RP-Department of Special Needs Education

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    Influence of Teaching Strategies on Reading Comprehension of Learners with Learning Disabilities in Selected Public Primary Schools in Kyuso Sub-County, Kenya.
    (2024-06) Wakati, Purity Kebebe; Muthee, Jessina; Abuom, Tom
    This study evaluated the influence of teaching strategies on reading comprehension of learners with learning disabilities in selected public primary schools in Kyuso Sub-County, Kenya. The choice of this locality was based on the fact that it is home to most learners with learning disabilities in the entire County and the performance of these learners in reading comprehension has continuously been poor. The study area also has a mixed demography with some public primary schools located in wealthy areas while majority are in poor areas. The study was guided by Bandura’s Social Learning Theory as advanced in 1977. The study employed quasi-experimental study design. The target population for this study was 420 consisting of 20 class five teachers and 400 class five learners with learning disabilities within the available 20 public primary schools in Kitui County Kenya. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. Primary data was collected by use of structured questionnaires. Data was grouped, coded, cleaned and analyzed descriptively using SPSS version 21.0 to generate frequencies and percentages. The collected data were presented in tables created with SPSS and figures created with Microsoft Excel 2010. The study found that common teaching strategies had a negative effect on reading comprehension test scores of students with learning disabilities, while learners-centered strategies improved these learners test scores in reading comprehension. The study therefore concluded that learners with learning disabilities underperformed in reading comprehension due to the use of traditional teaching strategies which are teacher centered. The study recommends that learners-centered instructional methods be employed to improve reading comprehension among learners in Kyuso Sub-County in selected public primary schools.
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    Interplay Between Parent-Teacher Collaboration and Academic Performance of Pupils with Learning Disabilities in Public Primary Schools in Migori County, Kenya
    (EJSE, 2024) Oduor, Paul Omondi; Murugami, Margaret W.; Wamocho, Franciscah I.
    This study aimed to establish the influence of parent-teacher collaboration on the academic performance of pupils with Learning Disabilities (LD) in public primary schools in Migori County, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive design. The study was guided by Constructivist Theory developed by Jerome Bruner (1966). The target population was 47 primary schools, 1000 pupils in grade three, 113 parents of pupils with learning disabilities, 47 grade 3 class teachers, and 47 head teachers in Migori County. A simple random sampling technique was used to select the primary schools. Grade three pupils, class teachers, parents, and head teachers were selected using a purposive sampling technique. The sample size consisted of 11 primary schools, 11 grade 3 class teachers, 11 head teachers, 55 grade 3 pupils, and 22 parents. Researcher-constructed questionnaires, pupil rating scales, and test and interview schedules were used to collect data. To establish the validity and reliability of the research instruments, a pilot study was carried out in one primary school in Migori County. The collected data were descriptively analyzed using means, frequencies, and percentages. Pearson productmoment correlation analysis was used to examine the nature of the relationships among the study variables. The results were presented using tables. The data from the interview schedule for the head teachers were analyzed thematically, and the results were incorporated into the quantitative findings. Findings indicated that effective collaboration between parents and teachers significantly enhanced academic performance. The study concluded that there was a positive correlation between parentteacher collaboration and the academic performance of pupils with LD revealed a positive correlation, emphasizing the significance of collaborative efforts to elevate academic achievement. The study recommended that to strengthen collaborative efforts, it is imperative to foster a deeper partnership between teachers and parents. In a leadership role, head teachers need to take the lead in sensitizing both teachers and parents on the profound significance of parent-teacher collaboration for the academic performance of pupils with LD. Also, teachers and Ministry of Education officials in the county should create time to meet the parents and teachers to sensitize them about LD and their needs to improve the learning outcomes of such learners.
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    Health Professionals’ Awareness of Signs and Symptoms of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia among Inpatients at a Level – Six Referral Hospital in Kenya
    (INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND SCIENTIFIC INNOVATION (IJRSI), 2024-03) Ndiema, Dalphine C.; Abuom, T.; Karia, M.
    Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a leading risk factor for multiple health complications, including malnutrition, chest infections, and pneumonia. High dysphagia awareness among health professionals may facilitate early identification and treatment. Objectives: This study’s objectives were to (i) determine oropharyngeal dysphagia signs/symptoms awareness levels among healthcare professionals attending to adult inpatients in the acute-care facility of a Kenyan level-six referral hospital and (ii) establish whether their awareness levels vary with selected individual characteristics. Methods: We employed a descriptive, cross-sectional research design, and purposive sampling of 16 health professionals attending to inpatients in the hospital’s acute-care facility. They included five (5) nurses, seven (7) physiotherapists, one (1) speech – language therapists, one (1) oncologist, one (1) neurologist, and one (1) nutritionist. Awareness levels were measured using a 16-item questionnaire. Frequencies, percentages, and means were used to summarize participants’ scores, while the independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the scores across selected individual characteristics. Results: The mean proportion of correct responses was 73.0% (SD = 17.49), indicating that on average, participants had moderate awareness. Over half (56.3%, n = 9) had either low or moderate OPD signs/symptoms awareness levels. There were significant differences in mean awareness levels due to age (F = 10.13, p = .002) and educational attainment ( F = 7.44, p = .007). Conclusions: Health professionals attending to adult inpatients in the hospital’s medical and surgical units have, on average, moderate awareness of oropharyngeal dysphagia signs and symptoms. High educational attainment is associated with increased awareness. Recommendation: The hospital’s management should implement regular training programs focusing on various OPD management aspects, particularly its signs and symptoms. Priority should be given to nurses, physiotherapists, and HPs without a post-graduate degree. For better client outcomes, and opportunity for continuous professional development
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    A Descriptive Retrospective Review on the Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in the Acute Care Facility of a Kenyan (Level-Six) National Hospital
    (IOSR Journal of Nursing and Health Science (IOSR-JNHS), 2023-12) Ndiema, Dalphine C.; Abuom T.; Karia, M.
    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) exposes patients to several health conditions and complications. This study assessed OPD presentation in the acute care facility (ACF) of a national hospital in Kenya. The objectives were to establish the demographic characteristics of adult inpatients diagnosed with OPD, determine their OPD-related comorbidities, and identify OPD traits for bedside swallowing safety in ACF. Archival records of 36 initial speech-language therapy (SLT) consultations diagnosed with OPD were reviewed. Data from these purposive records were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, means, Fisher’s exact test, and the independent samples t-test. There was an equal OPD presentation between female and male participants. Their mean age was 61.25 years (SD = 21.256), with 64.3% (n = 18) at least 60 years old. On average, female participants (M = 72.3, SD = 16.43) were significantly older than their male peers (M = 72.3, SD = 16.43) (t = 3.25, p = .003). The majority (88.9%, n = 32) had at least one comorbid condition. Fisher’s exact test showed that the number of comorbid conditions was independent of gender or age (p > .05). The majority (94.4%, n = 34) had at least one bedside swallowing safety trait. From the findings, it can be concluded that OPD presentation in the facility is highest among senior adults and is associated with multiple comorbid conditions. The management should encourage a multi-disciplinary approach to OPD management to ensure optimal care for OPD patients in the ACF.
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    The Status of Health Professionals’ Knowledge of Complications of Impaired Deglutition among Acute-Care Inpatients in a Kenyan Referral Hospital
    (INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN APPLIED SCIENCE (IJRIAS), 2024-04) Ndiema, Dalphine C.; Abuom, T.; Karia, M.
    Early dysphagia screening and identification are vital for improved clinical outcomes for patients with impaired deglutition. The Interprofessional Collaboration model advocates for a collective approach to dysphagia management to facilitate early dysphagia screening and identification. Such collaboration requires all health professionals involved in management of impaired deglutition to have a high awareness of its symptoms and signs, risk factors, and associated complications. However, there is limited research on dysphagia awareness among health professionals in Kenya. This paper reports on a study to establish health professionals’ awareness levels of oropharyngeal dysphagia-associated complications among adult inpatients in the medical and surgical wards (Acute Care Facility-ACF) of a National referral hospital in Kenya. The study employed a descriptive, cross-sectional design. Questionnaires were administered to an initial sample of 19 health professionals attending to adult inpatients in the ACF. Sixteen (16) of the sampled professionals completed and returned the questionnaires and were included in the final analyses. Awareness levels were assessed using a ten-item questionnaire and analyzed using frequencies, percentages, and means. The independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the scores across selected individual characteristics. The mean proportion of correct responses to the questionnaire items was 73.0% (SD = 17.49), indicating that, on average, participants had moderate awareness of oropharyngeal dysphagia-associated complications. There were no significant differences in awareness levels due to gender, age, educational attainment, experience, specialization, or training. The findings show that health professionals attending to adult inpatients in the hospital’s medical and surgical units have, on average, moderate awareness of oropharyngeal dysphagia-associated complications.
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    Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Socio- Communication Difficulties Entail and the Recommended Research Based Intervention Strategies
    (International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 2021-12) Ndiema, Dalphine C.; Wairungu, George Mathenge
    In the last three decades, there has been an unprecedented rate of increase in the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1 in every 59 children in USA has ASD. ASD is a dyad of disabilities with a major hall mark feature being socio-communication difficulties. The feature significantly affects interaction and lowers the quality of life of individuals with ASD. To address its implication, a multidisciplinary team approach is critical especially in this era of inclusive education. The main aim of this paper is to assemble and consolidate relevant literature on what Socio-communication difficulties entail as well as the appropriate research-based intervention strategies. This creates a one ‘stop shop’ source of reference for multidisciplinary team members who may not be experts in thefield of Autism Speech Disorder. To achieve this, Google Scholar search engine was used to search for Articles and research findings from peer reviewed journals on the deficit and appropriate intervention strategies. Only articles that clearly addressed characteristics and intervention strategies were considered. The main electronic data sources used include Jstor, Eric digest and EBSCO. This study is a therefore a product of an extensive in-depth qualitative desk top research. Challenges in socio-communication abilities are significantly associated with poor theory of mind as well as comorbidity in learners with ASD. The article summarizes the categories of comorbidity first, socio-communication difficulties and finally scans through contemporary research-based intervention strategies
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    Exploring Therapy-Related Constraints in the Delivery of Speech and Language Therapy Services to Children with Cerebral Palsy in Kibera Slums, Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (EJSER, 2024) Mwende, Mutuiri Caroline; Abuom, Tom
    This study sought to establish therapy-related constraints in delivering Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) services to children with CP in Kibera slums. The study was guided by the four-level model of the healthcare system and adopted a descriptive survey research design. The target population included caregivers of children with CP, speech therapists (in training), occupational therapists, and other healthcare providers offering speech services, a total of 51 participants. Purposive sampling was used to select study participants, and the entire study population served as the sample size. Data was collected through questionnaires for caregivers and interviews with speech therapists (in training), occupational therapists, and other healthcare providers offering speech services. The study ensured validity through professional reviews and a pilot study conducted at a similar institution within the Lang’ata constituency in Nairobi County. Reliability was determined using Cronbach’s Alpha to assess the consistency of research instruments. Qualitative data from interviews were analyzed thematically, while quantitative data from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including frequency counts, percentages, and tables utilizing SPSS. The study revealed that a significant percentage of caregivers were discontented with the way the therapist treated their children with cerebral palsy, which not only resulted to inconsistent therapy attendance, but also poor cooperation with the speech therapists. In addition, inadequacy of available speech therapists, low quality of services provided, limited speech therapy resources and monetary constraints were cited as obstacles to seeking speech therapy services despite some care centres offering subsidized or free services. The study concluded that addressing these therapy-related constraints is essential to providing effective care and delivery of speech and language therapy services to children with CP. The study recommended that the government should prioritize the recruitment of speech and language therapists in underserved areas, particularly in slum communities and collaborate with NGOs to conduct disability awareness campaigns in Kibra in order to combat stigmatization and ensure that community members are well-informed about the available services for children with CP.
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    Phonological Disorders as a Determinant of Speech Intelligibility among Learners with Down Syndrome in Public Primary Schools, Nairobi County, Kenya
    (EJSE, 2024) Stephanie, Maureen Ndinda; Abuom, Tom O.; Karia, Mathew Kinyua
    This study aimed to analyze the impact of phonological disorders on the speech intelligibility of learners with Down syndrome. The study was guided by the Theory of Natural Phonology by David Stampe. A descriptive study design was used. Piloting was conducted in one of the public primary schools with learners with DS to ensure the validity and reliability of the instruments. The study used the available population of 25 learners with DS and 10 teachers trained in special needs education who were purposely selected from public primary schools in Kasarani Sub-county. Data was collected through tests of phonology, speech intelligibility tests and questionnaires for teachers. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used to analyze quantitative data, whereas the qualitative data that was obtained from open-ended questions was analyzed thematically. The study established that learners with Down syndrome displayed consistent phonological error patterns that have been classified as a disorder. From the ordinal speech intelligibility index scale, 65% of the learners had severe speech intelligibility, 25% had moderate speech intelligibility, while 10% had mild speech intelligibility. Further, the study established that the speech intelligibility of learners with Down syndrome is impaired due to the presence of phonological disorders, which have been noted to affect not only the academics and classroom participation but also the social aspect of their lives, self-esteem and interaction with their peers. The study recommended that special needs teachers should be trained in identifying learners with phonological disorders and methods of assisting in bringing clarity to their speech, thereby positively influencing the intelligibility of the learners with DS. Trained speech therapists should also collaborate with teachers to assist them in developing IEPs that target academics and different aspects of communication in the case of language impairment, such as phonological disorders.
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    An Examination of the Influence of Withdrawal Behavior on the Academic Performance of Learners in Kabete Rehabilitation School, Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (EJES, 2024) Kisendi, Julius Mulu; Murugami, Margaret Wangui; Kombo, Kisilu
    This study aimed to examine the influence of withdrawal behavior on learners' academic performance in Kabete Rehabilitation School, Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was based on The Delinquent Behavior Theory and The Theory of Educational Productivity. The study used a concurrent triangulation design in which the researcher implemented the quantitative and qualitative methods simultaneously and with equal weight. The study targeted a total of 70 respondents, which included one headteacher, 29 teachers, and vocational trainers, as well as 40 learners at Kabete Rehabilitation School. Purposive sampling was used to select all 29 teachers and one headteacher, while simple random sampling was used to select 10 learners in the rehabilitation school in Kabete, translating to a total sample of 40 respondents. Questionnaires, interview guides for the head teacher, and observation checklists were used to collect data. Research instruments were piloted among three teachers and vocational trainers from Kiringiti Rehabilitation School in Kiambu County to establish validity and reliability. Quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS version 26.0). The quantitative findings of the study were then presented using tables and graphs. With the qualitative data, the researcher used thematic analysis. Then, a record of all themes was prepared and arranged according to similarities and differences. The themes were afterwards abbreviated as codes, and the codes were written near the related text in a Word document. Findings revealed that the withdrawal behaviors among learners in Kabete rehabilitation school were majorly expressed in feelings of rejection, isolation, and victimization. The study concluded that there was a stronger association between isolation and learners' academic performance in the Kabete Rehabilitation School. The study recommended that the government and or rehabilitation schools need to educate parents and the general public on children's aggressive behaviors and their influence on educational progress in school. The Nairobi County government should ensure professional counselors are deployed in rehabilitation schools.
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    Health Professionals’ Identification Levels of Risk Factors: In View of the Management of In-Patients Admitted with Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Swallowing Disorders in a Kenyan National Hospital
    (IJRSI, 2024-04) Ndiema, Dalphine C.; Abuom, T.; Karia M., Karia M.
    Adequate dysphagia awareness among health professionals is vital to facilitate collaborative dysphagia management. However, there are concerns that in many countries, many health professionals have low or moderate dysphagia awareness. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we assessed the identification levels on risk factors of oropharyngeal dysphagia among health professionals attending to adult inpatients in the acute-care facility of a level-six hospital in Kenya. The sample comprised 16 professionals from six specialties: neurologists, oncologists, nurses, nutritionists, physiotherapists, and speech-language therapists. We measured their risk factor identification levels using a previously validated nine-item questionnaire. Frequencies, percentages, and means were used to identify key patterns in participants’ risk factor identification levels, while the independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to establish cross-sectional differences in identification levels based on selected demographic and general characteristics. The mean risk factor identification score was 73.6% (SD = 17.14). There were significant differences in identification scores due to age (F = 4.67, p = .030), educational attainment (F = 5.94, p = .015), experience (F = 5.34, p = .020), and specialization (F = 5.06, p = .024). Mean comparisons showed that identification levels increased with educational attainment and were highest among participants in the category comprising oncologists, nutritionists, and speech therapists. From the findings, we concluded that health professionals in the facility have, on average, moderate OPD risk factor awareness and that increased educational attainment may enhance OPD awareness.
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    Influence of Teacher-Student Relationships on Academic Performance of Learners with Learning Disabilities in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (EJSE, 2024) Akinyi, Melvine Elizabeth; Muthee, Jessina; Nzoka, Stephen
    This study aimed to examine the influence of teacher-student relationships on the academic performance of learners with learning disabilities in Nairobi County. Systems theory and Social Cognitive theories were adopted. A descriptive correlational research design was employed using a mixed research approach. The target population comprised 4 head teachers, 62 teachers, and 1,923 learners with learning disabilities from 4 regular primary schools in Nairobi City County. Stratified random sampling and simple random sampling were applied to select the four schools and respondents from each school respectively. A purposive sampling technique was utilized to choose the head teachers and teachers from each school. Questionnaires, focus group discussions, interview guides, and screening tools were used to gather data. Quantitative data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques, whereas qualitative was transcribed and qualitatively analyzed in a thematic approach. A correlation test was done on the hypotheses to ascertain the relation between independent variables and dependent variables at a statistical significance of p≤0.05 (p=5%) using Chi-square. Pearson productmoment correlation was computed to measure the strength of the association between predictors and children’s academic performance variables. Qualitative data analysis involved transcription and analysis of open-ended questions from research tools using thematic analysis. Findings showed that all proxies for the teacher-student relationship except dependency level had a significant p-value (p<0.05) at 95% Confidential Interval. Statistical statistics from chi-square the correlation between teacher-student relationships and learners’ academic performance was statistically significant the null hypothesis was rejected. The study concluded that teacher-student relationships result in improvement in learners’ academic performance. School policies have no significant relationship with learners’ academic performance in primary school schools in Nairobi City County. The study recommended that teachers should deliberately express concerns both about students’ academic and non-academic life, as this makes the learners with learning disabilities feel accepted and motivated to improve their academic work.
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    Cognitive Theories in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Why Individuals with Autism Behave the Way They Do
    (EJSIT, 2024) Olumula, Chris Induswe; Wairungu, George Mathenge
    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurological developmental condition characterized by deficits in socio-communication skills and presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. The condition is lifelong commonly identifiable by the child’s third birthday. This article discusses cognitive theories of autism including the discredited refrigerator mother theory. Others theories include theory of mind deficit hypothesis, weak central coherence theory, executive dysfunction theory, and extreme male brain theory. Cognitive theories attempt to explain why individuals with ASD behave the way they do. Speech therapists and other members of multidisciplinary team need to understand reasons behind behavior and reactions of individuals with ASD. This in turn helps plan effective intervention strategies. It is also effective in counseling caregivers and related stake holders. This is an in-depth qualitative research that assumed descriptive research design. Relevant literature was reviewed from renowned peer reviewed journals.
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    Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Improving Screening and Diagnosis in Kenya
    (EJSIT, 2024) Kondiek, Laetecia; Wairungu, George
    One hallmark feature of Autism Spectrum Disorder is poor socio-communication skills. Almost every individual with ASD exhibits this challenge. Diverse research-based intervention strategies exist to ameliorate that. Effective intervention starts with timely assessment and diagnosis. This article explores the different assessment procedures inclusive of screening and diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Precisely, it reviews available assessment methods, screening tools, parental perception and the general global diagnostic criteria. The article also highlights the significance of timely and accurate diagnosis in improving the quality of life of a child with ASD. This is an in-depth qualitative research reviewing literature from research findings published in renowned peer-reviewed journals. Among the challenges faced in the diagnosis process are stigmatization, lack of trained personnel, and culturally insensitive assessment tools with the majority of parents registering their dissatisfaction with the entire diagnostic process. This paper ends by giving recommendations to the government and related stakeholders.
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    Rehabilitees with Visual Impairments’ Cane Skills and their Influence on Independent Travel in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (EJSER, 2024) Kwamboka, Gisore Varsytine; Murugami, Margaret; Otube, Nelly
    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of rehabilitees with visual impairment cane skills on their independent travel. The study was based on Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory. The researcher used a case study research design. The study was carried out at Kenya Institute for the Blind located in Nairobi County, Kenya. The target population was two orientation and mobility trainers and fifty rehabilitees with visual impairment who lost sight between the years 2011 and 2016 and who underwent rehabilitation at KIB. A purposive sampling technique was used to select KIB for the study. Snowball sampling technique was used to locate thirty-seven rehabilitees with visual impairment. Data was collected using questionnaires. The pilot study was conducted at Machakos Technical Institute for the Blind because of its similar characteristics in the admission of rehabilitees with visual impairment. The researcher ensured the content validity of the research instruments through discussion with supervisors and lecturers in the Department of early childhood and Special Needs Education. Quantitative data was gathered using questionnaires and processed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and presented using tables. The findings revealed that mobility canes were the main device used at Kenya Institute for the Blind for orientation and mobility. Worldwide, canes were the most used device for orientation and mobility for individuals with visual impairment. In KIB, the device was limited in supply and not readily available. Cane skills were the most popular orientation and mobility techniques among rehabilitees in KIB. The study concluded that rehabilitees were not adequately trained since a substantial period of time has elapsed yet they have not indicated favourable independent travel to their places of work. Orientation and mobility training at KIB led to the acquisition of necessary skills relevant to independent travel of individuals with visual impairment. The study recommended that there is a need for Kenya Government to facilitate the production of cheap locally made long canes suitable for our Kenyan roads.
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    Career Aspirations as a Predictor of Academic Achievement of Learners with Hearing Impairment in Special Secondary Schools in North Eastern Nigeria
    (IJSRA, 2023-08) Magaji, Yahya Umar; Awori, Beatrice Bunyasi; J. M., Muthee
    This study focused on career aspirations as predictor of academic achievement among learners with hearing impairment in special schools in North eastern Nigeria. Correlation research design was adopted for the study. Total 351 learners with hearing impairment in Senior Secondary Two (SS II) was selected based on multistage sampling technique across five special schools in North Eastern Nigeria. The instruments for data collection are Learners’ Career Aspiration Questionnaire (LCAQ), and English Language Pro forma (ELP). Data gathered from the respondents were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at a 0.05 alpha level. The study found a strong relationship between career aspiration and academic achievement of learners with hearing impairment in English language in North Eastern, Nigeria. However, gender did not correlate with career aspiration of students with hearing impairment toward their academic achievement. The study concludes that career aspiration can independently enhance students’ academic performance. The study recommends among others that teachers should work toward boosting career aspiration of their students through constructive teaching approach that will make education look achievable and admirable to them.
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    Modification of Prolonged Speech Therapy in Treating Stuttering and Its Associated Negative Traits among Adults: Case of Nairobi Stammering Support Group, Nairobi County, Kenya
    (OAPUB, 2023) Mwangi, Irungu Asaph; Karia, Mathew Kinyua; Wairungu, George Mathenge
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Prolonged Speech technique’s effectiveness in the treatment of stuttering and its associated traits among adults. The main objective of the study was to find out if there is a need for modifying prolonged speech techniques in treating stuttering and its associated traits. An experimental method was used where quantitative and qualitative designs were used. The study was guided by the behaviorist theory proposed by B.F. Skinner. The study was carried out at the Nairobi Stammering Support Group. The participants were ten adults who stutter and were selected through purposive sampling. Questionnaires, interviews, and observations were used to collect the data. A pilot study was carried out. All research instruments were tested for validity and reliability, the data which was corrected was categorized, coded and data was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative techniques. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics in the form of percentages and was presented using pie charts and bar graphs. Qualitative data was analyzed after thematically arranging responses according to the research questions and objectives. The study found out that there was a need to modify prolonged speech technique by incorporating other treatment approaches especially cognitive and psychological. The study recommends more research on other stuttering treatment techniques. Further, the study recommends that speech-language therapists assess individual needs before using specific treatment techniques.
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    Effects of Adapted Computer Use on Mathematics Performance of Students with Cerebral Palsy in Joytown Special Secondary School Kiambu County, Kenya
    (OAPUB, 2022) Mulavi, Betty; Wamocho, Franciscah Irangi; Ogalloh, Molly
    The paper reports some of the key findings of a study that explored the effects of adaptive computer use on the mathematics performance of students with cerebral palsy in Joytown Special Secondary School for the Physically Handicapped in Kiambu County, Kenya. In the study, a quasi-experimental design was adopted utilizing a sample size of 32 students with cerebral palsy. Purposive and stratified random sampling techniques were adopted in selecting the sample size. The research study applied Amabile and Kramer’s progress theory and the primary data collection methods were classroom observation checklists, interview guides and pre-test and post-test. The research data was analyzed using SPSS version 22 and primary data analyzed per the study objectives. The findings on the impacts of adapted computer use on mathematics performance of students with cerebral palsy are reported. The study findings demonstrated that adapted computer use increases the academic independence and performance of students. This confirms that the integration of assistive technology in mathematics learning can be a compensatory tool for children with cerebral palsy despite the motor and communication dysfunctions resulting from their disabling condition. On the basis of the study findings, recommendations are provided.
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    Instructional Methods Adaptation and Implementation of Competency-Based Curriculum for Early Years Learners with Disabilities in Primary Schools In Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (WJIR, 2022-12) Owino, Clifford Otieno; Bunyasi, Beatrice A.; Kamau-Kangethe, Racheal W.
    A competency-based curriculum has been adopted in the Kenyan education system. However, learners with disabilities in regular schools would be learning using two separate programmes, that is an inclusive education programme and a competency-based curriculum programme. Implementing the two programms simultaneously to this category of learners could be challenging. Therefore, this study focused on the instructional methods adaptation influencing competency-based curriculum implementation for Early Years Learners with disabilities in primary schools. The study was premised on the theory of Complexity and Education by Davis and Sumara (2006), which holds that the fruitfulness and range of systems in which ambiguity and uncertainty occur, should be embraced, and accommodated during evaluation. The researcher employed a concurrent embedded design based on the mixed-method approach in data gathering. The study’s location was Nairobi City County, Kenya. The target population was 368 participants and from this target, the study sampled 16 heads of schools, 48 teachers, and 2 Educational Officers who were the respondents. The instruments of data collection were semi-structured questionnaires, an observation checklist, and an interview schedule. The piloting of instruments took place in one school with a special unit. The instruments were only accepted as valid and reliable after the results of Cronbach's alpha coefficient of r=.75. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. In addition, data were prepared and organized using Statistical Package for Social Sciences into percentages, mean, Skewness, standard deviations, graphs, and tables. The researcher tested the hypothesis by use of the chi-square test at a significant level of α =<.05. Findings revealed that teachers with a high mean score on instructional methods adaptation for learners with disabilities also had high mean scores on implementation of CBC in a regular class. Alternate instructional methods were lowly employed for teaching learners with disabilities in regular classes. Learners with disabilities were lowly accommodated and achieved less during learning in regular classes. Instructional methods were not adapted for learners with disabilities during the implementation of a competency-based curriculum for greater improvement in learning achievement in regular classes. Teachers were trained in special needs, primary teaching, or early childhood education and faced challenges in the adaptation of instructional pedagogies for learners with disabilities to implement the competency-based curriculum in the regular classes. The study provides information that will influence policy and practice in implementing competency-based curriculum among learners with disabilities Index Terms— Instructional methods, Special Needs Education, Competency-Based Curriculum, Early Years Learners with disabilities.
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    An Examination of the Impact of the Teacher Qualifications on Mathematics Achievement of Class Six Pupils with Dyscalculia in Mbeere South Sub County, Kenya
    (EJSER, 2023) Njiru, Christine Muthoni; Muthee, Jessina
    Previous studies have noted that 10 children in every class of 40 pupils do not acquire mathematical numeracy in the sub-county. Further, among these pupils, those in class six achieved between 15% -18% in Mathematics subject. In this regard, it is expected that for inclusive education; teacher competency is considered a key determinant for mathematics achievement among class six learners with dyscalculia in Mbeere South Sub-County, Embu County. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of teacher qualifications on the Mathematics achievement of class six pupils with dyscalculia. The study adopted a mixed method research adopting a descriptive survey design. The research was guided by the social developmental theory. The target population consisted of 378 pupils, 97 teachers from 14 primary schools, and 1 QASO officer, giving a total of 476. A simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 38 pupils, and 30 teachers, whereas purposive sampling was used to select the QASO officer. The main tools of data collection were: questionnaires and interviews. Piloting was done in one of the schools in the study area, which was omitted in the final study. Quantitative data realized from questionnaires were tallied, coded, and analyzed descriptively (means, frequencies, and percentages), with the aid of SPSS software, version 26. The study findings were presented in tables and diagrams. Qualitative data from the interview was edited, transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically. Findings revealed that established the majority (60%) of class six mathematics teachers were well trained and therefore knowledgeable to teach pupils with dyscalculia. However, the majority (53.3%) of the teachers disagreed that they were not able to cope with pupils with dyscalculia while a further 53.3% disagreed that they have a negative perception of learners with dyscalculia. With 60% positive cases being greater than 54.4% negative cases, teacher qualifications, experiences, and abilities are considered to determine to a great extent mathematics achievement by class six pupils with dyscalculia. The study concluded that the teacher competencies determined to a great extent the mathematics achievement of class six pupils in Mbeere South sub-county. The study recommended that the school administrative body should ensure that there are enough teaching and learning resources to ensure a persuasive learning process in schools. This can be done with cognizance that government support may not always be adequate.
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    School Administration Related Factors that Influence Access to and use of ICT in Special Schools of Learners with Visual Impairment
    (IJMRA, 2023-08) Keitany, Julia Jelagat; Muthee, Jessina; Ondigi, Samsom Rosina
    : The infusion of Information communication technology into teaching and learning in schools is growing by day. Information Communication Technology is now a reliable source of knowledge for transforming and reforming education. However, the school administrators’ personal beliefs and theoriesabout integration of ICT in teaching and learning are widely considered to play a central role in the implementation of the newtechnologies in schools. Therefore, given the role the head teachersplay, there is need to investigate their influence in the access to anduse of ICT in special schools of learners with visual impairments.The findings are significant for it would help policy makers to understand the role of school administration in the implementation of ICT in special schools with learners with visualimpairments. The objective of the study was to establish school administration factors that influence access to and use of ICT in special schools for leaners with visual impairments in Kenya. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The study targeted sevenpublic special primary schoolsforleaners with visual impairments with a population of 1667, 161 teachers, seven head teachers, sevencomputer teachers and seven ministry of education officers. The study sampled three schools situated in different counties in the country; Kiambu county, Meru county and Mombasa county. Judgmental sampling technique, stratified random sampling and simple random sampling were used to draw the samples. The samples consisted of three primary schools for leaners with visualimpairment, 168 learners, 18 class teachers, 3 computer teachers, three head teachers and three Ministry If Education officials in the counties where the schools are situated. Data collection instruments were questionnaires, interview schedules and observation schedules. Content validity was determined by seeking expert review. The Cronbach Alpha formula was used to compute the reliability of the instruments. A reliability co efficient of 0.72 was used to judge the reliability of the instruments. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study found that head teachers are willing to support the learners with visual impairment to access and use ICT in the schools. However, there are hindering factors such as unstable internet connection, low teachers’ capacity to use ICT, lack of enough time allocated toICT learning, some of the head teachers had little knowledge on how to get adapted ICTs for learners with visual impairment andfinally, there was no mechanism or model for accessibility of the ICT and other assistive resources for learners with visual impairments in the schools. The study recommended that the government through the ministry of education to train head teachers and teachers on the use of ICT suitable for learners withvisual impairments in schools and ensure their functionality and availability. There is also need for a model for access of ICT and provision of the learning support for the learners with visual impairments in the special primary schools in Kenya.