement in receipt of prompt feedback from supervisors and capacity building on research methodology. The study recommends adoption of blended supervision, tutorial doctoral sessions for guidance and psychosocial support structures to enhance progress in doctoral studies.
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    Development of Digital Literacy Skills among Learners in Public Primary Schools in Homabay County, Kenya
    (EANSO, 2024-02) Achieng, Celestine; Ogola, Martin; Muchanje, Peter
    Digital literacy direct learners towards innovative, creative and transformational learning in the 21st century. It is one of the core competency in the Competency Based Curriculum. The objective of this study was to assess the availability of ICT infrastructure in public primary schools to develop learners’ digital skills. Constructivist learning theory guided the study. Concurrent embedded mixed method was used. A population of 5713 was targeted for study where a sample of 571 respondents composed of 8 head teachers, 78 teachers and 485 grade six learners were selected. Stratified random, simple random and purposive sampling procedures were used to select the study sample. Data collection instruments included interviews, questionnaires, focused group discussion and observation schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative and qualitative data. Some of the key findings of the study were majority of public primary schools in Kasipul lack internet connectivity and only 32.1% have computer labs. The results further indicated that teachers have basic knowledge and skills in digital literacy. However, only 23.2% of teachers have been trained in digital literacy. The study recommends that Ministry of education in collaboration with Ministry of Information and Communication Technology enhance internet connectivity in all primary schools to support implementation of digital literacy to develop learners’ digital skills.