RP-Department of Gender and Development Studies

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 87
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    Security Constraints Threatening the Utilization of Maritime Resources in the Context of the Indian Ocean
    (JAIS, 2024-01) Nkubitu, Joel Mukaria; Sirera, Merecia; Mwatha, Regina
    The purpose of this article is to investigate security constraints threatening the utilization of maritime resources in the context of the Indian Ocean and implications on peace in the region. The contention of the study is that the Indian Ocean has huge economic value and potential in terms of exploration of offshore gas and oil, short and deep-sea shipping, marine aquatic products, aquaculture and fisheries, blue biotechnology and ocean renewable energy. However, it is faced with a myriad of security threats, such as illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, transnational organized crime, environmental maritime crimes, among. The research objective was to assess the implications of maritime security constraints on the utility of the Indian Ocean blue economy. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design together with a phenomenological approach to achieve thick description on the concerns of the study. The targeted populations were security agencies operating in the area and the business community or investors since they were the key stakeholders in the development of the blue economy. To obtain the sample for study, cluster sampling and stratified random sampling was applied to proportionately select primary respondents, whereas purposive sampling technique was utilized to select key informants to obtain a sample of 384. Primary data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules. SPSS (Version 24) software was used to compute descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Thematic analysis was also used to analyze qualitative data from open-ended questions and presented along quantitative data. The results from questionnaire and tools were triangulated to obtain a thick description. The findings of the study revealed that Indian Ocean had huge blue economy potential in terms of provision of livelihoods to the coastal people in addition to the investment opportunities to several onshore and offshore businesses, such tourism, transport, mineral exploration, among others. However, this potential is faced with a myriad of security issues, such as large sea area, sophisticated piracy networks and illegal, unreported, and unregulated fishing.
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    Effect of Covid-19 Pandemic Containment Measures on Women and Men’s Informal Businesses among Informal Market Traders in Mandera County, Kenya
    (IJSSIT, 2024-05) Ali, Adan Abdullahi; Mutuma, Sheila N.; Mose, Grace B.
    This study aimed to explore the effects of COVID-19 pandemic containment measures on women and men’s informal businesses. The study is part of a specific objective affiliated to a study on gender implications of COVID 19 pandemic containment measures among informal market traders at Elwak market in Mandera County. The Feminist Economic Theory and Structural Inertia Theory guided the study. A descriptive research design was employed and the study engaged 85 informal market traders using simple random sampling method. Twelve key informants were also purposively sampled. Data was collected using questionnaires, key informant interview guides, and focus group discussion guides. Quantitative data analysis was done using SPSS version 25 software to give descriptive statistics and presented as percentages, frequencies, and averages using tables, histograms, and pie charts. Qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis to determine the themes and patterns formed and findings presented in narrative form and verbatim quotes. Findings indicate disparities and inequalities among women were increased due to care work at household level. Further, the cost of loss due to the pandemic was more among women than men. The pandemic affected both private and public dichotomies where women are already affected disproportionately
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    Developing a Standardized Questionnaire for Measuring Older Adult’s Health and Well-Being in Kenya
    (Oxford University Press, 2023-12) Maina, Lucy W.; Langat, Gloria Chepngeno; Mwangi, Samuel M.
    Background and Objectives: Policy and program interventions for older adults 60 years or older in Africa have consistently been undermined by a lack of vital data as they are usually excluded from nationally representative population surveys. The Health and Wellbeing of Older Persons in Kenya (HWOPs-1) study developed a standardized assessment questionnaire that can be used for periodic data generation. This study presents how the questionnaire was developed and examines its internal consistency and psychometric properties of the health module. Research Design and Methods: The development and validation of the HWOPs-1 questionnaire was a 3-step process. Step 1 was a review of 19 panel studies and 2 national level surveys followed by a wide consultation with key experts and stakeholders on aging. The 3rd step was validation of the questionnaire with a cross-section of a representative sample to test its applicability and adaptability in a mix of rural and semi-urban settings. The internal consistency and psychometric properties of the 3 subscales: functionality, disability, and quality of life were assessed using Cronbach’s (α) alpha and exploratory factor analysis, respectively. Results: Three subscales of functionality, disability, and quality of life showed high internal consistency with α = 0.94, 0.97, and 0.87, respectively. There were also consistent factor loadings above 0.3 across all the factors. Gender differences across the 3 scales from the results of t test were observed. Finally, weak but statistically signifcant correlations between the measures of well-being and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases were also observed from the analyses. Discussion and Implications: The indicators assessed have been used in settings outside Africa to measure health and well-being of older adults are adaptable and reliable enabling comparability across space and across studies. The questionnaire provides a framework for examining disease and disability burden and their determinants among older adults in Kenya or similar settings.
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    Domestic Solid Waste and Health Related Challenges among Men and Women: A Case of Kiandutu Informal Settlement, Kiambu County, Kenya
    (EANSO, 2024-02) Mwangi, Willy W.; Waweru, Lucy W.
    Health is a life component that cannot be ignored. In developing economies, the migration of people, both men and women, from rural areas into urban areas results from multiple factors. The social dynamics that include a search for a better life take the lead. This dire and never-ending relocation has led to an ever-increasing mushrooming of informal settlements in the urban areas. Among the devastating consequences is the increase in domestic solid waste and its poor management. This poor domestic solid waste management health challenges is coupled with gendered socialization and perceptions, some knowledge and practices. Social Context Theory was used to guide this study. The theory assumes that there exists flexibility of gender within a defined context. The study employed exploratory research design whose choice allowed an in-depth view of the generation of both qualitative and quantitative data. Random sampling of the villages and purposive sampling of the respondents were used to identify the study sample. A total number of 264 households was used as the sample size. This was a representation of 10% of all the households in the randomly sampled villages with each village being allocated a number of the respondents in regard to gender. The unit of analysis was the household, with the household heads, male and female being the respondents. Key informants were also considered in the study. They included the village elders, community health workers and the local administration. Tools that were considered for the generation of data included observation checklists, guided questionnaires and interview guides. Qualitative data was thematically coded and analysed using SPSS V24. The study concluded that early gendered socialisation has the capacity to contribute to poor methods household solid waste for both men and women, hence contributing to health challenges. The study also observed that inadequate knowledge among men and women in the management of solid waste was linked to inequitable health challenges experienced by both genders in informal settlements. The social realities plug into the dominant arrangements of gendered social behaviour that have great capacity to affect individuals’ health. The findings suggest that gender-sensitive policies can be used to promote community awareness creation and education to modify the behaviour of men and women in protecting their own lives in terms of health.
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    Psychometric Properties of a Swahili-Translated Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) in Sample of Aging Kenyans
    (IJSSHR, 2024) Muruthi, James R.; Maina, Lucy; Mwega, Elijah; Kagai, Violet; Alfred Otieno
    Objective: The prevalence of psychological distress, such as depression and anxiety, is increasing among Kenyans. However, there is a lack of understanding about its prevalence rates among aging people, and we lack culturally standardized and concise tools to measure it. Method: This study utilized a sample of 376 older individuals obtained from three regions in Kenya to investigate the distribution, prevalence, and psychometric properties of a Swahili-translated version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). A significant advantage of the K6 is its capacity to measure various mental health factors despite its conciseness. Results: Distribution assessments reveal that most participants reported high psychological distress scores (13 or above), and women experienced significantly higher rates compared to men. The K6 indicators showed high internal consistency for the sample (alpha =.83). Exploratory factor analysis showed the six items loading to on 1 factor and subsequent confirmatory analysis demonstrated excellent fit (CFI = .95; RMSEA = .03) for the one-factor model. Discussion: The high occurrence of psychological distress among the sample highlights this mental health problem as a potentially urgent area of need in the entire Kenyan population. Factor analysis results suggest that the Swahili-translated K6 is a concise tool with great potential for assessing psychological distress among older Kenyans
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    Implications of Gender Relations on Forest Management among the Indigenous Ogiek of Mau Forest in Nakuru County, Kenya
    (JSS, 2024-01) Kiprono, Cheruiyot Paul; Kalekye, Musyoki Geraldine; Wafula, Otiato Justus
    This study aimed at interrogating the implications of gender relations among indigenous Ogiek on management of Mau Forest in Nakuru County, Kenya to guide gender mainstreaming in forest management. The study employed cultural ecofeminist theory which captures relationship between women and the earth, comparing how women and nature are subordinated by men in patriarchal society. The study used descriptive survey study design, with sampling arrangement involving purposive and systematic random sampling methods to choose seventy-four respondents from the community forest associations (CFAs) within the Mau ecosystem. Data from the indigenous Ogiek residents were collected using questionnaires while key-in-depth interview schedule was used to collect data from Ogiek village elders, Kenya Forest Service Officers, and area chief. Test-retest method was used to test reliability of research instruments. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data was analysed establishing patterns, categories, and themes. The findings showed that there exists traditional gender division of labour underprivileged by Ogiek patriarchal social structure which influences forest management among indigenous Ogiek of Mau Forest. The findings further revealed that the forest legal framework in Kenya especially the Kenya Constitution 2010, Forest Policy 2014 and Forest Act 2016 are gender blind. Further, Community Forests Associations face gender equality deficit in representation where indigenous Ogiek women are subordinated due to cultural setup of Ogiek which prioritises men over women in leadership. The study recommends that the indigenous Ogiek women should be sensitized to join and actively be part of the CFAs. Forest empowerment interventions should consider gender roles which constrain indigenous Ogiek women from participating in forest reform activities. Lastly, CFAs institute measures on equality in forest resource exploitation and benefits sharing while alive to cultural constraints affecting indigenous Ogiek men and women
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    Estimating the Economic Impact of Gender-Based Violence on Women Survivors: A Comparative Study of Support Program Interventions in Makueni and Naivasha, Kenya
    (Elsevier, 2023) Wamue-Ngare, Grace; Okemwa, Pacificah; Kimunio, Isaac; Miruka, Okumba; Okong’o, Grace; Kamau, Pauline; Maina, Lucy; Njuguna, Jane; Kiruja, Lilian; Okoth, Simon
    Objective: To estimate the economic cost of GBV from the perspective of a women survivor who sought help from two identified programs (Makueni GBVRC and Life Bloom Services International [LBSI]). Design: A mixed method research design combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Site: Makueni GBVRC in Makueni County, overseen by the Makueni County government, and LBSI in Naivasha, Nakuru County, a non-profit organization devoted to serving local communities. Participants: Study participants include women survivors of GBV, aged 18 and above, actively seeking services at Makueni GBVRC and LBSI. Interventions: The study adopts a qualitative approach to delve into the intricate economic costs of GBV on survivors. Additionally, quantitative data analysis employs an accounting model to ascertain the financial implications. Main measurements: The costs analyses were done from the perspective of the women survivors. An accounting model was utilized to evaluate the cost of GBV on selected survivors. Furthermore, the research explores the enduring consequences for survivors, including psychological trauma and susceptibility to stress-related diseases. Results: The findings reveal substantial economic costs linked to GBV, adversely affecting survivors, their children, and society at large. These costs encompass direct expenditures on medical care, legal representation, and counseling, as well as indirect costs, such as lost productivity. Conclusions: Beyond immediate and indirect costs, the study underscores the existence of opportunity costs----what survivors and affected children could attain in the absence of GBV.
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    Awareness of Policy Frameworks that Affect the Provision and Utilization of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services among University Students in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (AJPO, 2023) Ongwae, Joshua; Okongó, Grace; Masiga, Casper
    Purpose: the study sought to determine awareness of SRH policy frameworks that impact on the provision and utilization of SRH services among university students. Methodology: The study used a cross sectional research design complemented by exploratory research design. The study was conducted in the main campuses of two public universities namely Kenyatta University and Multimedia University and two private universities, United States International University- Africa, KCAUniversity in Nairobi County in Kenya. The target population were students aged between 18-25 years studying in universities with main campuses in Nairobi County. The total study population was approximately 192,193 students. The study applied stratified random sampling to identify the 370 students who completed the study questionnaires. Purposive sampling was used to select the students and staff who participated in in-depth interviews. The students who participated in focus group discussions were randomly selected. Findings: The study found out that most students, 95 (25.7%) reported to be aware of the Constitution of Kenya (2010) followed by 74 (20%) students who reported to be aware of the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). When looking at the university level policy frameworks, most students, 229 (61.9%) split in almost equal numbers, male, 120 (32.4%) and female, 109 (29.5%) are aware of the university HIV/AIDS policy. The surveyed students who said they were not aware of any university SRH policies were 94 (25.4%), split in equal numbers between male and female students. The findings indicate low awareness of SRH policy frameworks by either gender which can be interpreted to mean that participation of the students in the development of the policy frameworks and dissemination of the developed policies is poor. Recommendations: The study’s recommendation to universities is to regularly disseminate national and university level SRH policy frameworks to the students. This can be done during orientation, as part of their studies and on special days convened to sensitize the students on their health.
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    Uptake and Utilisation of the Constituency Women Enterprise Scheme (C-WES) Fund among Women Beneficiaries in Nyamira County- Kenya
    (enso, 2022) Bosire, Millicent Kerubo; Ngare, Grace Wamue; Okong’o, Grace Bonaneri
    Globally, women's economic empowerment has been identified as a prerequisite to enhancing their economic development participation. It accelerates economic development and improves women's economic independence by creating job opportunities. Additionally, their social, educational and health standards both at the individual and family level improve. The government of Kenya introduced the women Enterprise Fund to empower women economically through the provision of credit and business support services. However, Women Enterprise Fund has experienced challenges in its extension of services. One of the major challenges is the high default rate among the fund beneficiaries accessing loans through Constituency Women Enterprise Scheme. The high default rate has impacted heavily on the sustainability of the fund. Therefore, this study sought to assess determinants of uptake and utilisation of loan Constituency Women Enterprise Scheme fund among women in Nyamira County. The objectives of the study were: To establish factors that determine the uptake of C-WES funds, examine determinants in the utilisation of C-WES funds, examine challenges related to the uptake and utilisation of C-WES funds and suggest gender-responsive strategies that would ensure effective utilisation of C-WES and improved repayment performance. The liberal feminist and joint liability theories guided the study. Naisurma's (2000) model was used to determine a sample size of 95 respondents who were further selected by systematic random sampling. Further, data was collected using questionnaires and interview schedules; and was analysed using descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages, and presented in the form of graphs, charts, and tables. Quantitative data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) (Version 17.0). Findings from the study revealed that women were still interested in group loans. However, respondents identified loan size, lack of supervision, group conflicts as contributing factors to the uptake and utilisation of loan repayment. Loan diversion was also established among borrowers.
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    Product-Access Challenges to Menstrual Health Throughout the COVID-19 Pandemic Among A Cohort of Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya
    (Elsevier Ltd, 2022) Wood, Shannon N.; Milkovich, Rachel; Thiongo, Mary; Byrne, Meagan E.; Devoto, Bianca; Wamue-Ngare, Grace; Decker, Michele R.; Gichangi, Peter
    (AGYW). Among AGYW in Nairobi, Kenya, this prospective mixed-methods study characterised menstrual health product-access challenges at two time points during the COVID-19 pandemic; assessed trajectories over the pandemic; and examined factors associated with product-access trajectories. Methods Data were collected from an AGYW cohort in August−October 2020 and March−June 2021 (n=591). The prevalence of menstrual health product-access challenges was calculated per timepoint, with trajectories characterizing product-access challenges over time. Logistic regression models examined associations with any product-access challenge throughout the pandemic; multinomial and logistic regressions further assessed factors associated with trajectories. Qualitative data contextualize results. Findings In 2020, 52¢0% of AGYW experienced a menstrual health product-access challenge; approximately six months later, this proportion dropped to 30¢3%. Product-access challenges during the pandemic were heightened for AGYW with secondary or lower education (aOR=2¢40; p<0¢001), living with parents (aOR=1¢86; p=0¢05), not the prime earner (aOR=2¢27; p=0¢05); and unable to meet their basic needs (aOR=2¢25; p<0¢001). Between timepoints, 38¢0% experienced no product-access challenge and 31¢7% resolved, however, 10¢2% acquired a challenge and 20¢1% experienced sustained challenges. Acquired product-access challenges, compared to no challenges, were concentrated among those living with parents (aOR=3¢21; p=0¢05); multinomial models further elucidated nuances. Qualitative data indicate deprioritization of menstrual health within household budgets as a contributor. Interpretation Menstrual health product-access challenges are prevalent among AGYW during the pandemic; barriers were primarily financial. Results may reflect endemic product-access gaps amplified by COVID-specific constraints. Ensuring access to menstrual products is essential to ensure AGYW’s health needs.
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    Gendered Time Use during COVID-19 Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nairobi, Kenya
    (Elsevier Ltd., 2023) Williams, Anaise; Wood, Shannon N.; Stuart, H.Colleen; Ngare, grace Wamue; Thiongo, Mary; Gichangi, Peter; Devoto, Bianca; Decker, Michele R.
    Background Gender disparities in time use contribute to poor outcomes in women. Large-scale disruptions can affect time use. The objectives of this study were to characterize time use across the pandemic by gender and to assess how gender associates with 2021-time use, overall and by 2020 economic dependency status. Methods A prospective cohort of youth in Nairobi, Kenya, completed phone-based surveys in August-October 2020 and April-May 2021. Time use was characterized at both time points and 1,777 participants with complete time use data at both time points were included in the analysis. 2021-time use was regressed on gender and stratified by 2020 economic dependency status. Findings At both time points, significant gender differences in time use found young men with more time on paid work and less time on domestic work [1¢6 h; 95% CI: 1¢1, 2¢2] and [-1¢9 h; 95% CI: -1¢1, -1¢5], respectively; 2021. In adjusted models, the gender differential in unpaid domestic work were significant overall and at all levels of economic dependency (dependent, semi-dependent, independent). The gender differential in paid work was evident among semi-dependent and independent. Interpretation Young women spent less time on paid work and more time on domestic duties than male counterparts, consistently across a six-month period during the pandemic, suggesting gendered time poverty. Resulting gendered gaps in earnings can contribute to women’s longer-term economic vulnerability.
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    Fertility and Contraceptive Dynamics amidst COVID-19: Who is at Greatest Risk for Unintended Pregnancy among a Cohort of Adolescents and Young Adults in Nairobi, Kenya?
    (BMJ, 2023) Wood, Shannon N; Byrne, Meagan E; Thiongo, Mary; Devoto, Bianca; Wamue-Ngare, Grace; Decker, Michele R; Gichangi, Peter
    Objectives Among youth in Nairobi, we (1) characterised fertility and contraceptive use dynamics by gender; (2) estimated pregnancy prevalence over the pandemic; and (3) assessed factors associated with unintended pandemic pregnancy for young women. Design Longitudinal analyses use cohort data collected at three timepoints prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic: June to August 2019 (pre-pandemic), August to October 2020 (12-month follow-up) and April to May 2021 (18-month follow-up). Setting Nairobi, Kenya. Participants At initial cohort recruitment, eligible youth were aged 15–24 years, unmarried and residing in Nairobi for at least 1 year. Within-timepoint analyses were restricted to participants with survey data per round; trend and prospective analyses were restricted to those with complete data at all three timepoints (n=586 young men, n=589 young women). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes comprised fertility and contraceptive use for both genders, and pregnancy for young women. Unintended pandemic pregnancy (assessed at 18-month follow-up) was defined as a current or past 6-month pregnancy with intent to delay pregnancy for more than 1 year at 2020 survey. Results While fertility intentions remained stable, contraceptive dynamics varied by gender—young men both adopted and discontinued coital-dependent methods, whereas young women adopted coital-dependent or shortacting methods at 12-month follow-up (2020). Current pregnancy was highest at 2020 (4.8%), and approximately 2% at 2019 and 2021. Unintended pandemic pregnancy prevalence was 6.1%, with increased odds for young women recently married (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83–7.86); recent contraceptive use was protective against unintended pandemic pregnancy (aOR=0.23; 95% CI 0.11–0.47). Conclusions Current pregnancy in Nairobi was highest at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020), and subsided to pre-pandemic levels by 2021 data collection; however, requires further monitoring. New marriages posed considerable risk for unintended pandemic pregnancy. Contraceptive use remains a crucial preventive strategy to averting unintended pregnancy, particularly for married young women.
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    Implications of providing social support to close network members on the social well-being of older people in Kitui County, Kenya.
    (Frontiers, 2022-11) Mbuthia, Kezia; Mwangi, Samuel; Owino, George
    Social support is a strong predictor of social well-being. Older people are key providers of social support to others, but an overemphasis on received social support in gerontological literature portrays them as mere recipients. We examined the association between social support provided by older people and its influence on their social well-being. Data were collected from 369 respondents residing in rural dwellings in Kitui County using mixed methods and were analyzed for association using chi-square statistics. Instrumental, emotional, and information support provision was determined by asking four questions in each category about whether the respondents provided social support to close network members. The subjective experience of support provision using a satisfaction question for each domain of social support was used to determine the influence of providing social support on the social well-being of older people. Provision of social support across the three domains was found to be significantly associated with social well-being. The level of statistical significance was highest for emotional and information support compared to instrumental support. Older people are important providers of social support. The majority of those who provided social support reported being satisfied. Therefore, offering social support, especially emotional and information support, is an important contributor to satisfaction with these aspects of social well-being.
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    Closeness as a mediator in providing and receiving social support on the social well-being of older persons in Kitui County, Kenya
    (PAGEPress, 2022) Mbuthia, Kezia; Mwangi, Samuel; Owino, George Evans
    Research on the social well-being(SWB) of older persons in relation to socialsupport provided and received has generatedconsiderable amount of scholarly debate.Social support received or provided has beenfound in literature to produce mixed effects(positive and negative) on SWB, necessitat-ing further research. The current study pro-vides Kenyan evidence to a corpus ofresearch mostly focused on European andAmerican studies, contributing to the currentdiscussion on SWB. Thus, the aim of thepresent study is to investigate how closenessto close network members (CNM) influencesolder persons’ satisfaction with social sup-port provided and received. The study adopt-ed a descriptive cross-sectional study designand mixed methods approach. Chi-squareanalyses were conducted, and the resultsrevealed that there was a significant relation-ship between closeness and satisfaction withproviding social support with exact P valueof 0.002. In addition, there was a significantrelationship between closeness and satisfac-tion with received social support with exactP value of 0.000 (P<0.05). The researchhighlights that closeness to CNM enhancesSWB when older persons provide or receivesocial support
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    Gender-Based Violence during COVID-19 among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya: A Mixed-Methods Prospective Study Over 18 Months
    (BMJ Specialist Journals, 2022) Decker, Michele R; Bevilacqua, Kristin; Wood, Shannon N; Ngare, Grace Wamue; Thiongo, Mary; Byrne, Meagan E; Williams, Anaise; Devoto, Bianca; Glass, Nancy; Heise, Lori; Gichangi, Peter
    Introduction Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) disproportionately experience gender-based violence (GBV), which can increase during emergencies like the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A cohort of youth ages 15–24 in Nairobi, Kenya was surveyed at three time points over an 18-month period prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic: June–August 2019 (prepandemic), August–October 2020 (12-month follow-up) and May 2021 (18-month follow-up). We characterise (1) prevalence, relative timing and help-seeking for leading forms of GBV, (2) GBV trajectories over 18 months and (3) associations of individual, dyad and COVID-related factors on GBV trajectories among AGYW (n=612) in Nairobi, Kenya. Virtual focus group discussions (n=12) and interviews (n=40) contextualise quantitative results. Results Intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence hovered at 17% across time points (ever at pre-pandemic; past 12 months at 12-month follow-up (2020); past 6 months at 18-month follow-up (2021)); non-partner sexual violence (SV) was 3% at 12-month and 18-month follow-up. Overall, 27.6% of AGYW experienced IPV during the pandemic. IPV during the pandemic was associated with work as the primary pre-COVID activity, low social support and partner age difference >4 years. Among AGYW partnered at all three time points, 66.2% stayed IPV-free (no IPV), 9.2% saw IPV resolve by 18-month follow-up, while 11.1% had IPV start and 13.6% experienced intermittent IPV. Help-seeking for IPV and SV in 2020 (11.1% and 4.6%, respectively) increased to 21.7% and 15.1%, respectively, by 2021. Qualitative results speak to impacts of curfews, and pandemic-related financial stress in prompting conflict and threatening traditional gender roles, and underlying conditions that enable IPV. Conclusion The persistence of IPV against AGYW in Nairobi prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic reflects endemic conditions and pandemic-specific stressors. Youth, including unmarried youth, remain a priority population for GBV prevention and survivor-centred response.
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    Constituency Development Fund As an Instrument of Rural Development in Kakamega County, Kenya
    (Reviewed Journal International of Social Science & Humanities, 2023) Matete, Jemima Butinyi; Wangaruro, Jane; Owino, George Evans
    This study sought to assess the dynamics of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) as a tool of rural development in Ikolomani Constituency, Kakamega County. Alexis de Tocqueville’s “Decentralization Theory,” whose main tenet is the linkage between decentralization, democracy, and citizen participation, guided this study. A cross-sectional research design was used and mixed methods research, whereby, both qualitative and quantitative research techniques and approaches were used to gather data for the study. The research study sample was determined using Andrew Fisher's Sample Size Determination Formula resulting in a sample size of 384 respondents. The instruments for data collection included a survey questionnaire, which was used to get quantitative data and focus group discussions (FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs) which were used to gather qualitative data. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as mean, mode, percentages, and frequency distributions. The qualitative data was analysed mathematically. The study obtained ethical approval from the KUERC and informed consent was obtained before data collection. The study established that a very majority (84.4%) indicated that they were cognisant of the existence of the CDF fund. It was also found that more than half (53.6%) of the respondents learned about the fund through chief barazas. Regarding the utilization of the fund, it was established that nearly three-quarters (72%) of the respondents perceived that Ikolomani Constituency CDF is well utilized. Lastly, most of the respondents strongly agreed that low community participation (42.5%), embezzlement of CDF (42.5%) and high levels of corruption and poor leadership (48%) were the main challenges facing the constituency development fund in Ikolomani Constituency. The study concluded that it is paramount for policymakers and practitioners, including leaders to put in place effective strategies that will see strict adherence to the set modalities of CDFs implementation, and management that would propel the realization of sustainable rural development.
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    The Sexual and Reproductive Health Concerns, Needs and Priorities of University Students In Nairobi County, Kenya
    (European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences [www.ej-social.org], 2023) Joshua Ongwae, Joshua; Okongó, Grace; Masiga, Casper
    and reproductive health (SRH) concerns and needs of their students, the rate at which students are engaging in casual unprotected sex is reportedly high. This has resulted in increased rates of unsafe abortions and unintended pregnancies among the student population. It is against this background that this thesis sought to establish the SRH concerns, needs and priorities of university students in Nairobi County in Kenya. The Social Economic Model guided the study in understanding the problem while the Andersen and Newman Framework of Health Services Utilization guided the study in identifying possible solutions to the challenges identified. The targeted population was students studying in universities with main campuses in Nairobi County. Stratified random sampling was used to select the four public and private universities (Kenyatta University, Multimedia University of Kenya, United States International University - Africa and KCA University) which were part of the study. The study was guided by cross-sectional and exploratory research designs. The target population was 192,193 students. Stratified random sampling was used to select the three hundred and seventy (370) students who completed the study questionnaires. Sixteen key informants were purposefully selected to participate in-depth interviews while four focus group discussions (FGDs) of either gender were carried out. The study established that university students are most concerned about getting infected with HIV/AIDS followed by getting pregnant or impregnating someone. The study revealed that what the students need the most is access to condoms, pills and contraceptives for pregnancy prevention and youth friendly services. The study also revealed that university students prioritize confidentiality, the cost of SRH services and being attended by friendly healthcare providers in this order
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    Factors Affecting Utilization of Healthcare and Legal Services by Domestic Violence Survivors in Kibra Sub-County, Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (East African Nature and Science Organization, 2023) Karimi, Pamela; Ngare, Grace Wamue; Bonareri, Grace Okongo
    Domestic violence is a criminal offense and a violation of fundamental human rights as provided in the Kenya Penal Code, the Sexual offences Act 2006, and the Constitution 2010 among other legal frameworks at the international, regional, and national level. Given the profound health impact and the link between abuse severity and the well-being of the survivors over time, coupled with the need to enhance protection and legal support, healthcare and legal services are critical in domestic violence management. Using Public enforcement of law theory, this paper posits that government agents for instance healthcare providers, chiefs, police, and prosecutors can detect and sanction violators of law, thereby preventing and responding to domestic violence crimes. The theory further argues that survivors hold primary information and can only provide it if they perceive the justice system as helpful. Legal and healthcare service providers are essential in assisting domestic violence survivors because of their complementary roles. Using a mixed methods descriptive survey design, this paper highlights factors that affect utilization of healthcare and legal services by domestic violence survivors in Kibra Sub-County, Nairobi City County, Kenya
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    Level of Awareness and Existing Policies on Gender Mainstreaming in the Management of the Bridge Water Project in Kakamega County Kenya
    (The International Journal Of Humanities & Social Studies, 2015-05) Mwambu, Brian; Kimani, Elishiba; Maina, Lucy
    Water is an important resource in the lives of all human being. In many of its utilization, especially at the household level, women interact with water more than men. is thus important that men and women be equally involved in its management. This study sought to establish the level of awareness and existing policies on gender mainstreaming in the management of the Bridge Water Supply Project, a community based project in Kakamega County whose mandate is to drill boreholes for domestic and institutional use. The project is funded by donors and the local community. It is managed by Borehole Management Committees (BMC) and the Management Board (MB).The Project had drilled 123 boreholes for use in households, learning and religious institutions in Kakamega County. The study was a case study guided by the Gender Planning Framework developed by Caroline Moser 1n 1980. A 10% sample which was 13 of the 123 committees that manage the boreholes were randomly selected as respondents to the study. They include 5 household committees, 6 learning and 2 committees from religious institutions. Key informants were heads of selected institutions and the chief of the location where the study was undertaken. The methods used to collect data were Questionnaires, Focused Group Discussion, Interview Schedule and Observation. Data collected was cross-tabulated for qualitative analysis. The study established that the level of awareness on gender mainstreaming was found to be low. Moreover, the project had only one gender mainstreaming policy which was an affirmative action. On the basis of findings, the study recommended training and awareness creation on the need for gender equity, dissemination of the affirmative action policy, empowerment and mobilization of women to seek management positions and engagement of a gender expert to guide gender mainstreaming in the management of the project.
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    Challenges in Gender Mainstreaming in the Management of Water at the Bridge Water Project in Kakamega County, Kenya
    (Merit Research Journals, 2015-05) Mwambu, Brian; Kimani, Elishiba; Maina, Lucy
    Water is an important natural resource in the lives of all human beings. Women and men have different roles and experiences affecting perceptions and use of natural resources including water. It is thus important that men and women be equally involved in its management so as to effectively and equitably address their needs, concerns and the distribution of accrued benefits. This study sought to establish water uses and identify challenges in mainstreaming gender in the management of the Bridge Water Supply Project. The mandate of the project was to drill boreholes for domestic and institutional use, through funding from donors and the local community. The study focused on the Bridge Water Project which had drilled 123 boreholes for use in households, learning and religious institutions in Kakamega County. The study was a case study guided by the Gender Planning Framework developed by Caroline Moser in 1980. 10% samples of 13 out of the 123 committees that manage the boreholes were randomly selected as respondents to the study. They include 5 household committees, 6 learning and 2 committees from religious institutions. Key informants were heads of selected institutions and the chief of the location where the study was undertaken. The instruments used to collect data were Questionnaires, Focused Group Discussion, Interview Schedule and Observation. Data collected was cross-tabulated for qualitative analysis. The study established that women were discriminated against in terms of access to water management committee positions in relation to utilization of water as a resource. Water supplied by the Bridge Project is predominantly utilized by women in learning institutions followed by households and lastly by religious institutions. Lack of awareness on the affirmative action policy by members of the project disadvantaged women to ascend into leadership roles. Other determinants were associating women to the gender assigned roles, low level of awareness on gender mainstreaming by the project members, low turnout and inconsistency of participation by women during the project