RP-Department of Educational Communication and Technology

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    Strategies for Inculcating Gender Equity in Mathematics Classrooms for Enhancement of Learners’ Problem-Solving Skills
    (RSIS, 2023-08-15) Nimely, Dennis R.; Nyamu, Florence K.
    The report released in 2022 by United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) shows that globally, female enrolment is at least 88% at primary and secondary school levels. The 88% is an indicator of good progress in gender equality in education. Of concern, however, is gender equity in Mathematics classrooms. Internationally set goals, Education For All (EFA) Goal 5, Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) Goal 3 and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Goal 4, all focus on gender equity. This study aims to raise awareness about strategies and practices for gender equity in teaching and learning Mathematics. The study uses inclusion and exclusion criteria, a literature review, and empirical data analysis. Evidence suggests that gender equity in Mathematics improves critical thinking skills and increases gender balance in Mathematics education. The researchers recommend further study on strategies for integrating gender equity in Mathematics classrooms.
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    Investigating teacher-learner classroom interaction and its effect on learners’ ability to solve word-problems in secondary schools, Nakuru County, Kenya
    (Research Culture Society, 2023-07-15) Nimely, Dennis R.
    The teaching and learning process in Mathematics classrooms requires teachers to use different strategies which motivate learners and develop analytical and critical thinking skills. Research findings have presented factors that influence learners’ performance and suggestions for possible solutions. Inspite of the findings, learners’ performance in Mathematics remains a global concern. This study was aimed at investigating teacher-learner classroom interaction and its effect on learners’ ability to solve word-problems in secondary schools. The objective was: to establish the effect of teacher-learner classroom interaction on learners’ ability to solve word-problems. The researchers employed the descriptive survey design with quantitative and qualitative methods. A sample of 358 participants were selected through stratified random sampling technique, comprising 10 Mathematics teachers, 338 Form II learners, and 10 Mathematics Heads of Department from secondary schools in Naivasha sub-County, Nakuru County, Kenya. The data collection tools for the study were: Mathematics teachers’ questionnaire, learners’ questionnaire, classroom observational checklist, and Mathematics Heads of Department schedule interview. The researchers reported the data in frequency tables and charts. The findings show that the teachers and Mathematics Heads of Department recognized the effect of teacher-learner classroom interaction on learners’ ability to solve word-problems. Thus, the study suggests that teacher-learner interaction is crucial to word-problem-solving teaching. The data also show that most schools in Naivasha sub-County had overcrowded classrooms. The researchers propose further study of how classroom overcrowding affects learners’ ability to solve word-problems.
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    Influence of using Collaborative Writing Strategy on Learners’ Performance in Functional Writing Skills in English Language in Public Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (IJRISS, 2024-05) Juday, Jefferson Poar Wayei; Mwangi, Francis Gichuki; Miima, Florence Abuyeka
    Function writing is an essential life skill for learners. As learners reach a sufficient level of proficiency, they make maximum use of the skill to get excellent results on national exams, making them ready to enroll in postsecondary institutions to pursue further education. Developing and utilizing the skill pave the avenue for learners to demonstrate effective communication skills in the work environment. This article investigated influence of use of collaborative writing strategy on learners’ performance in function writing skills in English in secondary schools in Kiambu County, Kenya. The study was conducted in Githunguri Sub-County in Kiambu County, Kenya. Four public secondary schools were purposively selected for application of the strategy. The sample size comprised of 192 learners, 8 teachers, and 4 heads of English Language Department. The study employed the use of simple random technique to sample learners and utilized purposive technique for instructors and heads of English Language Department. Solomon four group design, a type of quasi-experimental research design, was employed to enable the researcher to apply pre-test and post-test to determine learners’ performance in the skills, and asses their entry behaviours. The study used tests and questionnaires to gather data from learners, while forms of interview schedules were applied for gathering of data from teachers and the heads of the English Language Department. SPSS version 21.0 computer software was used for data analysis. Findings of the study show that use of collaborative writing skills has a greater influence on learners’ performance in functional writing skills in English as the strategy improves learners’ critical thinking, communication, retention, understanding, collaboration, vocabulary, and grammar and writing skills through rigorous interactions during group discussions.
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    Strategies Used in Teaching English Language Oral Skills and Effects on Primary School Learner Participation in Embu County, Kenya
    (IJMRGE, 2024-03) Mugo, Tabitha Murugi; Bwire, Adelheid Marie
    English language learning is pegged on four core skills namely writing, reading, listening and speaking. Acquisition of language springs from the latter; verbal skills (listening & speaking) and ignite the learning process in totality. Teaching of oral skills is barred by hurdles like ineffective delivery strategies. This study investigates instructional strategies utilized in development of oral skills. Descriptive survey, as a research design, was adopted. The study was grounded on Constructivism Learning Theory. The target population consisted of 37 public primary schools in Embu-West, 37 language panel chairpersons, 67 grade 3 classes and 67 grade 3 teachers of English. The study sample was chosen using stratified and simple random sampling methods. The sample consisted of 10 schools, 10 grade 3 classes, 10 language panel chairpersons and 10 grade 3 teachers. For data collection, teacher questionnaires, language panel chairpersons interview schedule, classroom observation guide and focus group discussion for learners were used. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively using SPSS version 25.0 and presented in form of tables and percentages whereas qualitative data was analyzed thematically and presented narratively. Results revealed that storytelling, pair work, communication games, group work, role-play and songs among others form the major strategies in the teaching of oral skills. The results led to the conclusion that storytelling, pair work, songs and role-play form the common strategies used in development of oral skills. The study recommends that teachers adopt use of these interactive strategies and motivate learners to practice and develop interest in learning of oral skills among others. These findings may be beneficial to both curriculum developers and implementers for effective teaching and learning.
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    Impact of Digital Learning Tools on Student Performance in Kenya
    (IPRJB, 2024-04) Mwangi, Julius
    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of digital learning tools on student performance in Kenya. Methodology: This study adopted a desk methodology. A desk study research design is commonly known as secondary data collection. This is basically collecting data from existing resources preferably because of its low cost advantage as compared to a field research. Our current study looked into already published studies and reports as the data was easily accessed through online journals and libraries. Findings: Digital learning tools in Kenya enhance student engagement by offering interactive and accessible educational content. These tools enable personalized learning, allowing students to progress at their own pace. However, challenges like inconsistent internet access and limited digital literacy among teachers can hinder effectiveness. Despite these obstacles, the adoption of digital technologies has positively impacted student performance in Kenya. Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: Technology acceptance model (TAM), constructivist learning theory & media richness theory may be used to anchor future studies on the impact of digital learning tools on student performance in Kenya. Educational tools should be specifically tailored to align with Kenya’s national curriculum. Develop national policies that promote the equitable distribution of digital learning tools across different regions, including rural areas.
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    Opportunities and Challenges in Developing the 21st Century Teacher: Case of Kenyatta University Mentorship Programme in Matungulu Sub -County, Machakos County-Kenya
    (JAIS, 2024) Mumo, Rosalia; Mwangangi, Leonard; Warfa, Ahmed Osman; Ondigi, Samson; Bwire, Adelheid
    The purpose of this study was to identify the opportunities and challenges arising from Kenyatta University Mentorship programme in developing the 21st century teacher Practicum in Matungulu Sub County, Machakos County. In the 21stCentury, there is need to refocus the training of the teacher by shifting emphasis from training to preparing the teacher to be an educator of the 21st Century learner and not just an educator but a super educator. The study was guided by three objectives: To identify teacher preparation opportunities arising from Kenyatta University mentorship programme. To investigate challenges associated with teacher mentorship programme. To establish training strategies that can be used for the preparation of the 21stCentury teacher. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The data was generated using opinions from Kenyatta University Student Teachers who were undertaking their teaching practice in Matungulu Sub County and their Teacher mentors. They were chosen using purposive sampling .12 Student teachers were chosen for the study which constituted 30%of the target population. Alternatively, 5 teacher mentors were interviewed. Test-re-test method was used to test reliability and this was done during piloting stage which was carried in one school. The Data was collected using self-designed questionnaires for student teachers and interview guide for the teacher mentors which was administered by the researchers. Data was analyzed using descriptive Statistics that was generated by Statistical Package for social sciences (SPSS Ver 2.0) The study findings were reported using descriptive statistics, percentages and tables. The findings of the study revealed that Kenyatta university mentorship programme was an innovative and collaborative way of assessing student teachers, it was an opportunity to enhance professional growth and development of the student -teacher. The mentorship programme was cost effective; however, it had the challenges of inadequate incentives for the mentor, awarding high schools to the mentee which did not reflect the reality of their performance in the class therefore needing moderation. The study concluded that professionalism on the part of the mentor and mentee was an issue of concern as it had raised many issues. The Study recommended that all stakeholders and universities be sensitized on the importance of Mentorship programme.
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    Cross-curriculum Teaching and Learning in the Secondary School: Geography, History, Religious Education and Mathematics in Kenya’s Competency Based Curriculum
    (Kenyatta university, 2024-03) Mwangangi, Leonard
    Inadequate learners’ engagement in Geography, History, Religious Education, and Mathematics (GHREM) can lead to a lack of knowledge and appreciation for the importance of these learning areas in various careers. This has the potential to have far-reaching implications for a country’s need for well-educated graduates in Geography, History, Religious Education, and Mathematics to ensure socioeconomic, cultural, and political development. The implication is that there will be a lack of personnel to take up a career in these learning areas in the future. This study looked into the importance of GHREM in the National Curriculum as well as their relationship. The study relied on library research and a qualitative research design to examine published articles related to the research objectives from 1945 to 2023. From the over 100 articles accessed, this investigation purposefully sampled 25 published articles. Content analysis was used to validate the articles. Data was collected through documentation and analyzed through content analysis. The analysis of 25 related articles revealed that the GHREM learning areas are interconnected and interdependent. Geography teaches learners about their surroundings and helps them understand them. History helps learners understand the evolution of various human endeavors. Religious education helps learners understand various religions and their practices while also promoting tolerance and respect for diversity, as well as ethical and moral behavior. Mathematics introduces learners to concepts such as numbers, algebra, geometry, and statistics, while also encouraging abstract thinking and problem-solving abilities. These learning areas are related because they are all required for learners to understand and interpret their surroundings, as well as to succeed in a variety of careers. Overall, each learning area helps to develop a well-rounded education that prepares learners for careers and beyond. According to the study’s findings, these learning areas should be integrated across the curriculum.
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    The Application of Referent Authority by Teachers in Enhancement of Classroom Role Performance: A Case of Machakos County in Kenya
    (EdinBurg, 2024-01) Anthoniammal, Arulappan Mariapragasam; Kiende, Hellen; Nyaga, Peter
    Teachers’ classroom authority is fundamental for their successful role performance. Traditionally, teachers enjoyed legitimacy over the students, but that has been challenged by educational policy reforms and technology to a two-way social relationship with students referred to as referent authority. Unfortunately, school policies and school rules and regulations do not attract the use of personal characteristics in class as teachers are supposed to wield legitimacy. On the other hand, school curricula advocate for use of hidden curriculum as a way of achieving the whole personal performance. This article endeavored to establish the extent to which teachers used referent authority and the influence it had on their classroom role performance in Machakos County. A descriptive survey research design was employed. The target population was 369 principals, 4365 teachers, and 63973 form two and form Three students in 369 public secondary schools in the County. A total of 619 respondents were sampled using systematic, stratified, simple random and proportional sampling techniques. An interview schedule was used to collect data from the principals and questionnaires were used to gather data from teachers and students. Analyzed data from both teachers and students showed that they strongly agreed that teachers applied referent authority. Inferential statistics showed that referent authority had a significant influence on the role performance of teachers. This was also supported by head teacher responses who concluded that teachers who used referent authority in class influenced to a larger extent their performance. The study concluded that when teachers use more referent authority practices, their performance in the classroom improved more as compared to when they used the other three authority types. This study recommended that the Ministry of Education, universities/colleges and TSC need to review teacher training curricula to equip teachers in the use of practices and approaches that lead to referent authority.
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    An Exploration of the Integration of ICT in Mathematics Lessons in Secondary Schools, Garissa County, Kenya
    (EdinBurg, 2024-01) Mwaniki, F.M.; Nyamu, F.K; Waititu, M.M
    The integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education has brought about significant transformations in teaching and learning processes. In a mathematics classroom, ICT offers unique opportunities to enhance students' engagement, promote critical thinking, and foster conceptual understanding. This study explores strategies employed by mathematics teachers in integrating ICT into their lessons. The research design was a descriptive survey. The study was informed by the Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The target population consisted of 18 public secondary schools located in Garissa County. A sample of 267 mathematics students was selected using simple random sampling, while purposive sampling was used to select 18 mathematics teachers and 10 school principals from the ten selected schools. Data were collected through interviews with school principals, classroom observations, and surveys given to Mathematics teachers and students. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Bar graphs were used to present the results. Findings revealed that projectors, printers, and smart televisions were the main ICT tools available for teaching mathematics, while GeoGebra was the most commonly used software by mathematics teachers. PowerPoint presentations and whiteboard displays were commonly used by teachers during mathematics lessons. Based on the findings, one conclusion is drawn: the scarcity of ICT resources hindered effective mathematics instruction. The study recommended the acquisition of more ICT resources for teaching and learning Mathematics. The study's findings can inform policymakers and education stakeholders to efficiently utilize ICT in the mathematics classroom and enhance students' mathematics performance.
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    Animation Integration in Teaching of Physics and Its Effect on Secondary School Learners’ Academic Performance in Makueni County, Kenya
    (International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Growth Evaluation, 2023) Muinde, NK; Waititu, MM; Oludhe, DO
    This study investigated impact of instructional integration of animation on achievement in Physics of secondary school learners in Makueni County. Pre- and post-test quasi-experimental study design was used with two County schools, one for each of male and female students and two sub county (mixed) schools. The county schools do report better performance in Physics Kenya Certificate of secondary Education (KCSE) examination than the Sub-County schools, and generally the male students do outperform girls in the same examination in Physics. The study found that sub-county schools demonstrated comparable more gain in post-test performance than the County. It also emerged from the study that female students in county schools outshone their male counterparts by 1.827% in the post-test, while, in sub-county schools there was a 0.25% gap in favor of the girls. From these findings it is clear that the presumed underachievers, the female students, and the student in the sub-county schools gained more from instructional use of animations. However, the findings do not demonstrate any disadvantage of instructional use of animation towards county schools and the male students. Instructional use of animation therefore is useful in enhancing performance of otherwise presumed underachievers without any drawback to the presumed achievers.
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    Effectiveness of Information Communication Technology on Education in Kenyan Universities
    (EANSO, 2023-10) Kiche, Justus Odongo
    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been growing faster and having influence in society and daily life. It has been a vital instrument in giving higher education to the people. Integration of ICT assisted lectures to the global requirement to replace traditional lecturing methods with a technology-based lecturing and learning tools and facilities. ICT has a major role in giving access to information. Its application and having skills, knowledge and expertise was very critical. In the 21st century, the issue of ICT has made the level of education escalate in our Kenyan Universities. ICT has been considered as one of the main elements in transforming the country to the future development. Educational Sustainable development was the development that met the education needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations. As examples of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), there was need to improve education status within our country. The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of ICT in universities of Kenya. The study was grounded on Constructivist learning theory. The researcher adopted a mixed methodology approach to carry out the study, since it had both qualitative and quantitative aspects. Concurrent triangulation design was used. The study was carried out in Nairobi County. The researcher used a questionnaire and an interview schedule to collect views on the effectiveness of ICT on education in universities of Kenya. Secondary data were obtained from books, journals, published and unpublished reports from education centres, libraries, and web-based materials. The collected qualitative data were organized into themes and contents. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the quantitative data obtained. That specifically mean, standard deviation, and inferential statistical analysis of correlation to test the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. The study justified that there was an important positive association between all the measures of ICT and education in universities of Kenya. The results showed that ICT had impact on lecturers and the students. Findings further indicated that lecturers used ICT tools and facilities to lecture. The university management to provide resources to train lecturers on ICT matters.
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    Application of Audio Visual Resources in Teaching and Learning Pronunciation in Kiswahili Language among Secondary School Students in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (IJIRAS, 2023-11) Osore, Joy Lodenyi; Ondigi, Samson Rossana; Miima, Florence Abuyeka
    Teaching pronunciation entails how a sound or a word is pronounced or how a person pronounces words. Teaching pronunciation enhances students’ ability in listening and speaking. Use of audio visual resources in teaching has been regarded worldwide as an appropriate method of facilitating lesson delivery. Teaching and learning pronunciation is also a pillar for transforming language learning in schools. Teachers within and outside Kenya have been criticized for failing to include audio visual resources in teaching and learning. It is against this background that this study was designed to investigate how application of audio visual resources facilitates teaching and learning Kiswahili language pronunciations among secondary school students. This study was guided by two objectives as follows: to examine how audio visual resources are applied by teachers and learners in teaching and learning Kiswahili language pronunciations and to examine the attitude of teachers and learners towards use of audio visual resources in teaching and learning pronunciations in Kiswahili. This study was anchored on the constructivism theory advanced by Bruner (1990). Quasi experimental research design was applied and the participants were divided into experimental and control groups. The targeted population comprised of 108 Kiswahili teachers and 2150 students who were taken from 36 schools. Data collection tools included questionnaires, observation schedules, and students’ examinations. Piloting of the research tools was done and the tools were confirmed to be valid and reliable instruments for collecting data. Data analysis was done with the aid of SPSS program. Findings indicated that application of audio visual resources in teaching pronunciations in Kiswahili positively impacted the performance in Kiswahili examination among students who were in the experimental group. Teachers and students were found to have a positive attitude towards use of audio visual resources in teaching and learning. The necessary recommendations are given.
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    Utilization of Inquiry-Based Approach and its Influence on Students’ Attitudes towards Biology in Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (IJRISS, 2023-10) Doboyou, Jackson T.; Nyamu, Florence K.
    Attitude incorporates beliefs and ideas, feelings and tendency of like or dislike about a subject or an object. Attitude towards Biology is related to motivation and influences performance (Diaz et al., 2021). One of the ways students are motivated to learn is when they are taught Biology through inquiry-based approach (IBA). They become interested, and develop positive attitudes towards Biology (Annan et al., 2019). The purpose of this study was to determine students’ attitudes towards Biology when using IBA in Githunguri subCounty, Kiambu County, Kenya. The research question was, what are students’ attitudes towards Biology when learning through IBA? The study targeted 37 public secondary schools, 1,194 Form 3 students and 14 teachers. Purposive sampling was employed to select 11 secondary schools with laboratories and 14 experienced teachers while simple random sampling was used to select 344 students. Questionnaires and interview were employed for data collection. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive analysis and Statistical Package of Social Sciences. Qualitative data was analysed using narratives. The findings show that most students have positive attitudes towards Biology when taught using IBA. They found Biology as requirement for careers such as medicine. Although most students have positive attitudes towards Biology, some have inadequate understanding of basic concepts due to difficult Biology terminologies. It is concluded that a range of factors including, availability of resources which include computers and internet facilities, are key to helping students understand difficult concepts and do research in Biology. Ensuring the validity of test questions in the Biology papers set for the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE), will facilitate the development of positive attitudes and interest in Biology. It is recommended that Teachers should be provided with more resources to simplify Biology concepts and terminologies in order to alleviate fears, thereby encouraging students’ positive attitudes towards Biology.
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    Graffiti Writing: Its Likely Influence on English Language Learning in Selected Secondary Schools in Laikipia East District, Kenya
    (elixirpublishers, 2015) Mwangi, Francis Gichuki; Bwire, Adelheid M.; Gathumbi, Agnes W.
    Graffiti takes the form of written language whose authorship always remains anonymous. It precisely refers to any wall writing, pictures and symbols or markings of any kind on any surface anywhere no matter what motivates the writer. Most graffiti are viewed as illegal or vandalism of property by those in authority. Secondary school students use graffiti as a form of communication when they feel other channels to express themselves, have been blocked by those in authority. The study at aimed at identifying the communicative strategies employed in graffiti writing and the influence of graffiti on learning of English language and classroom learning environment in our schools. Graffiti texts were collected in ten secondary schools purposively sampled in the Larger Laikipia East District in Laikipia County. Out of one thousand graffiti texts collected, two hundred were randomly sampled for analysis. Twenty English teachers were purposively sampled to take part in an interview. One hundred students were randomly sampled to fill in questionnaires. A Focused Group Discussion (FGD) was carried out with another group of five students randomly sampled across the classes in each school. The data collected from this exercise were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to arrive at inferences and conclusions. The study used a sociolinguistic approach to the study of graffiti. The study was guided by General System Theory. The findings of the study were that students used varied communicative strategies like humour, symbolism, irony, short forms, acronyms and abbreviations in their graffiti writings. It was also established that teachers expressed varied opinions that graffiti influenced learning of English language and classroom learning environment in secondary schools. The findings of this research may contribute to the study of sociolinguistics in general and communication in schools in particular. It has been established that students use graffiti to communicate a lot of information that would be beneficial to the head teachers, quality assurance officers, students‘ counsellors, policy makers and other stakeholders. Classroom teachers may also use graffiti to establish the unspoken students problems and behaviour and thus prevent entropy of the school system.
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    Effects of Student Confidence on Achievement in Mathematics among Secondary School Students in Ganze District Kilifi County Kenya
    (IJRISS, 2023-08) Mweni, Nickson Tsofa; O’Connor, Marguerite M.; Kerich, W.
    This article is based on a more extensive study that sought to establish the relationship between affective factors and students` achievement in mathematics. The article shares findings from the study objective to assess the effect of student confidence on achievement in mathematics. The descriptive survey research design on a sample size of 250 students used a mathematics confidence questionnaire and mathematics achievement test to collect quantitative data. The computational formula of the Pearson`s product moment correlation coefficient determined the null hypothesis, “there is no statistically significant relationship between student confidence and achievement in mathematics.” The study found a statistically significant positive correlation coefficient of between student confidence and achievement in mathematics. This implies that student confidence is directly proportional to achievement in mathematics. However, analysis based on gender differences contradicts the stereotype that males are always more confident than females. Males in mixed-boarding and mixed-day secondary schools indicated more belief than females, unlike in single-sex boarding secondary schools, where both genders showed similar belief towards mathematics. The study recommends mathematics teachers to guide students through solving mathematics problems for them to develop self-confidence for better achievement since student confidence is directly proportional to achievement in mathematics.
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    Utilization of Community Resources in Teaching and It’s Impact on Acquisition of Trigonometric Skills in Public Secondary Schools: Kitui County, Kenya
    (Reviewed Journal of Education Practice, 2023) Muthangya, Peter Mulwa; Nyamu, Florence K.; Khatete, David W.
    This study investigated the utilization of community resources in teaching and its impact on acquisition of trigonometric skills in public secondary schools in Kitui County, Kenya. Bruner’s theory of constructivism constituted the theoretical framework for the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. The study targeted a total of 4,847 respondents comprising 203 teachers of Mathematics and 4,644 form three students from 49 secondary schools in Mwingi Central Sub-County. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 485 respondents for the study. The study used questionnaires to collect quantitative data from teachers of Mathematics whereas pre-test and post-test examinations were used to collect data from the students. A pilot study was conducted in three (3) public secondary schools in Mwingi Central Sub-County. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 facilitated the analysis of quantitative data. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviation were used to analyze quantitative data. Findings of the study showed that most teachers of Mathematics utilized community resources at least once per month in teaching trigonometric concepts in public secondary schools in Kitui County. The community resources frequently utilized by teachers of Mathematics to a great extent in teaching trigonometry included trees, buildings, rivers and community resource centers. The study revealed that a significant difference existed in the level of performance between students exposed to the utilization of community resources and those taught using the conventional methods. The study found that most teachers of Mathematics indicated that students accessed community resources mostly through field trips, nearby shops and factories. The study revealed that most teachers of Mathematics agreed that exposure of students to environment improves their mastery of trigonometric skills and that resources in the schools’ locality can help students acquire trigonometric skills. From the findings it was concluded that utilization of community resources enhanced the acquisition of trigonometric skills among students in public secondary schools. The study recommended that Heads of Departments of Mathematics should ensure that teachers of Mathematics utilize community resources in the teaching of trigonometry. All teachers of Mathematics should have practical lessons every week where students are taken outside the school compound to study Mathematics using the community resources available.
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    Analysis of the Ability Levels of Biology Teachers to Implement Inquiry-Based Approach in Secondary Schools in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (EdinBurg, 2023) Doboyou, Jackson T.; Nyamu, Florence K.
    The ability levels of teachers to implement an Inquiry-Based Approach (IBA) during teaching corresponds to the ability of teachers to prepare and present inquiry activities, possess pedagogical content knowledge, engage students in critical thinking and questioning skills, understand teaching inquiry using the levels of inquiry effectively, and providing guidance for students during inquiry. Inquiry-based classroom requires building a scientific environment similar to that of scientists which requires asking questions, observing, experimenting, and communicating results. This study investigated the ability levels of Biology Teachers to implement an Inquiry-Based Approach. The study adopted the descriptive survey design which involved qualitative and quantitative data with a target population of 1,194 students from Form 3, 29 Biology teachers, and 37 secondary schools. Data was collected using Biology teachers’ questionnaires, Form 3 students’ questionnaires, and classroom observation schedules. Data was analyzed using descriptive and thematic analysis. The findings show that majority of the teachers understand IBA and can implement IBA during teaching. However, Biology teachers pointed out that, students’ preparedness, inadequate teachers’ training in IBA, limited time, and students’ weak entry behavior in Biology posed challenges to their ability to implement IBA. The study recommends training programs should be organized for Biology teachers to enable them to implement IBA. The study also recommends that the Biology curriculum should have an extended time to enable Biology teachers to implement IBA frequently.
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    Computer 3D Animation Use and Its Effect on Secondary School Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Mammalian Circulatory System in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (IJRISS, 2023) Rogers, Hassan Bob; Orado, Grace M.; Nasibi, Mary
    When students lack the basic information required to appreciate specific biological issues, they may believe biology is a difficult subject to learn. It may be easier to teach abstract biological processes or concepts in biology classes with the help of 3D computer animation, which may improve students’ recall and retention of knowledge of the lesson being taught and increase motivation and engagement in the learning process. The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of computer 3D animation in enhancing students ’conceptual understanding of the mammalian circulatory system: structures, functions, and blood circulation in the mammalian heart. The study design was quasi-experimental. In order to gather data before and after treatment, pretests and posttests were given to students placed in the experimental and control groups. One hundred sixty students, eighty in each group, comprised the study’s sample size. The performance of students in the experimental group showed that computerized 3D animation treatment was effective in improving students’ conceptual understanding of the mammalian circulatory system as well as their retention of key biological terminologies as compared to students in the control group taught using conventional techniques, which resulted in no significant change in performance-conceptual understanding. Pretest and post-test items were reviewed by biology teachers and subject experts before being administered to students to validate test items. Additionally, it is advised that teachers be given the fundamental training necessary to operate or handle C3D animations and that C3D animations be made available to teachers and students in school libraries.
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    Computer Assisted Learning and Its Effect on Secondary School Students’ Achievement in Chemistry, Case of Makueni County, Kenya
    (Reviewed Journal of Education Practice, 2023) Katuku, Kivuva Jenniffer; Twoli, Nicholas W.; Waititu, Michael M.
    This study investigated the impact of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) on students’ achievement in Chemistry in public secondary schools in Mbooni East Sub-County, Makueni County, Kenya. The study was guided by the following objectives: determine the difference in achievement in Chemical Bonding between learners introduced to CAL and those taught using conventional methods (CM), establish the gender effect on achievement of learners introduced to CAL, determine the perceptions of learners towards CAL and determine the perceptions of teachers of Chemistry towards CAL. Quasi-experimental design was used in which 180 Form 2 students and 4 Chemistry teachers who administered the treatment in the 4 selected schools with ICT infrastructure participated. The 4 selected schools were categorized either as control or experimental groups, 2 in each case. The experimental group was introduced to CAL using Computer instructional materials developed by Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) for 3 weeks while the control group was taught using CM. Data collection was done using Pre-test Chemistry Achievement Test (PRCAT), Post-test Chemistry Achievement Test (POCAT), Learners’ motivational scale and teachers’ interview schedule. Quantitative data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics in the form of means and t-test. Qualitative data was analyzed using Frequency distribution, means, Chi-square and thematic approach, where the results from Chemistry teachers’ interviews were organized into themes consistent with the study objectives. The findings showed that there was a significant difference in achievement between the students in the control and experimental group (p= 0.001<0.05). However, gender was found to have insignificant influence on the CAL strategy to teaching and learning of Chemistry (p=0.927>0.05) therefore both boys and girls benefit equally when taught using CAL. The use of CAL was also reported by the majority of learners to be enjoyable making learning of abstract concepts easy. The teachers perceived the use of CAL to be a better alternative instructional method with the potential to improve student performance compared to conventional methods. Following the findings, the study recommended intensive application of CAL in the classroom instruction due to the advantage it offers over conventional methods in improving learners’ performance.
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    Teachers’ Pedagogical Preparedness for the Implementation of the Competency-Based Curriculum in Public Secondary Schools in Kirinyaga County, Kenya
    (IOSR-JRME, 2022) Muchiri, Mohamed, Moses; Rosana, Ondigi, Samson; Kiio, Mueni, Ngungui
    The study addresses the issue of teachers’ pedagogical preparedness for the implementation of the CompetencyBased Curriculum (CBC) in Secondary Education Level (SEL). It adopted descriptive survey design where the target population was limited to; 24 secondary schools, 24 head teachers and 100 geography teachers. Purposive sampling was used to select the sample, which comprised of: 40 respondents; 30 geography teachers and 10 head teachers. Piloting: validity and reliability of research instruments was conducted in two schools; one from a Sub-County school and the other from a day secondary school to pre-test and adjust the instruments. Validity was ensured by face, construct, and content validity while test re-test technique ensured instruments’ reliability. Data was collected using: questionnaires; for geography teachers, and interview guides; for head teachers. The findings were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative data was analysed using measures of central tendency to determine the mode and mean. Measures of spread were used to determine the standard deviation. Qualitative data was processed by first sorting and discussing responses for each item according to the objectives before editing, coding and reporting through descriptive narrative of the views, experiences and opinions of both geography teachers and head teachers. From the findings of the study, majority of the respondents had not attended in-service training and therefore, were not conversant with the concept of the CBC. It was therefore, concluded that, a good number of them were struggling with the concept of the CBC and lacked the capacity demanded by the CBC framework. It was established that teachers should be subjected to in- service training to be equipped with core competencies. Early preparedness would encourage them to be proactive in initiating subject dialogue in order to increase their experience hence enhancing the implementation of the CBC.