RP-Department of Early Childhood Studies

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    The Relationship Between Teacher Training and Implementation of A Competency-Based Curriculum in Public Primary Schools, A Case Study in Kericho County, Kenya.
    A competency-based curriculum is a curriculum that allows students to develop prescribed competencies. In Kenya, the Competence-Based Curriculum implementation of 2-6-6-3 was adopted in January 2017. This education system replaced the 8-4-4 system of education and it aimed to nurture the learners’ talents. School preparedness for the new curriculum change in Kenyan public primary schools is very important in the education policy framework. When curriculum change takes place in education, teachers as instructors and implementers should be prepared to be competent in their work. Educators have a responsibility to ensure that today’s learning content meets tomorrow’s global demands for every learner. However, in Kenya, various stakeholders have expressed concerns regarding school and teachers’ preparedness for the Competence-Based Curriculum. This aim of this study was to find out whether there is a relationship between teacher training and the implementation of a competency-based curriculum in public primary schools. Dewey’s Social Constructivism theory guided the study. A descriptive survey design was used in this study. The target population of the study included 24 Curriculum Support Officers (CSOs’), 524 head teachers, and 610 Grade 1 teachers. The sample size was 6 CSOs, 52 Head teachers, and 61 Grade 1 teachers. A saturated sampling technique was used to select all the 52 head teachers from 52 schools. Simple random sampling was used to select the schools and CSOs. A purposive sampling technique was used to select Grade 1 teachers in Kericho County. Data was collected using interview schedules, questionnaires and observation technique. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics in form of percentages, means, and standard deviation, while inferential statistics were correlated using Pearson product- moment correlation. Qualitative data was analysed using themes and sub-themes. The findings established the teachers had a correlation of 0.369 with a calculated value of 0.005 and were significant to the study. For teachers, it was 0.500 with a calculated value of 0.00. The calculated p-values of 0.00 and 0.004 were significant. The study recommended that the government should fast-track more teachers’ training and employ upgraded teachers who were already CBC
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    Effect of Group Teaching Strategy on English Composition Performance among Standard Seven Learners with Hearing Impairment in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (2024-06) Judith, Yabbi Opiyo; Awori, Beatrice Bunyasi; Otube, Nelly
    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of group teaching strategy on English composition performance among Standard Seven learners with hearing impairment in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Different teaching strategies yield different performance by learners in English composition. The study was based on Knowles' theory of learning guides. The study employed a quasi-experimental research design targeting Head teacher, Teachers and Standard Seven learners as participants. The study had a sample size of 30 participants. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were adopted to select the participants. Data was collected through the composition writing tests, in-depth interview guide, structured and unstructured questionnaires, document analysis guide and observation guide. Quantitative data was analysed using a Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), descriptive statistics and T-test. Qualitative data from the interviews was transcribed, reconstructed, and collapsed into emerging themes. The study found out that group teaching and PALS could improve composition writing if employed for a long period of time. The findings indicated that group teaching slightly improved learners' performance. This study concluded that the group teaching strategy was important but there was need for including other strategies as well as exposing the learners to frequent composition writing exercises. The study recommended the need to expose the learners to frequent composition writing exercises.
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    Learner Perception on Tactile Materials as a Correlate of Performance in Mathematics: The Case of Thika High School for the Blind, Kiambu County, Kenya
    (IJSRA, 2024-05) Musango, Loise Mumbua; Murugami, Margaret Wangui; Wamunyi, Joel Chomba
    Mathematics is considered the foundation of scientific and technological growth, making one of the most important subjects taught in formal schools. Yet learners with visual impairment continue to perform poorly in Mathematics due multiple factors, among them unfavorable perceptions on the subject. Drawing from the social constructivism theory, this study aimed to establish learner perception on tactile materials as a correlate of performance in Mathematics among learners in Thika High School for the Blind. The objectives were to investigate general performance of mathematic among the learners who are blind and assess learners’ perception on the mathematic tactile learning materials in relation to their performance in Mathematics. This study used a case study research design. The target population comprised 80 learners who are blind in the school. Stratified random sampling was used to select the learners 24 who are blind according to class and gender. Questionnaires were used to collect data. Quantitative data was collected, coded and organized. Data analysis was through descriptive summaries and correlational analyses. There was a weak positive relationship between learners’ perception in learning Mathematics and performance in Mathematics (r = 0.203, p = 0.342). The majority the students indicated doing their homework daily when given by the teacher, getting homework marked daily, and doing homework alone daily. Therefore, this study recommends the need for the Ministry of Education to initiate strategies to enhance positive perceptions toward Mathematics among learners who are blind.
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    Caregivers’ Roles in Enhancing Socio-Communication Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Selected Non-Governmental Organization for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Nairobi County, Kenya
    (EJSE, 2024) Mukewa, Magdalen N.; Wairungu, George Mathenge
    Caregivers (parents and guardians) of children with ASD play an integral role in early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) since they spend more time interacting and providing formal care for their children; they are supposed to provide early diagnosis and ongoing intervention to mitigate socio-communication challenges for their children. Some caregivers, however, lack knowledge and expertise on their roles in this resulting in miscommunication, unmet needs, and frustration. The purpose of this study was to establish caregivers’ extent of involvement in Speech and Language Pathology Services (SLP) in enhancing the socio-communication skills of children with ASD. The study was guided by Structural Functional Theory (SFT) by Comte. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a mixed-method research approach. It targeted a population of 38 respondents comprising of thirty-six caregivers, one occupational therapist from a nongovernmental organization of parents with ASD, and one Speech and Language Pathologist (SLP) outside a nongovernmental organization. The study employed a purposive sampling technique, and the pilot study was undertaken among caregivers of children with ASD b with the same characteristics as the target population. The key research instruments were questionnaires and face-toface interviews. Quantitative data from closed-ended items were examined and coded. This was followed by analysis with the aid of SPSS version 26. The data was reported usinge descriptive statistics. Qualitative data we read repeatedly to establish patterns and then themes. It was reported narratively. Conclusions were drawn and necessary recommendations were made based on research findings. The research found that caregivers’ involvement was critical in enhancing the acquisition of socio-communication skills. The study recommends government and non-governmental organizations of parents with ASD children promote more caregiver participation by creating more awareness of SLP services, recruiting more SLPs locally, offering comprehensive training, and coaching caregivers on SLP strategies.
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    Determinants of Children’s Enrollment in Selected Pre-Schools in Tana Delta Sub County, Tana River County, Kenya
    (CARI Journals, 2024-03) Ntondwe, R. Walakisa
    Purpose: The purpose of the Study is to gather useful information on the determinants of children’s enrollment in pre-schools, the study was guided by the following research question “How do parents’ attitudes towards pre-school education influence pre-school enrollment?” Literature was reviewed under the following sub heading; parents’ attitude towards early learning and pre-school enrollment. Methodology: The researcher employed use of survey method to gather data, simple random was used in sampling respondents. Findings: The study found out that Parents’ Attitude towards Pre-School influences children’s enrolment as majority (75%) of the parents in the study indicated that pre-school education was important to the child. This shows that majority of parents had a positive perception of preschool education. Unique Contribution to Theory, Policy and Practice: The researcher recommended that the government should include pre-schools into free primary education and financially support the school feeing program. The County Director of Education Mr M ashengu was a worried person in the declining enrolment of early learners, a view shared by the Director of Preschools, TanaRiver County, Mr Abdi Bantta that that the two provided excellent support in solving the puzzle and delve into ways that will significantly reduce the costs incurred by parents’ thereby encouraging increased enrollment.
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    Research in Economics of Early Childhood Education Programmes
    (ISPEC, 2023-09) BEGI, Nyakwara
    Globally, millions of children do not have access to early childhood education programmes. Early childhood education programmes are institutions which provide early care and education to young children. The programmes lay strong foundation for children’s development and education. The programmes have many benefits to children, families and economies. The benefits include: Provides adequate school readiness skills, leads to high achievement scores, produces more educated workers, creates more income and increased tax revenues. Investment in high quality early childhood education programmes builds human capital for economic development and breaks the cycle of poverty and inequalities. Countries should use early childhood education programmes as a tool for social and economic development.
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    Influence of Teacher’s Characteristics on Implementation of Competency-Based Curriculum in Pre-Primary Schools in Juja, Kiambu County, Kenya
    (IAJSSE, 2023) Nthiga, Jane Wawira; Wambiri, Gladwell
    Many education stakeholders are concerned because the implementation of competency-based curriculum has been delayed and fraught with difficulties. In Juja, Kiambu County, Kenya, the study aims to analyze the impact of teachers' characteristics on the implementation of competency-based curriculum. The objectives included; to examine the influence of teacher training, teachers’ experience, teachers’ attitude on implementation of competency-based curriculum in pre-primary schools on implementation of competency-based curriculum. The Curriculum Implementation Theory guided the research. The study took a mixed methodologies approach with a concurrent triangulation research design. A total of 304 respondents were surveyed, with 76 headteachers and 228 pre-primary teachers making up the target population. Yamane's Formula picked a sample of 172 from this group. Based on the number of zones in Juja Kiambu county, stratified sampling was utilized to establish four separate strata. Three headteachers and 40 pre-primary teachers were chosen via purposive sampling from each zone, with a focus on pre-primary schools that had experienced significant difficulties implementing competency-based curriculum. The researcher was able to obtain a sample of eight headteachers and 160 pre-primary teachers using this sampling strategy. Data was collected from pre-primary teachers using questionnaires, while headteachers were interviewed using an interview guide. To establish validity and reliability, piloting was undertaken among 17 respondents from a sample of pre-primary schools in Juja Kiambu county. The validity of the study was assessed by experts in early childhood studies and university supervisors. The test-re-test approach was used to determine reliability. Using the Cronbach Alpha Method, a reliability index of r=0.75 was obtained, indicating strong internal reliability. Data in quantitative nature was analysed with the use of Chisquare and presentation was in tables and figures. Themes were used in analyzing qualitative data and displayed in narration. The study concludes that a substantial number of teachers in pre-primary schools had not been trained on how to execute the curriculum. All pre-primary school teachers had a negative attitude toward the curriculum and were unwilling to execute it due to a lack of ability to do so due to a lack of proper in-service training on how to do so. The study recommends that the government of Kiambu County should establish a regular in-service training program to prepare pre-primary school teachers to apply the curriculum. Teachers should strive to ensure the use of learner centered approaches in spite of the obstacles like heavy workload, lack of adequate time in the implementation of CBC and limited resources.
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    Teacher-Efficacy a Determinant of Use of Collaborative Instructional Strategy: A Case of Lower Primary Grade Teachers in Mombasa City, Kenya
    (IJRISS, 2023) Shiundu, Prisca Maseyi; Ong’ang’a, H.M Ouko
    In the 21st century, education world over is quickly changing to embrace pedagogical approaches that enhance the acquisition of the needed competencies. This study sought to investigate teacher-efficacy as a predictor of teachers’ use of collaborative teaching learning strategy. The study locale was Mombasa city county, Kenya. The study population included both public and private lower primary school teachers. The study adopted descriptive research design. A sample size of 113 schools where a sample of 12 head teachers and 24 lower primary teachers formed the study sample. Data was collected using questionnaire, interview and observation schedule. Data was sieved and analyzed using descriptive computation of frequencies and percentages. The study findings revealed that teacher efficacy is an important determinant of teachers’ use of collaborative technique. The study recommended the need to retool and empower teachers in order to boost their efficacy and readiness in teaching. Further research should be conducted to determine teachers’ motivation levels against their service delivery.
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    Decision Making in Shifts to Online Teaching, Analysing Reflective Narratives from Staff Working in African Higher Educational Institutions
    (MDPI, 2023) Coughlan, Tim; Goshtasbpour, Fereshte; Mwoma, Teresa; Makoe, Mpine; Aubrey-Smith, Fiona; Tanglang, Nebath
    Many higher education institutions moved from in-person to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic, but these shifts have a longer history and potential. They require challenging individual and collective decision making by staff, beyond their usual repertoire of practice. This paper, therefore, aims to understand the nature of decisions that staff made as they moved to online teaching, the reasons, processes, and reflections on the perceived impacts. Eighty-four participants with diverse roles connected to moving online from four institutions across Africa were purposively sampled. Using a constructivist paradigm and qualitative approach, participants were invited to describe decision-making experiences through short narratives with prompts around their context, decisions, and impacts. Twenty-two of these participants attended a workshop to augment the narrative data and identify good practices. Qualitative analysis directed by Activity Theory concepts revealed that decisions related to policy and rules, pedagogy, community, and technology were frequently cited by participants. The main objective expressed in these narratives was maintaining the continuity of education for students. However, mixed impacts were observed on student engagement, and further decisions were made in response to this. Common challenges related to tools and technology, and similarly, the biggest tension for implementing the decisions was found between tools and technology and the participants or their communities. Good practices include updating policies and introducing continuous assessment. Implications for reflective professional practice are discussed, including how previous practices are initially drawn on to try to reproduce in-person teaching online but then adapt in recognition of the tensions this raises.
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    Parent-Child Interaction and Pre-Schooler’s Level of Writing Readiness
    (Journal of Education and Practice, 2020) Rabok, Daniel Achero; Mwoma, Teresa Bitengo
    Parenting education programmes have been found to promote good parent-child interactions in their households. Consequently, benefits in academic success, proper development of a child, prevention of child maltreatment and child aggression, have been associated with these programs. This article reports findings of the study conducted in Siaya county, Kenya to establish whether parenting education programmes influence writing readiness skills of children. A sample comprising 196 caregivers and their preschool children participated in the study. Questionnaire and learners’ writing tests were used to collect data from caregivers and preschool children respectively. To ensure validity of the instruments, content analysis was done. Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviation and percentages were used in summarizing data while Pearson Product Moment correlation coefficient was used to analyse the data with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. The study revealed an existence of a significant relationship between parent-child interactions and level of writing readiness of preschool children
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    Teacher Training and Experience on the Use of Improvised Learning Resources in Pre-Primary Schools in Meru County, Kenya
    (Reviewed Journals International, 2023) Idah, kiambi Nchugune; Esther, Waithaka
    Use of improvised learning materials has been found to play a big role in performance of students learning worldwide. Despite this realization, the present scenario in most pre-primary schools in Kenya is that there is deficiency of learning resources. Although this has been attributed to inadequate funding of pre-primary education by the government, it is not clear why teachers who are supposed to improvise teaching materials fail to do so in order to address the shortfall. Therefore, the study aimed to determine how teacher Level of Training and teacher Experience factors influence the use of locally available materials in pre-primary grades in Meru County. The Constructivist Theory by Jerome Bruner was utilized to direct the study using the correlational research method. The South Imenti Sub-county in Meru County, Kenya was the study locale with a target population of 316 pre-primary school teachers. The study employed stratified, purposive and simple random sampling, through which a sample of 95 respondents forming a 30% of the target population was obtained. Pilot study was carried out in two pre-primary schools. The validity of questionnaires was decided through expert judgment who scrutinized the items in the instruments to ensure that they are relevant and adequate. Split half technique method which included frequencies and percentages. Inferential statistics that included Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient was employed to determine how the variables relate to each other while qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The study found that teachers’ level of training, teachers’ teaching experience had a positive and significant influence on the use of improvised learning resources in pre-primary grades in South Imenti Sub County. The study concluded that teachers from both public and private pre-primary schools in Meru County, Kenya had not achieved the highest level of training. Majority of the head teachers had Bachelor of education as their highest training certificate. Both public and private pre-primary schools had retained their teachers for a longer period as majority of them had worked for a period ranging from 6 to 10 years. However, the head teacher had less teaching experience in the current school as majority of them had stayed for only one year. The study recommended that the government should ensure that all pre-primary school head teachers and teachers achieves a higher learning certificate through establishing a proper career growth path. Pre-primary schools’ management should retain the head teachers and teachers in their current school for a longer period of time so as to encourage them gain more experience in the use of improvised learning materials in the present environment.
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    Pre-Primary and Lower Primary Teachers’ Professional Identity in Primary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (EAST AFRICAN NATURE & SCIENCE ORGANIZATION, 2021) Magoma, Phyllis M; Waithaka, Esther; Mwoma, Teresa
    Professional identity is a noteworthy aspect of the teachers’ professional lives. This is because it influences the manner in which they do their work, retention and productivity in their places of work. This article presents findings from a PhD study that aimed at establishing the status of pre-primary and lower primary teachers’ professional identity and exploring factors influencing it. Fredrick Herzberg’s (1950) theory of Satisfaction and Motivation was used to guide the study. The study used concurrent triangulation research design. The dependent variable was early year’s education teachers’ professional identity, while the independent variable was the type of school. The study was conducted in Kasarani Sub-County in Nairobi County, Kenya. The sample size consisted of 220 teachers and 44 head-teachers in both public and private primary schools. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to collect data which was then analysed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Findings from the study revealed that pre-primary and lower primary teachers’ professional identity was weak. It was recommended that school management, county and national governments, and other key stakeholders should aim at addressing issues that weaken early year’s education teachers (EYET) professional identity
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    Teacher’s Motivation to Use Play as a Medium of Instruction
    (MedCrave, 2018) Manyara, Chrisanto Omwenga; Murungi, Catherine Gakii
    The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of pre-school teachers’ level of motivation on use of play as a medium of instruction in pre-school children’s learning. It aimed at finding out if there is level of motivation that can make teachers to use play as a medium of instruction and participate in children’s play activities for children’s learning and enjoyment. Play is essential for the learning and development of children because it contributes to the cognitive, physical, social, and emotional well-being of children. It offers an ideal opportunity for teachers to engage fully with their children. Despite the benefits derived from play for both children and teachers, time for free play has been markedly reduced for some children. The study was carried out in Masaba north District of Nyamira County Kenya. The study location has pre-schools of the two categories of sponsorship: public, private both in rural and urban areas. The study was aimed at understanding of when and how pre-school teachers get involved to children’s play and demonstrate personal practices involving effective participation. The key finding was that teachers need motivation for them to use play as a medium of instruction. There are a number of motivators that can increase the teachers’ motivation to use play as a medium of instruction and participate in children’s ’play such as good salary, good management and personal convenience. The study recommended that the national and county governments as well as communities to work together to improve ECDE teachers’ terms and conditions of service as well as come up with a salary scale commensurate to the teachers academic grade. Children deserve the right of free play and therefore teachers’ level of motivation to use play as a medium of instruction should be encouraged to participate in children’s’ play
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    Children’s Safety and Security in Non Formal Pre-Primary Schools: The Intervention Measures
    (Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn)(ERIC), 2021) Murungi, Catherine Gakii; Nyakwara, Begi; Mwoma, Teresa
    This study sought to come up with intervention measures that could be put in place to mitigate the challenges experienced in non-formal schools to enhance safety and security of children. Purposive sampling was used to select Nairobi City County and all the pre-primary schools attached to non-formal schools in informal settlements in the county and the head teachers/managers and teachers working in these pre-primary schools. A sample size of 54 pre-primary schools was selected. A total number of 136 participants from the sampled pre-primary schools participated in the study comprising of 78 preschool teachers, 54 head teachers, and four education officers. The findings revealed various intervention measures by participants such as intervention by: county government, school management such as picking and dropping children, fencing school and having lockable gates
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    Influence of Utilization of Mathematics Instructional Materials on Development of Mathematical Competencies among Grade One Learners in Nakuru County, Kenya
    (Open Access Publishing Group, 2019) Mueni, Nzii Priscilla; Githinji, Wanjohi
    Mathematics is an important aspect in life. Early development of mathematics skills leads to early acquisition of mathematical competencies. For effective acquisition of mathematical competencies in early years, instructional materials are required to enhance development mathematical skills. Studies conducted in Kenya have not adequately focused on the use of instructional materials to develop mathematical competencies. This has hindered learning, making learners assume a passive role in their learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of use of instructional materials on acquisition of mathematics competencies. The study was guided by Bruner’s theory of instruction. Correlation research design was used in this study. The independent variables were: types of mathematics instructional materials in grade one classrooms, utilization of instructional materials during mathematics instruction as well as investigating the influence of instructional materials on acquisition of mathematics skills. The dependent variable was acquisition of mathematical competencies. The study was carried out in Nakuru East Sub County, Nakuru County. The target population was both private and public primary schools in Nakuru East Sub County. Grade one learners and teachers were the participants. Purposive, stratified and random sampling methods were used to select an appropriate sample for the study. Research instruments used were: lesson observation schedule, interview schedule for teachers and a competency checklist. Pilot study to test the instruments was carried out in two private schools and two public primary schools from the study area. Data was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The study established that few grade one teachers in public schools utilized instructional materials during mathematics instructions. It was also established that instructional materials influenced acquisition of mathematics competencies. The study recommends that teachers and other key stakeholders should invest more resources to ensure availability of adequate instructional materials for learners. It also recommends that school management should invest more to ensure adequate and right instructional materials are availed to enable learners and teachers have all the basic requirements required for better teaching and learning
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    Parental Participation Practices as Precursors of Pupils’ Early Reading Literacy Skills Achievement Kiambaa Sub-County, Kiambu County, Kenya
    (European Journal of Special Education Research, 2023) Osabinyi, Dorinah Koli; Ouko, Ong’ang’a
    The purpose of this study was to investigate ways in which parents are involved in their children's education as precursors of early literacy acquisition of children. The study used the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler Parental Model as its theoretical lens. The study employed a descriptive survey design. Data was collected through questionnaires and a reading assessment checklist for children. Public and private primary schools included in the study were selected through stratified sampling criteria comprising 12% of the total number of schools in the Kiambaa Sub-county. A stratified sample of pupils and purposeful samples of parents and teachers were then made comprising 12% lower primary students, 12% parents, and 12% teachers from each of the selected schools. A pilot study was conducted before the final study. Data collected was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 26.0). Pearson Chi-square test to establish whether there was a correlation between nuclear family structure, level of parents’ education, and parental involvement in early reading literacy skills achievement of lower primary school children. The results were presented in frequency tables, bar graphs, and bar charts. The findings of the study revealed that the majority of the children were aided in their reading literacy by their significant others and family members. Most parents always read with their children in their sitting room, parents seldom read with their children outside, some parents often read with their children in the kitchen, and fewer parents never read with children in the kitchen as well. The study concluded that family structure can have some impact on parental involvement in early reading literacy skills achievements for lower primary school children. The study recommended that parents and teachers must be aware of the significant contribution they can make to their children's learning by providing a stimulating environment around language, reading, and writing, as well as supporting the school's literacy agenda at home, both during the early years of schooling and later years. It can be concluded that parents are willing to engage when they believe the schools are open and eager to facilitate their engagement. Parental participation is difficult for teachers in particular, and both teachers and parents require particular help and clear instructions to promote engagement. The study recommends that parents and teachers must be aware of the significant contribution they can make to their children's learning by providing a stimulating environment around language, reading, and writing, as well as supporting the school's literacy agenda at home, both during the early years of schooling and later years.
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    Parental Involvement and Family Support in Creating Conducive Preschool Physical Environments in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (Center for Promoting Ideas, 2015) Ndani, Mary N
    Suitable preschool physical environments (including classrooms, outdoor area, equipments and learning materials) support children’s learning and development. Appreciably, some early childhood educationists term the physical environments as the third teacher; after adults and peers. This study was prompted by earlier research in Kenya that had found unsupportive physical environments in most preschools, and very low parental involvement in collaborating with preschools. The researcher endeavoured to establish whether the level of suitability of preschool physical environments was related to the levels of parental involvement in collaborating, but the relationship was found to be insignificant. An investigation on what may account for the differences in the levels of the suitability of environments revealed that different family members play different roles in this regard, particularly in rural areas. The study recommended that parents and other family members should be sensitised on the value of preschool physical facilities in order to raise their levels of involvement. Further, suggestions on local strategies of raising levels of involvement were made
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    Kenya Primary School Teachers’ Preparation in ICT Teaching: Teacher Beliefs, Attitudes, Self-Efficacy, Computer Competence, and Age
    (African Journal Of Teacher Education, 2017) l Wambiri, Gladwel; Ndani, Mary N
    Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has become globally recognized as an effective medium for learning. The Kenyan government made a commitment to provide computers for use in teaching in primary schools. This is expected to enable teachers to integrate ICT in their teaching beginning in primary standard one. Teachers will directly implement the ICT project at the classroom level, so are very crucial players to its effectiveness. This article discusses the preparedness of lower primary school teachers for this implementation process regarding their beliefs and attitudes, computer competence, and computer self-efficacy. The authors argue that the provision of computers and other infrastructure in schools may not automatically lead to integration of ICT in schools unless the government addresses teachers’ beliefs and attitudes, computer competence and their self-efficacy. The authors recommend revision of the primary teacher education preparation syllabus and training practice for pre-service teachers in ICT pedagogy to enhance their preparation to integrate ICT in their teaching in primary school
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    Implementation of individualized educational plan and its challenges in Ngala secondary school for the deaf, Nakuru County, Kenya
    (Open Access Publishing, 2022) Kipyegon, Jebet Nellah; Awori, Beatrice Bunyasi; Wamocho, Franciscah Irangi
    The study aimed to establish the challenges in the implementation of the individualized educational plan in schools for students with hearing impairment at Ngala Secondary School for the Deaf in Nakuru County, Kenya. Data was collected from a target population of ninety-eight students, thirteen teachers and one administrator through purposive and stratified random sampling techniques. Purposive sampling was used on school administrators and teachers to select all 13 teachers and 1 school administrator. On the other hand, stratified random sampling was used to select a total of 24 students. The study sample comprised 24 students, 13 teachers and 1 administrator leading to a total of 38 respondents. The research instrument included the use of questionnaires, interview schedules and document analysis. A pilot study was conducted at Kedowa Secondary School for the Deaf to enhance the reliability and validity of the research instruments. Quantitative data were cleaned, labelled, coded, entered into a computer and organized using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 30. Quantitative data were analyzed statistically using descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequencies. The analyzed data were presented using tables, bar-graphs and pie-charts. Qualitative data collected were grouped into different themes, presented as a narrative and discussed based on the objectives of the study. Findings revealed that the major challenge towards implementation IEP was the lack of adequate teaching and learning resources. The study concluded that the major solutions to the challenges facing teachers in developing and implementing IEP suggest that the provision of adequate resources for IEP were anticipated to enhance the academic achievement of students with hearing impairment. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education and other stakeholders should help acquire adequate resources for students with hearing impairment.
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    Child Abuse Influence on Lower Primary School Pupil’s Academic Achievement in a Rural Setting in Kenya
    (International Journal of Law, Humanities & Social Science, 2017-06) Mutua, Mukami T.; Ouko, Ong’ang’a H.M.
    Child abuse is an act of inflicting serious, physical injury and emotional torture on a child or person, which is intentional or unintentional and could endanger the physical, health, emotional, social, moral and educational wellness of the child. Observing the alarming endless cry of children in lower primary schools and those hurt in the process and abuse, the researcher was therefore interested in investigating child abuse and its effects on the academic achievement of pupils in lower primary in Nyandarua County. To achieve this purpose, a sample of 42 respondents was randomly selected for the study. Questionnaire was the major instrument used to collect data. Test re-test reliability of the instrument was established, while Parson Product moment correlation analysis was the statistical technique considered appropriate. The result of the analysis revealed that child abuse in forms of physical and sexual was associated with pupil’s academic performance. Based on the findings recommendations were made on the need for the school management and the class teachers to monitor the performance of abused children and take records to relevant authorities so that corrective mechanisms can be employed.