MST-Department of Environmental Planning and Management

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 64
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    Environmental Planning Compliance at Selected Petrol Stations in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) MAKITI, ANDREW SILA; Felix Ming’ate
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    Biophysical and Environmental Health challenges From Cement Dust in Athi River, Machakos County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-08) Ojango, Kevin Ong'are; Simon M. Onywere
    Cement dust from cement processing plants has major impacts on the biological and physical environment as dust spreads towards residential homes, grazing and farmlands, leading to undesirable impacts. Most people in Athi River practice agriculture and pastoralism as their source of livelihood. When livestock feed on grass covered with cement dust, milk production decreases and health deteriorate. Cement dust also has serious impacts on people's health as people in dust risk zones suffer from respiratory complications. There is urgent need to have cement factories located further away from residential homes to reduce these impacts. Objectives of this study involve examining biophysical and environmental health challenges emanating from cement dust in Athi River. Specifically, the study sort to examine the effects of cement dust on vegetation, human and livestock health and assesses the extent to which settlements are impacted. To achieve this, qualitative data from questionnaires was used. Remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems were used to analyse Land Use and Land Cover for the years 2013, 2018, 2019, and 2020. Key Informant Interviews were done with health officials from Shalom Community Hospital whereby data on different respiratory health problems was obtained for the years 2018, 2019,2020,and June 2021. Results of this study indicate that residents in Athi River suffer from eye and skin infections, upper respiratory tract infections, asthma and pneumonia. Since 2018, there have been 5084 reported cases of the upper respiratory tract, 3066 cases of the respiratory system, 2972 skin related, 2821 pneumonia,1985 asthma, 1335 eye infections, and 20 cardio-vascular cases. On livestock health, 62% of interviewed pastoralists complained of poor livestock health attributed to poor quality of feed. In terms of Agriculture, 42% of interviewed respondents complained of dust cover on crops,44% on leaf necrosis whereas 21% mentioned stunted crop growth. This affects income generation due to low sell of produce. Landsat image comparison during dry and wet seasons show huge increase in land under crops and grass after rainfall. In 2019, farmland area increased from 17.34% to 22.86% during the wet season. One possibility could be dust being washed away by rainfall thus easy visibility of vegetation by satellite imagery. Extent of human settlement is therefore very important to determine how far dust spreads while observing wind patterns. Average wind movement is from the western side of Mombasa cement towards the eastern side of residential apartments. No clear regulations exist on the appropriate buffer away from cement factories. However, literature reviewed in this study indicate that dust spreads up to a distance of 3km. This study recommends a buffer of at least 3.5km away from cement factories. This could help improve people's health and also farmers' produce. Cement factories need to improve on or adopt various mitigation measures such as proper monitoring systems to manage these emissions, adopting the principle of circular economy and industrial symbiosis, fogging method to capture cement dust, and also use of alternative fuels. These will reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and improve people's health thus ensuring sustainable livelihood.
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    Compliance to occupational safety and health practices among workers in flowers farms in Embu county,Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-08) Gechembe, Barongo Bevalyne; Peterson Njogu Warutere; Isaac K.Makau
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    The Effects of Infrastructural Development and Settlement on the Quality and Integrity of Nairobi National Park
    (Kenyatta University, 2023) Nyaga, Doreen Wanjiku; Simon M. Onywere
    Protected areas are used as a strategy for conservation and sustainable development. They are a source of foreign exchange and income to a country from tourism. They also contribute to community livelihoods. Kenya’s game parks for example attract nearly two million tourists each year, making wildlife conservation a high priority. However protected areas face challenges from incompatible land use activities and encroachment. With increased urbanisation, conservation efforts have faced challenges from habitat loss due to land degradation and fragmentation. Urbanization also leads to increase in roads, railway lines and buildings that expose wildlife to stress from noise pollution and other forms of pollution. Urban development’s increase the risks of human-wildlife conflicts. The main aim of this study was to find out how infrastructural developments and settlements have affected drainage in the Nairobi National Park area. It also estimated the size of land lost to infrastructural development and determine how this has brought about human-wildlife conflicts and impacts on conservation. The study that was conducted in 2021 used descriptive research design. Collection of primary data was carried out by the use of questionnaires, interview schedules, observation and GIS mapping to determine the developmental changes that have taken place. Secondary data collection method was used in evaluating the trend of the number of animals’ species within the park. Data gathered by use of questionnaire which involved infrastructural development and settlement and human-wildlife conflicts at the fenced part was analysed using statistical methods. The study found that railways and roads within the park adversely affected the life in the park. These effects include displacement of animals, obstruction of animal movement by blocking their migration paths and deaths of animals and birds through collisions with moving cars or trains and reduction of land set for animals. The drainage patterns have also been altered affecting flow of water especially along SGR. The size of park had also reduced by approximately 10,000 Ha due to constructions of a railway, roads and setting up of hotels. The study recommends the policy makers to enforce laws to protect the governments agencies from encroaching into areas reserved for wildlife and forest. It was recommended introduction of basic environmental conservation education at all levels of learning to help Kenyans appreciate importance of environmental conservation.
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    Gender Dynamics and Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Maasai Mara Game Reserve, Narok County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Omedo, Marie Auma; Christine Majale
    Human-Wildlife Conflict is a phenomenon that affects a wide range of the world’s population. Especially those who live in rural African communities. The people in the Mara are a good example of such a community that is African, rural, not economically well off and living near wildlife. Among the greatest issues that the Mara faces is Human-Wildlife Conflict and despite previous attempts to mitigate it, it continues to persist. One of the reasons why this plague has been so persistent is because the rules and regulations are too broad and do not factor in the differences within the communities that live in close proximity to wildlife populations. This research has singled out the main difference in these communities as being gender and as such focuses on it. The objectives of this research are to examine the gender dynamics that affect Human-Wildlife Conflicts, to examine how the gender dynamics can then be used in wildlife conservation and create conservation strategies from the evaluation of gender dynamics relevant to Human-Wildlife Conflicts. To fulfil the objectives the research set out to test the hypothesis of whether gender dynamics influence wildlife conservation measures. This study will significantly change the view of wildlife conservation by giving it a gendered perspective. The methodology for this research was guided by a descriptive research design which entailed the use of observation, questionnaires and interviews to gather data. The samples were automatically disaggregated by gender. The research instruments used (questionnaires and indicator matrices) were able to distinguish the experiences that these two genders face when it comes to Human-Wildlife Conflicts based on occupation, income, household roles, and losses incurred. The research did this by summarizing the key findings of the survey it conducted and drawing conclusions from the gathered data. The findings were categorized by the outlined objectives. The study concluded that the following attributes affect how the genders interact with Human-Wildlife Conflicts: household roles, agricultural occupation, income loss, injuries, land ownership and marital status. This was because the null hypothesis was disproved. After all, the p-value: =0.006435 was less than the agreed significance level of 0.05. From the conclusions, the research managed to generate recommendations regarding Human-Wildlife Conflicts as relates to gender on the issue of conservation in the Mara. These included: barriers, repellents, disguises, data management systems, Airbnb manyattas, rainwater harvesting, performance payment and transport for school-going children. The research also put forth suggestions for further research like age dynamics in the conservation discourse.
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    Effects of Water Levelrise on Riparian Areas of Lake Naivasha, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Karanja, Joseph Mwaura; Simon M. Onywere
    Globally, lakes levels fluctuate naturally but when the rise is unprecedented the impact is far reaching. Kenya’s central rift valley lakes have swollen to the highest level in recorded recent history. The rise has severely affected livelihoods, destroyed infrastructure, inundated vegetation, caused human and wildlife displacement as well as destroyed ecosystem at large. One of the central Rift-Valley lakes that has experienced this rise is Lake Naivasha. Flooding of the lake has caused destruction of development infrastructures including homes, schools, churches, hotels, greenhouses, pump houses, roads, among many others. Also, a lot of vegetation has been lost which means loss of terrestrial habitat for wildlife and reduced protective riparian vegetation. The study used a combination of methods in analyzing quantitative and qualitative data collected using Google Earth historical imageries of December 2008 to October 2020, field observations and interviews among others. Geographic Information System (GIS) was used in the analysis, mapping and computing the amount of land and vegetation lost to water, and also to determine the number of structures and the length of road affected. Content analysis and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze qualitative data. Results from this research found that 34.42 km² of the terrestrial land has been lost to the lake especially on the northern side towards Gilgil River and Kihoto village. A lot of vegetation covering 29.01km² has vanished to the lake’s water, which includes 4.33 km² of farmland, beside 362 trees toppled and 2112 trees drying. Yellow fever acacia (Acacia xanthophloea) was the most affected vegetation. Infrastructures were found to have been destroyed or rendered unusable by the flooding water, whereby 409 block buildings were identified and 35.936 kilometers of either tarmacked, loose surface roads or tracks were found to be no longer usable since they were water pooled or impassable. Seventy-five water intakes and canals were submerged and had to be relocated to higher grounds. The rise of the lake waters has affected the wellbeing of low income earners especially 500 Kihoto settlement homeowners, which has occasioned to some falling sick, being stressed, confused, uncertain of the future and culminated to 3 deaths. The flooding has caused wildlife-human conflict as a result of destruction of dry land wildlife habitat and also water borne diseases as a result of waste mixing with the flooding lake water. Information from this project is useful in planning and management to avoid further occurrences of such effects. It also informs physical planning and infrastructure development that will not be especially in vulnerable settlements and resources to avoid such disasters in view of future water rise of the lake.
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    Settlement Development and Its Implications on Nairobi River Riparian Zone, Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Poulman, Omusisi Aineah; Sammy C. Letema
    A balance between the aquatic ecosystem such as a riparian zone and human settlement is vital for the socio-economic growth of urban areas. Human settlement is one of the primary element that characterizes urban development in developing countries. The rapid growth of human settlements in urban areas and cities has adverse effects on the relationship between natural and human environments. The capital city of Kenya, Nairobi, has witnessed rapid human settlements resulting in the degradation of Nairobi River riparian zone. Efforts to rehabilitate and restore the riparian zone have been futile since 1999. The purpose of this study was to determine how urban development has impacted on Nairobi River riparian zone. The objectives of this study were to assess human settlement developmental trends and its spatial distribution, determine the extent and nature of Nairobi River riparian zone, and assess efforts to reclaim Nairobi River riparian zone. The study employed descriptive research design through purposive sampling to identify and interview key informants from government agencies using prospective evaluation method. Landsat images between 2000 and 2020 were processed and analyzed using Google Earth Engine and ArcMap to detect land use changes as well as encroachments on Nairobi River riparian zones. The findings show a negative correlation between settlement development and Nairobi River riparian zone. The study concludes that Nairobi River regeneration plan for rehabilitating and restoring Nairobi River riparian zone has partially achieved its objectives. However, it faces challenges witnessed by presence of formal and informal settlements in the riparian zone. The study recommends that, future interventions, such as the delineation of Nairobi River riparian zone by marking its extent, enforcing development control rules and guidelines on new and existing settlement developments plus other policies on riparian conservation are necessary. Finally, there is need to ensure existing and new settlements along Nairobi River do not encroach the riparian zone for sustainable management.
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    Flood Occurrence and its Implication for Narok County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Tonui, Charles; Christine Majale; Joanes Atela
    Narok town in Kenya is among the most affected urban areas by the raging seasonal flooding in the recent past resulting to severe ill health, disrupted livelihoods, damage to infrastructure, deaths, injuries, and, and food insecurity. Although assessment has been done on causes, impact and mitigation measures put in place to manage floods in Narok town, there is still evidence of perennial floods and unprecedented impacts of floods. Therefore, this study, assessed the causes, impacts, organisational arrangement, and other aspects of management of floods in Narok town. The following data and information collection tools were used: household survey questionnaire, organisational survey schedule, and observation checklist. The secondary data and information was extracted from the review of literature, and government reports. The data and information collected was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science and Excel sheet 2013. The results are presented in the form of graphs and tables. The significant underlying causes of floods in Narok town are rainfall and topography. The main native physical impacts caused by flood is soil erosion. The main biological impact caused by flood is loss of vegetation while the main social impact is the loss of life and property, loss of livelihood and displacement of people. The structural flood management measure largely used is the construction of gabions while the main non-structural flood management measure used planting of trees. The measures in place have greatly improved in reducing impacts of floods on socio-economic and biodiversity aspects. There are state and non-state organisations contributing to flood management through policies, legislations, strategies and plans, funding, training and coordination of partnerships. However, lack of clear policy and legislative structures, insufficient funding, equipment and staffing in relevant organisations limit the capacity to effectively mitigate impacts of floods. This study recommends a comprehensive assessment of root causes and impacts of floods; enhance building partnership; and integrated disaster management approach. There is need to study deeper interaction between factors influencing occurrence of floods and impacts of floods the effectiveness of specific structural and non-structural flood mitigation measures on each sector of economy vulnerable to floods. This research report contribute to scientific evidence and it may inform policy support towards sustainable implementation of integrated flood management strategy in Narok town and urban areas elsewhere.
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    Using Satellite Data as a Tool to Monitor Compliance and Enforcement of Forest Conservation Regulations: Karura Forest, Nairobi County.
    (Kenyatta university, 2014-05) Macharia, Antony Gakobo
    Conservation is important in maintaining the natural biodiversity fabric of a given ecosystem. Although remote sensing methods and techniques using satellite data have been useful tool in monitoring and mapping Environmental risks and disasters, as well as in environmental protection projects, they are scarcely used in environmental legislation implementation in Kenya. Karura Forest reserve covering 1041.3 hectares and located North of Central Nairobi County is one of the largest gazetted forests in the world that is fully within a City boundary limit. It is rich with flora and fauna considered a national Heritage now under protection but which is under threat from anthropogenic impacts due to encroachment and constant excision by the government itself. This study sought to show the capability of satellite data as a tool that can be used to monitor the losses Karura forest experiences and its potential to assess compliance and enforcement of forest conservation regulations. This was done using satellite data of different time series to map the encroachment in Karura Forest over time. Satellite images of 30 meter resolution from Landsat TM 2000, 10 meter resolution from Alos 2010 and 5 meter resolution from Quick Bird 2013 were used for this study. Detected changes in all the three epochs were mapped out and where applicable field verification was done on site Interview schedules were administered to key institutions to assess the level of awareness on the use of satellite data as a tool to monitor compliance and enforcement of forest regulations. Data obtained from the interview schedules were analyzed and tabulated to give a clear picture of the institutions that have been allocated land inside Karura forest. This was necessary to give a clear direction on how the forest management values the conservation reserve and the weaknesses/strengths of forest legislation in place. Satellite data was used to map the built Environment inside Karura forest and ground truething was done to tell the owners other noticeable changes inside the forest like vegetation clearing noticed during the field survey were photographed and the changes mapped out in the subsequent satellite images where they were equally detected between 2000 and 2014. Analysis of the results revealed that the total area occupied by institutions in 2000 was 138.81 ha (13.31%) and 181.11 ha (17.39%). in 2010, representing a change of 4.08% within 10 years. It also revealed that there is 100% awareness level of the use of satellite data as a tool for monitoring forest regulations. The hypotheses that the forest management is unable to contain forest loss because they lack and/or they do not make use of information based decision making tools, was rejected on the basis of high level of awareness by the management of Karura forest to use satellite data in monitoring compliance and enforcement of forest regulations. The study objectives were met and recommendations made on how to integrate satellite data technology in monitoring compliance and enforcement of forest regulation in Karura forest. A proposed integrated use of Satellite data in Forest management was the climax of this study. The proposal recommended the use of satellite data in all forest management programs and for periodical monitoring of forest activities using high resolution satellite data for non-compliance of enforcement of forest regulations. The proposal also recommended the use of satellite data in environmental studies in institutions of learning to equip the environmental students and planners with the knowledge of using satellite data and Gis to manage the forest and other ecosystems.
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    Small Scale Wood Carving Enterprises and their Contribution to Rural Livelihoods in Wamunyu, Machakos County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2017-01) Muthini, Shedrack Mwendwa
    At a time of rising food insecurity and high rates of poverty as a result of drought, rural communities have to find alternative means of livelihoods apart from crop and livestock agriculture which are susceptible to drought. Woodcarving is one of the sole most important alternative forms of livelihood in the rural areas. Despite documented potential benefits of high value markets and value addition, wood carved products are majorly produced and marketed locally with or no value addition. This study therefore sought to evaluate small scale wood carving enterprises as an alternative source of livelihood and their contribution to rural livelihoods with focus in Wamunyu Location, Machakos County, Kenya. The study was designed to assess woodcarving practices in Wamunyu location, examine the contribution of woodcarving to the socio-economic welfare of the woodcarvers in Wamunyu location and finally, suggest measures that can be put in place to improve the woodcarving sector in Wamunyu location. The study aimed at providing additional information which would be of importance to the relevant stakeholders in mainstreaming woodcarving as an alternative source livelihood in policy formulation, strategies and development programmes. The study used the case study design. Primary data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedules, photography and observation guides. Secondary data was obtained through reviewing previous research work related to woodcarving. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques were used due to the nature of the data collected. Quantitative data was presented by use of pie charts, tables and figures. Qualitative data was organised into themes and presented through discussions and narratives. The findings showed that, despite large number of woodcarvers willing to adopt modern woodcarving technologies, traditional woodcarving remained to be more rampant due to lack of capital to purchase modern woodcarving machines and lack of skills to operate them. The findings also indicated that only small proportion of the woodcarvers did full value addition to their sculptures. Majority of the woodcarvers embarked on partial value addition while a small proportion never added value to their sculptures. They noted lack of capital to hire labour, lack of market for the finished sculptures and value addition being a tiresome and time consuming activity as the main reasons they never added value to their products. Consequently, they received low value for their investment. Additionally, the findings indicated that despite woodcarving positive contribution to the rural livelihoods through provision of income, employment creation, preservation of culture and tradition and promotion of tourism sector the industry faced a lot of challenges. These challenges included; lack of sufficient market, lack of enough and good quality wood, lack of sufficient finances, lack of machinery, lack of collaboration with the forestry department, lack of support by the government and poor working environment for the carvers. Future interventions such as establishment of national woodcarving strategy, developing market information systems, reformulation of tourism, forestry and culture policies to recognise woodcarving as a source of livelihood and allowing woodcarvers to have access to some hardwood tree species through the forestry department are some of the measures the county and national government should put in place to improve the woodcarving industry in Kenya.
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    Impacts of Land Use Changes on Ecosystem Services in Saiwa Wetland, Trans Nzoia County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2019-09) Deng, Rebecca Awuor
    Kenya has a number of wetland ecosystems that support diverse habitats both at the rural and urban areas. These wetlands provide a number of ecosystems services even though they are under tremendous threat due to land use change, agricultural intensification manifested by the decrease in their hydrological, ecological and economic support they provide to the surrounding environment. Saiwa wetland is one of the largest wetlands in Trans Nzoia County that supports biodiversity development and act as a source of livelihood to communities living around it. This study therefore sought to find out the impacts of land use changes on wetland ecosystem services using Saiwa wetland as the case study. The objectives of the study was to review the existing legislations and policy framework that deal with protection and conservation, map the extent and patterns of land uses and investigate the impact of land use changes on socio-economic provisions of Saiwa wetland. The study employed a diagnostic research design; both primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data was collected through the use of interview schedules, questionnaires, photography and observation. Secondary data was solicited from existing records on the implication of land use changes on wetlands, wetland policy documents from government and non-governmental agencies and remotely sensed maps to study the chronological trends and patterns of land uses and land use change over the past 27 years. The collected data was analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques using descriptive statistics for calculation of frequencies, means and percentages. A GIS and Remote sensing-based assessment of land uses and land cover was carried out in order to facilitate presentation of summarized data and enable assimilation of data which provided a quick comparison of variables using different sets of data. The study finding indicates that local communities living around Saiwa wetland mainly depends on the wetland for their livelihoods which include farming, grazing, and water. During the period between 1988-2017, forest decreased by 8.96%, Grassland decreased by 103.33%, Shrub land decreased by 17.36%, Settlements increased by 101.64% and agriculture increased by 12.57 % respectively over the same period of time. Therefore, there is need to harmonize various land uses with the existing Saiwa wetland ecosystem for sustainable management of the Wetland.
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    Socio-Economic Effects of Traffic Congestion on Urban Mobility Along Jogoo Road, Nairobi City County - Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2018-11) Ndatho, Mercyleen Nkatha
    An effective urban transport system should have the ability to deal with the high density that characterizes most urban areas while moving people and goods. However, the high rate of urbanization experienced in most developing countries has resulted into massive traffic congestion, which in turn has hampered effective transportation. The biggest burden of the heavy traffic jam experienced in Nairobi City lies on the commuters who bear with traffic jams that snarl up for kilometers and stay for hours hence accruing social dilemma and huge economic loses in terms of the time wasted, increased travel cost, respiratory diseases associated to the vehicular exhaust emissions in traffic, stress and anxiety, less time with family and other social effects associated with traffic congestion among others. Jogoo Road which was the study area, being a major arterial in Nairobi City experiences heavy traffic congestion. The study sought to investigate the social and economic effects of traffic congestion and to propose the measures that can be employed to alleviate the problem. A pilot study was carried out and the researcher focused on the objectives of the study and determined the parameters which were measured. Based on the objectives, descriptive research was applied to collect and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data. Questionnaires, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, observation and photography were the major sources of primary data. Secondary data sources including online reports, journals, and books also informed the study. Simple random and stratified sampling procedures were employed to select the sample that was studied. Data collected was input into Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)software, correction of errors was carried out followed by analysis. To determine the social and economic effects of traffic congestion, frequencies and measures of central tendency (mode and mean) were used. Qualitative data was analysed through conceptualization and description. To increase reliability and validity, multiple observers were employed and more random samples were obtained in order to increase external validity. Use of the documented theories in the study also increased the validity and reliability of the research findings. Based on the findings of the study, the researcher ascertains that the major causes of traffic congestion along Jogoo road include increase in population, increased ownership of private cars, limited road capacity with inappropriate design, lack of Non Motorised Transport (NMT) facilities, unreliable public transport, and encroachment of the road space, over-reliability of one mode of transport. The study establishes that traffic congestion results to both economic and social effects including increased travel time, higher travel cost, lost business opportunities, health risks, environmental pollution, stress, fatigue and less time with families associated to leaving home early and arriving late. The study recommends for an effective, reliable and affordable public transport system, expansion of Jogoo road, provision of NMT facilities, exploration of railway as alternative mode of travel, introduction of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), banning private vehicles from the Central Business District (CBD), teleworking, staggering working hours, effective traffic managements systems among others in order to reduce traffic congestion and the associated socio-economic effects
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    Dynamics of Agricultural Developments Impacting on Biodiversity Conservation in Meru National Park, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2018-09) Nyamweya, Nelly Bosibori
    Meru National Park has witnessed a steady immigration of agricultural households from nearby high potential agro-ecological zones into its buffer zones. The situation has subjected natural habitats that formerly served as communal grazing lands and wildlife dispersal areas to fragmentation and alteration. To date, the most affected zones are wetlands of the western and southern buffer zones. These zones are most critical for livestock and wildlife, particularly as dry season grazing areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the impacts of agricultural development on biodiversity conservation in Meru National Park. The specific objectives were to document land fragmentation and subdivision trends and changing crop types, to determine the impacts of land use changes on the approach used for community-based conservation and to determine the size and extent of human-wildlife conflicts. The study applied qualitative, quantitative, descriptive and exploratory research approaches. Primary data was obtained from household questionnaires, key informant interviews, high resolution google earth images and Geographic Information System imagery of the study area. Secondary data was obtained from published and un-published reports. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to analyse the collected data. The quantitative techniques were done through coding the data from questionnaires. This was followed by analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Science. A substantial part of the analysis was based on descriptive statistics such as frequencies and cross-tabulation. Spatial analysis was used to explore the land use and land cover changes of the study area using four time-period data sets (2000, 2005, 2010 and 2016). Photographs were used to document the current situation on the ground. Spatial analysis indicates that the area under rain-fed shrub vegetation reduced significantly by 66.69 km2 between 2000 and 2016. This is majorly attributed to clearing of shrub vegetation to covert these areas into farmland. 76% of farmers in the study area are using irrigation to increase their farm outputs and to farm all year round. The water used for irrigation is abstracted from rivers and streams that drain from the base of the Nyambene Hills and flows into the park. This increased irrigation has resulted in lower water volumes and in some cases leading to no water flowing into the park. Between 2014 to 2016, The total annual number of human-wildlife conflict incidences in 2014, 2015 and 2016 increased from 367, 526, and 540 respectively. These conflicts affected maize and bananas farmers the most with baboons, elephants, buffaloes and monkeys being involved in the conflicts frequently. Whereas traditional land sizes were 20-35 ha in 1990s, the current farm sizes are medium scale ranging between 1 ha and 5 ha, an indication of the rapid land fragmentation in the study area. Meru National Park has increasingly witnessed complex interactions between conservation and socio-economic needs and pursuits of households occupying its buffer zones. This study therefore recommends implementation of sustainable biodiversity conservation strategies that do not hinder socio-economic development. This should be implemented by Kenya Wildlife Service in collaboration with community-based groups and key stakeholders.
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    Investigation of public open spaces in Machakos town Municipality, Machakos County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2017-06) Mutisya, Mathias Loki
    Public open spaces form an important part of urban life, giving services to people and protect urban environment. In effective regulations and standards for establishment, setting, management and maintenance of public open spaces have always been a stumbling block in ensuring their sustainability, hence the existence of poorly performing, unplanned, and poorly distributed public open spaces. This study sought to establish why the public open spaces in Machakos municipality, Machakos County face sustainability challenges. The study aimed to find out the various types of public open spaces in Machakos Municipality; to examine their usage, find out measures taken by the stakeholders to ensure proper functioning of the public open spaces and ultimately to come up with approaches for successful establishment and management of a sustainable public open spaces system in Machakos Municipality. Primary and secondary data sources were utilized, with Primary data being gathered from in the form of questionnaires, interview schedules, observation and photography. Secondary data on the other hand was gathered through reviewing of existing literature materials and documentations on public open spaces from Government blueprints and policy documents. The report findings form a database for information needed towards a theoretical knowledge to help respective stakeholders in the establishment and management of public open spaces in Machakos town Municipality. This provides improved public open spaces setting that eventually raise the quality of life and value of the residents and property respectively. The findings revealed that there are a number of public open spaces in Machakos Municipality with Machakos People’s park as the most popular of these open spaces. These spaces are mainly used for relaxation, sports, recreation, meetings, parking, source of income and physical exercise. These open spaces are highly used during weekends as opposed to all week through. Majority of them are managed by the county government of Machakos. However, the study reveals that the open space users are not satisfied with the management strategies employed by the current regime. They proposed better open spaces management strategies with all stakeholders involved.
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    Potential for on-farm approach in conservation of indigenous tree species among smallholder farmers of Murang'a district, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2002) Thuo, Aggrey Daniel Maina
    Today the world suffers from several environmental problems such as resource degradation, which has prominently affected biological diversity. One of such biological resources is indigenous tree species. Currently, their status in many parts of the world especially in developing countries is scarcely known. These trees occured naturally in the world's indigenous forests that are almost gone with only one percent being managed and sustainably utilized. The underlying pressure is caused by increasing population that is characterized by clearance for agriculture, fuel logging, road construction and settlement. This is moreso in high agricultural potential areas such as Murang 'a district. where most indigenous trees and shrubs have disappeared.. The threats to indigenous trees r-c; species in this area, thus necessitated the study to establish the place of indigenous trees in smallholders' social and economic decisions. The study pursued a concept of on-farm conservation of indigenous trees species with a particular .reference to smallholder farmers. It identified the status of on-farm indigenous trees and factors that influence their conservation within farmland. Further, It examined the existing local potential among farmers and within their environment that could be harnessed to promote on-farm conservation. (- In carrying out the study, a questionnaire, an interview schedule and a guide, and an observation record sheet were used to collect data. Data collected were collated, coded and analyzed using SPSS 6.1 Version. Data were analyzed descriptively using multi-response cross tabulations and contingency tables that generated frequencies and percentages. Additional descriptive analytical tools, such as Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT), Content and Structural-functional analyses were used. Statistical significance testing was also employed using the Chi-square at 0.05 alpha levels to test relationships and association between variables. The study established that about 43.5 % of surveyed farmers incorporated indigenous trees in their farms. Farmers raise trees largely from seedlings or wildlings. These trees have been planted and/ or retained in home gardens, woodlots, compounds, crop fields, roadsides and riversides. The small number of farmers incorporating indigenous trees species in their farms was attributed to scarcity of land, farmers' attitudes, dying traditional beliefs and taboos, slow growth rates of these trees and lack of seeds and seedlings. Factors such as economic, socio-cultural, ecological and farmers' preferences were found to influence the choice of on-farm tree species. Economic factors undermined on-farm conservation of indigenous trees. For instance, majority of the farmers preferred exotic species due to the fact that exotic trees possess multiple uses value and have capability to generate income faster than indigenous trees due to their fast growth. Additionally, farmers had different preferences for tree species this was hinged on the tree uses or special their functions. For example, Indigenous species are preferred because of their special functions that include provision of medicines for livestock and humans, their effects on soil nutrients enhancement and cultural value. The agricultural activities determined the spatial pattern of the distribution of indigenous trees among the farmers. The agro-ecological three, for instance, had more indigenous trees than the other two agro-ecological zones. This is because in this agro-ecological zone, there are few cash crops such as coffee and tea that requires clearance of indigenous vegetation during their establishment. In intensively cultivated areas such as in agro-ecological zone two, indigenous tree species existed only in places such as riversides, bushes, grazingjields andfarm boundaries. The study revealed a wealthy of knowledge in on-farm trees management among the farmers. This knowledge includes the ones regarding placement, compatibility with agricultural crops, and palatability to livestock, rituals and other uses. The respondent had less knowledge about disease and insect pests affecting indigenous trees. The study further found out that the existing local potential among farmers has been less utilized in promotion of on-farm conservation of indigenous trees, among them the local groups / institutions. The study found out that there is potential for on-farm conservation of indigenous tree species since the local community member expresses their need for medicinal, ecological , socio-cultural and economic values. For this potential to be realised, the study recommends the following: 1) Awareness creation programmes that focus on the economic and ecological value of indigenous trees; 2) Improvement of agricultural andforestry extension services so that farmers are taught appropriate farming methods; 3) Promotion and utilization of the strategy of contacting farmers through local groups/institutions; 4) The need to research on how to incorporate indigenous trees species in farming systems given the decreasing land holdings; 5) The needfor clear cut policies on the on-farm conservation of indigenous tree species to assist agricultural and forest extension officers in promoting these tree species within the farm lands and also to dejine incentives necessary to encourage farmers to conserve indigenous species within their farmlands.
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    Planning and management problems facing small urban Centres in Kenya a case study of Nyansiongo township, Nyamira District.
    (Kenyatta University, 2002) Ming’ate, F.L.M.
    Past experience has shown that there is rapid urbanization in most developing countries. Majority of the people are moving from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of services which cannot be offered in rural areas like social, health, educational and other services that satisfy human wants. This movement has strained the urban land uses and service delivery and institutional infrastructure of urban centres in developing countries especially in the major cities as their counterparts, small and intermediate urban centres decay due to lack or inadequacy of even basic amenities and services that will attract investors. Due to this strain, Planning and Management problems are evident in majority of the urban centres. The main purpose of this study therefore was to examine the land use and urban service delivery and institutional infrastructure of Nyansiongo Township. The study finally caine up with " proposals within which planning and management problems of small urban centres can be solved. Primary and secondary data was used in the study. Stratified and systematic sampling was used for data collection. Purposeful sampling was used to ge,t information from relevant bodies. Focused group discussions (FGDs) were used. Snowball sampling was used to get relevant information from relevant institutions. Data was collected through direct observation,use of questionnaire administration and use of interview schedule. Descriptive statistics was usedfor data analysis. Content analysis was used to analyze results from FGDs and interviews I from various heads of institutions. Spearman correlation Coefficient and Chi-Square were used to show relationships. Excel was used to draw tables and graphs. The results of the study show that service provision in Nyansiongo Township is of poor quality and inadequate. The researcher recommends that to improve the services, the Government, the community, NGOs, and CBOs should work together in improving the service provision of the township. (
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    Impacts of fuel wood scarcity and coping strategies among rural households in Lurambi District, Kakamega County, Kenya
    (2013) Waudo, Stacey Nawanjaya
    Rural households in Kenya are highly dependent on fuel wood for their energy needs. High population growth, deforestation at 20% (4061 ha degraded out of a possible 19792 ha according to the Kakamega forest management plan) combined with agricultural expansion has served to deepen the fuelwood crisis causing a considerable gap in demand and supply of fuelwood. This study, carried out in Lurambi District, Kakamega County examined factors contributing to fuelwood scarcity, its imapcts and coping starategies among rural houesholds.The study targeted households that were adversely affected and use with the resource on a daily basis. Questionnaires were administered to 200 randomly selected households between January and March 2012. An interview schedule was used for key informants. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for frequencies, percentages and cross tabulation. The findings of the study revealed that fuelwood is a dominant source of energy among 95% households in Lurambi with 84% of the households experienced fuelwood scarcity. The sources of fuelwood include the Kakamega forest and on farm sources. Deforestation, Government restriction towards accesing the Kakamega forest, restricted access to communal collection points cited by 52.5% of the households, privatization of land and reducing land sizes have contributed to fuelwood scarcity. The unavailability of fuelwood has had a negative impact on livelihoods particulary on women in terms of time and resources spent in the collection of fuelwood. Coping mechanisms include temporary switching to alternative fuels, use of energy saving stoves and minimal use of fuelwood in a bid to conserve the resource. Woodlots were observed in a few of the farms but was not considered a priority among the households as the emphasis was on agriculture. In conlcusion socio economic and environmental factors have an impact on fuelwood scarcity and that various coping strategies are employed in adopting to fuelwood scarity which are not sustainable in the long term. Recommendations inculde collaboration between the community and Government on benefit sharing within the forest, designation of communal collection points, sustained woodfuel production projects and introduction of affordable alternatives to the community.
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    Human Perceptions and Their Implications to Wildlife Conservation in Ol Donyo Sabuk National Park- Machakos District,Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2005-05) Kiama, Rose Wamuyu
    Wildlifeis a renewable natural resource and has considerable economic value not only in Kenya but also all over the world. In Kenya it holds economic, cultural, aesthetic, spiritual and scientific values. When used wisely wildlife can enhance a country's economy though tourism. In Kenya it is estimated that 70 % of the gross tourism earning and 50 % of total gross domestic product is attributed to wildlife. Wildlife is also a source of game meat, tusks, horns and skins. Due to its value, Kenya has undertaken measure to protect it and ensure its sustainability through the concept of National parks and Reserves. Even with these concept of value in mind, National Parks and 01 Donyo Sabuk National Park in particular face threats of extinction resulting from varying perceptions on conservation by the local people. Conservation of wildlife in the park is greatly dependent on how people perceive the existence of wildlife. This study was carried out to examine factors that contribute to human perceptions and how this implicates on the conservation of wildlife. Ways of integrating these perceptions in conservation have also been identified. Data collection methods included structured questionnaire administration for both household and KWS administration that composed the sampling frame. Other instruments used to collect data included; observation, photography aid and review of documented data. Data collected was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative techniques. This study established that there are several factors that influence human perception on wildlife conservation. Cases of animals escaping from the park and damaging-local community's crops and property, killing domestic animals and injuring people has led people to view wildlife as an enemy rather than a valuable resource. This tension creates human-wildlife conflicts. The conflict is worsened by the fact that no form of compensation is offered by the wildlife custodians to the victims suffering from wildlife destruction. The constant conflict between wildlife and the local community are attributed to the lack of community participation in wildlife management. Benefits derived from the park are not also shared with the community. The existing policy framework does not give the local community a chance to feel like they belong to the conservation system. The policies have excluded people from national Parks and this makes people view wildlife as government property. To rescue these wildlife resource local communities need to perceive conservation positively. This is the only way for them to participate in conservation. To put this appropriate conservation strategy in place, the study recommends that: policies and legislation governing wildlife should be reviewed to accommodate people's needs; community participation should be greatly enhanced; revenues derived from the park should be shared with the community; compensation schemes should be reviewed; public awareness and sensitization on conservation should be practiced; a project to plant a buffer zone
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    An assessment of the contribution of urban agriculture to households’ livelihoods in Roysambu Ward, Nairobi County.
    (Kenyatta University, 2014) Githugunyi, Dickson Kibata; Majale, Christine Liyala; Nyaoro, W.
    Urban agriculture plays a significant role in national development by contributing towards food security, employment creation and income generation. However, it is associated with diverse negative impacts on public health and the environment. Development of UA has been affected by lack of specific laws and policies geared towards addressing the development this important sub- sector. However, various legislations refer individually to the sub-sector. Some of these legislations indirectly support or hinder the growth and development of the sub sector. Despite these shortcomings UA has continued unabated in most parts of Nairobi. Many households in Nairobi are facing a serious decline in their purchasing power and poverty levels are on the rise. The poorer the household the more they depend on farming to supplement their food requirements. As Nairobi metropolis expands, it encroaches on the hither to agricultural areas in its periphery. These areas are an integral part of the city as they provide the bulk of the food especially vegetables to the city. Their close proximity to the city provides ready market for farm produce and hence encourages peri- urban agriculture. This study examined the contribution of urban agriculture to households’ livelihoods in Nairobi County. It covered various aspects such as legal and policy framework, problems affecting development of UA, trends and patterns of land use in Nairobi and its implications on UA and finally came up with an integrated plan for sustainable urban agriculture in Roysambu Ward. The Sampling frame for the study comprised of farmers in Roysambu Ward, a number of institutions and farmer groups in Roysambu Ward. Primary data was derived from field surveys using questionnaires, key informants interviews and focused group discussions. A sample size of 90 was used for household interviews, 5 institutions interviewed and 3 focused group discussions held. Secondary data was synthesized from books, journals, newsletters, electronic media and Government policy papers. Landsat satellite images were used to obtain the land use trends in Nairobi. Probability and non-probability sampling methods were used in data collection. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Scientists whereas qualitative data was analysed either in text, diagrams or photographs. GIS generated maps were analysed to capture land use trends over the last 20 years ie year 1995 to year 2014.Review of legal and policy framework revealed that there is a dire need to harmonize all the conflicting pieces of legislation governing UA in Kenya and this can only be achieved by bringing all stakeholders on board. UA policy is also overdue. The trend of UA in Nairobi County showed a decline of 28% of the area under forests and crops compared to an increase of 35% of the area under built up areas over the last 20 years. This shows that all the hither to agricultural areas in the County will soon be taken up by the built up areas. However UA remains popular especially among the urban poor because of food security and income generation. Some middle and upper income people also prefer growing their own food for food safety reasons. Health and environmental concerns were noted especially in the low income areas of Mathare, Ruaraka and Njathaini which reinforces the fact the UA should be controlled if not outlawed in these areas. It is strongly recommended that agricultural areas in the study area and in Nairobi County should be designated so that they are easily controlled. Investments should be done in the City waste management to allow use of treated liquid and solid waste, while building capacity of farmers on its utilization. This may involve integration of UA in the City land use planning.