MST-Department of Geography

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    Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Kambiti Sub catchment Muranga County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2023) Wachira, Daniel; Joy Obando; Shadrack K. Murimi
    Abstract
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    Socio-economic and Cultural Determinants of the Slow Decline in Fertility in Migori County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-10) Odongo, Linet Akinyi; Leonard. M. Kisovi
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    Effects of Slum Electrification on Socio-Economic Growth of Households' in Kibera Slum Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-10) Juvenalis, Mwanza; Thomas Kibutu; Joseph Mahiri
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    Effects of Slum Electrification on Socio-Economic Growth of Households’ in Kibera Slum Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023) Mwanza, Juvenalis; Thomas Kibutu; Joseph Mahiri
    Slums are a global phenomenon, existing in almost every country. They are characterized by poor housing quality, insecure residential status, overcrowding, and inadequate access to sanitation, electricity, safe water, and other infrastructural services. NGOs and governments invest in slums to enhance human well-being through projects like Slum Electrification. However, empirical evidence is needed to support the idea that slum projects have an effect on human well-being. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of slum electrification on households' socioeconomic growth in Kibera slum. The specific objectives were: to establish trends and patterns of distribution of electricity and socio-economic growth in Kibera slum, to assess the household and community uses of electricity and socio-economic growth in Kibera slum, to establish the effect of slum electrification on economic growth in Kibera slum and to determine the effect of slum electrification on social growth in Kibera slum. The study was guided by empowerment theory and employed a descriptive survey research design. The targeted population was 200,000 residents of Kibera slum who had lived there for over five years. The study used purposive sampling techniques to sample the required sample size of 384 household heads from the 13 villages of Kibera slum. A semi-structured questionnaire with both closed-ended and open-ended questions was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data, while GPS devices collected spatial data. Quantitative data was analyzed descriptively and inferentially, where Chi-square tested the hypothesis. Spatial explicit data on electricity mapping was analyzed using an overlay function in ARCGIS. Qualitative data was analyzed using themes and categories reported by the respondents. From the findings, the majority of households connected to grid power use it mainly for lighting and low-power-consuming appliances like radios and televisions, rather than higher consumers like refrigerators and cookers. Most residents reported direct economic impacts on their businesses, including increased operating hours, reduced operation and labor costs, introduction of new services due to value addition, business expansion, increased production, and hence more profits. The study further shows that residents reported improvements in many aspects, including education, health, and security. They cited more time for their children to study and do assignments, increased awareness and knowledge sources due to the rise in the use of computers, televisions, and radios. They also cited increased operating hours for health facilities, use of modern medical equipment, proper storage of medicine, and increased safety for slum locals due to street lighting. The study recommends that Kenya Power and Lighting Company as well as the Nairobi City County should ensure equitable distribution of electricity across all areas of the slum, including interior regions that are currently underserved. Second, residents of Kibera slum should promote energy-efficient appliances. Non-Governmental Organizations should educate residents about the benefits of using energy-efficient devices and provide information about available options. Third, Nairobi City County should put in place such factors not limited to accessibility to tools and machines for productive applications, availability low interest financial services and credits, skilled workforce required for both business management, market for their products and services.
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    Social Economic Determinants of Adoption of Fish Farming in Siaya County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023) Ouma, Amos Onyango; Thomas N.Kibutu; Francis O. Onsongo
    The demand for fish in Kenya has been steadily increasing, prompting the exploration of alternative methods such as fish farming to address this rising demand. However, the adoption of fish farming in Gem Sub-county, Siaya County, Kenya, has faced several challenges, resulting in a low success rate of only 13.9% in fish farming projects, leading to insufficient fish supply. This study aimed to analyze the factors influencing the adoption of fish farming in Gem Sub-county. The research was guided by four objectives to determine whether training influence farmers‟ adoption of fish farming to determine the availability of fish farming resources on the adoption of fish farming, investigating the availability of fish markets on the adoption of fish farming and to assess fish farmers' attitude on the adoption of fish farming in Gem Sub-county, Siaya County, Kenya. The study employed the theory of innovation diffusion and a descriptive survey research design to investigate the adoption of fish farming in a specific area. The target population included 140 fish farmers, 9 area Chiefs, and 9 Officials from the Fishery Department. To form a representative sample, 3 out of 9 locations (30%) were purposely selected, resulting to 42 respondents (30% of 140 fish farmers). Purposive sampling was used to select these locations, with the Area Chiefs and Fishery Department Officials coming from these sampled areas due to their expertise on fish farming projects. Data collection methods varied: questionnaires were used for fish farmers, while interviews were conducted with officials from the Fishery Department and Area Chiefs. To validate research instruments, a pilot study involving 4 fish farmers from a specific location was conducted to ensure reliability and validity. The data analysis process began with identifying common themes, assigning codes and labels to relevant data, and then calculating frequencies to provide descriptive information about the respondents. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics like frequencies and percentages, as well as inferential analysis employing Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Analysis, with the aid of Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS 23). The findings were presented using tables and charts. Qualitative data was analyzed qualitatively, aligned with the specific research objectives, and presented in narrative forms. The study established that there was a positive association between the frequency of farmers' training and the number of farmers who adopted fish farming (r = 0.991 and a significant level (p-value) of 0.000. In addition, correlation between the frequency with which the government markets fish and fish products and the number of farmers who have undertaken fish farming was positive (r = 0.976 and a significant level (p-value) of 0.000). Lastly, the association between fish farmers' interest in fish farming and the number of farmers who adopted fish farming was positive (r = 0.948 and a significant level (p-value) of 0.014. The study concluded that fish farmers in the studied area did not undergo adequate training on fishpond establishment, negatively impacting their ability to adopt fish farming. Additionally, the unavailability of the fish seeds and feeds hindered effective fish farming implementation, while the limited access to fish markets, marked by intense competition, both locally and internationally, further discouraged fish farming adoption. In response to these findings, the study recommended that the Fishery Furthermore, it advised that the government, particularly through the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, allocate more funds to support fish farming and explore new markets for local fish farmers, as incentives for the wider adoption of fish farming practices.
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    Socio-Economic and Cultural Determinants of the Slow Decline in Fertility in Migori County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023) Odongo, Linet Akinyi; Leonard.M.Kisovi; Francis O. Onsongo
    High fertility is a major concern among the developing countries and countries in Africa south of the Sahara (SSA) as its negative characteristics poses a threat to their economies. Existing studies indicate that as at 2018, developing countries had a relatively low fertility rate of 4.0 while those in Africa south of the Sahara had the highest total fertility rate of 4.7. This is much higher than the world’s Fertility Rate, which stood at 2.4 during the same year. In Kenya, the Total fertility rate (TFR) declined from 7.5 births per woman in 1980 to around 5 births in 2010 to the current 3.5. In Migori County, TFR decreased from 7.1 births in the 1980s to around 5.6 in 2011 and to the current 5.3 in 2017. All other counties in Nyanza have registered a high decrease in Fertility Rate with a current of 4.8 in Kisumu, 4.7 in Siaya, 3.7 in Kisii, 5.2 in Homabay and 3.5 in Nyamira and most are moving towards national mean of 3.5. Migori County still stands at 5.3 and is reducing at a slower rate compared to the national rate and other counties in Nyanza. This formed the rationale for this study. The objectives of the study were; to investigate the social determinants of slow fertility decline in Migori: to determine the economic determinant of slow fertility decline in Migori County; to establish how culture affect slow fertility decline in Migori County and to make Policy implication on fertility decline. The study was guided by inter-generational wealth flow theory by John Cadwell. It adopted descriptive research design.A total sample size of 271 respondents was obtained from women of fecund age (15-49) determined by Fisher’s formula from 3 sub-counties Nyatike, Kuria East and Rongo obtained through random and purposive selection. Questionnaires, interview schedule and focus group discussions were used to collect data. Primary data was analyzed with respect to measures of central tendency. Chi-square was employed to test the relationship between the social, economic and cultural variables and fertility. ANOVA was used to test the significance of the means which was set at 95% level of significance. Social factors studied were level of education, economic status and occupation which had a direct effect on the rate at which fertility declined. Furthermore, Cultural factors such as religion, marital status and economic factors; poor healthcare standards, lack of empowered women and citizens had a direct cause on the slow fertility decline in Migori county.
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    Socio-economic determinants of integrated floods management for vulnerability reduction in Kano Plains, Kisumu County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta university, 2022-08) Odero, Naomi Auma; Ishmail Mahiri; Kennedy Obiero; Mary Makokha
    For several decades floods have continuously threatened communities’ livelihoods and caused destruction to properties and the ecosystem as a whole. In an attempt to minimize the destructive nature of these events, different flood mitigation strategies have been employed. Nevertheless, the challenge with these strategies employed is that they seldom give audience to the affected people, instead focusing on technical solutions. Of importance is the integrated floods management approach which puts local knowledge into consideration. Although some studies have emphasized the need to have this incorporated with technical expertise in order to get more lasting solutions to the negative flood effects, much work still needs to be done. This study was conducted in the Nyando sub-catchment, Kano Plains in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study addressed the following specific objectives: (i) To establish the flood risk areas of Kano plains in Nyando sub-catchment (ii) To assess the socio-economic determinants of community vulnerability to floods in flood risk areas (iii) To determine the effects and vulnerability of flood events in flood risk areas and (iv) To evaluate the effectiveness of existing mitigation measures for flood management. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the three flood prone areas in Kano Plains, namely, Nyando, Miwani and Lower Nyakach as study sites. Simple random sampling technique was then used to select 100 households for the survey. Purposive sampling was used to select the key informants. Methods of data collection included questionnaires, key informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), GIS-integrated participatory community mapping and desk reviews. Weighted analysis was done for the land cover, DEM, soil and river datasets as corroborative data for the community identified flood risk areas. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the questionnaires, and the qualitative data from key informant interviews was analyzed using content analysis method. FGDs recordings were transcribed and analyzed thematically using NVIVO software. The main research findings were that 65.93% of respondents in this study live at the downstream of river Nyando, of which 60.00% resided in Nyando Sub County, thus exacerbating the risk to floods. Secondly household income was found to be the most significant factor with a likelihood ratio of p=0.026, in determining flood vulnerability the other factor was type of housing with a likelihood ratio of p=0.002. Thirdly, loss of farmland (17.98%), houses and property (69.66%) were considered the most serious effects of floods. Fourthly, 100% of the respondents agreed that construction of dykes/dams was a very effective flood mitigation measure. The study therefore concludes that socio economic determinants such as household income, household size and type of housing have a significant role in determining household vulnerability to floods. The study recommends an integrated approach to floods management through government led initiatives that incorporate local knowledge. Finally, the watershed managers must prioritize activities and interventions such as policy changes that will help effectively use and manage flood plains.
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    Socio-Economic Determinants of Food Insecurity and Interventions for Enhancing Food Security at Household Level in Makueni County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Kathuri, James Ndwiga; Leonard Kisovi; Joy Obando
    This study sought to examine effectiveness of interventions to curb household food insecurity within Makueni County, Kenya. This study was prompted by the fact that the region is one of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands with persistent food insecurity in the Country. The study aimed at exploring best practices of addressing food insufficiency in the region. The study objectives were to: ascertain the socioeconomic determinants of household food insecurity within Makueni County; examine effectiveness of coping and adaptive strategies undertaken by households to enhance food security; assess the effectiveness of institutional frameworks used in addressing household food insecurity; and identify alternative strategies that can be used efficiently to enhance household food security within Makueni County. Makueni County was selected because it is among the regions that is food insecure. The study was guided by descriptive research design as it captures reality as it is. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather data from households. This was complimented with observation method. A total of 400 household heads were randomly sampled from a total of 144,320 households in Makueni County based on the population census of 1999. The independent variables whose relationship was considered with food security as a dependent variable include socio-economic factors of food insecurity; coping and adaptive mechanisms to food insecurity and institutional interventions through which food insecurity is being addressed. The concept of food security was considered with regard to the population’s ability to produce sufficient food or being able to afford the required quantity and quality of food stuff. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyse the data. The statistics used were mainly descriptive statistics such as mean, mode, median, percentages and correlations. Chi-Square was on the other hand was used to test the hypotheses while the regressions/logit model was applied in determining the relationships between the dependent and a set of predictor variables. Key findings of the study were that food security among the sampled population was greatly influenced by socio-economic elements such as the number of regular dependants, inadequate financial capital, lack of training, lack of adequate extension services, lack of adequate diversity of economic activities, age of dependents and land size. Therefore, the same elements play a key role in reinforcing or inhibiting the efficacy of food insecurity interventions for every household. Over 80 per cent of the farmers were found to be resilient and use a number of coping and adaptive strategies to deal with food insecurity. These strategies include food rationing, seeking for casual labour jobs, small scale business, running down assets and trade-off (buying of food instead of other household needs) among others. In spite of this, over 80 per cent of the households remain food insecure. Eighty one percent (81%) of the households did not practice the best strategies of agricultural production. The institutional frameworks have also not solved the problem of food insecurity in Makueni County. Part of the recommendations made by this study is need to explore ways of building on the household coping and adaptive strategies, enhancing and implementing National and County Government and private sector (multisector) interventions that aim at mitigating food insecurity. The study further recommends the need to establish suitable approaches to diversify economic activities for the farmers. Some of the approaches may include building agricultural industries to boost the communities’ food insecurity. The findings of this study will be useful to the National and County Governments and the private sector in developing more pragmatic and effective policies and programmes that can help in making Makueni County food secure.
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    Assessment of Seasonal and Spatial Variations in Groundwater Quality of Kamiti-Marengeta Sub-Catchment in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Adongo, Judith Miriam; Mary Makokha; Joy Obando
    The rise in population within Kamiti-Marengeta Sub-Catchment significantly increased the need for essential services such as residential houses and water supply. However, the service delivery of these critical services, especially water supply in the area, has not progressed with the demand. This has forced many housing investors and institutions to turn to groundwater extraction to meet the population's needs. The main objective of the research was to assess variations in the physical and chemical parameters of groundwater in the Kamiti-Marengeta sub-catchment by assessing the following specific objectives: 1. Physical and chemical characteristics of the boreholes and shallow wells, 2. Spatial variations of selected groundwater quality parameters, 3. Effect of seasonal variations on the select groundwater quality parameters, and 4. Perception and opinions of the residents regarding water quality and demand and supply issues. Forty-seven groundwater samples, 30 from deep wells (boreholes) and 17 from shallow wells, were sampled in May 2016 and September 2017 to represent the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Standard methods were used for onsite and laboratory analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of the samples. The results obtained from sample analysis were compared to the KEBS and WHO standard values to determine the potability of groundwater. The spatial variation of the physical and chemical parameters in the sub-catchment was determined through a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and mean separation procedure with the Turkey test. The kriging gridding methodology in Surfer 13 Golden Software was used to interpolate the spatial water quality parameters and generate thematic contour maps for the tested parameters. The student's t-test performed at a 95% confidence interval was adopted in determining variation in groundwater quality across the two seasons and SPSS and excel to analyze descriptive statistics and the relationship between multiple variables from the social survey. The concentration of turbidity, Ca2+, K+, Fe2+, and F- in some borehole samples and pH units, Ca2+, Na+, and Fe2+ concentration in some shallow wells did not meet the required standard for drinking water by KEBS and WHO. There was a significant difference in levels of DO between Kiwanja and Kenyatta University (p = 0.13) and Kenyatta University and Kahawa Wendani (p = 0.00), total hardness between Bypass and Membley (p = 0.018), and Bypass and Kahawa Wendani at (p=0.041); and turbidity between Kiwanja and Membley (p = 0.011) and between Membley and Kahawa Sukari (p = 0.024). Contour maps for concentration and units of tested parameters in borehole and shallow well samples showed the variation in the physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater. A significant difference was registered in the mean concentration of EC, Turbidity, Total Hardness, Ca2+, and Fe2+ in boreholes and mean concentration in all parameters in shallow wells except for Mg2+ during the dry and wet season. The social survey revealed that the boreholes were the primary sources of domestic water within Kamiti-Marengeta sub-catchment. Poor water quality was highlighted as the major problem with the water supply by 44% of the respondent, followed by broken water supply by 39% and cost of water by 10%. 7% of the residents did not cite any problem with the water supply. 50% percentage of the residents perceived the taste of water as the most critical water quality attribute, followed by odour at 36% and appearance at 14%. Fifty-six percent of the respondents considered the water safe for drinking, 39% perceived the water unsafe for drinking, and 5% could not gauge whether water was safe or not. The scientific findings on the assessment of the physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater and the social survey findings indicate that groundwater in some parts of the six regions is chemically unfit for drinking. The findings of this study provide baseline information on the quality of the groundwater systems of the area. It also contributes to knowledge of the seasonal variation of groundwater quality of volcanic aquifers like the Nairobi Aquifer System (NAS), which is vital for water quality monitoring
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    Socio-Economic Determinants of Integrated Floods Management for Vulnerability Reduction in Kano Plains, Kisumu County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Odero, Naomi Auma; Kennedy Obiero; Mary Makokha
    For several decades floods have continuously threatened communities’ livelihoods and caused destruction to properties and the ecosystem as a whole. In an attempt to minimize the destructive nature of these events, different flood mitigation strategies have been employed. Nevertheless, the challenge with these strategies employed is that they seldom give audience to the affected people, instead focusing on technical solutions. Of importance is the integrated floods management approach which puts local knowledge into consideration. Although some studies have emphasized the need to have this incorporated with technical expertise in order to get more lasting solutions to the negative flood effects, much work still needs to be done. This study was conducted in the Nyando sub-catchment, Kano Plains in Kisumu County, Kenya. The study addressed the following specific objectives: (i) To establish the flood risk areas of Kano plains in Nyando sub-catchment (ii) To assess the socio-economic determinants of community vulnerability to floods in flood risk areas (iii) To determine the effects and vulnerability of flood events in flood risk areas and (iv) To evaluate the effectiveness of existing mitigation measures for flood management. The study utilized both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the three flood prone areas in Kano Plains, namely, Nyando, Miwani and Lower Nyakach as study sites. Simple random sampling technique was then used to select 100 households for the survey. Purposive sampling was used to select the key informants. Methods of data collection included questionnaires, key informant interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs), GIS-integrated participatory community mapping and desk reviews. Weighted analysis was done for the land cover, DEM, soil and river datasets as corroborative data for the community identified flood risk areas. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the questionnaires, and the qualitative data from key informant interviews was analyzed using content analysis method. FGDs recordings were transcribed and analyzed thematically using NVIVO software. The main research findings were that 65.93% of respondents in this study live at the downstream of river Nyando, of which 60.00% resided in Nyando Sub County, thus exacerbating the risk to floods. Secondly household income was found to be the most significant factor with a likelihood ratio of p=0.026, in determining flood vulnerability the other factor was type of housing with a likelihood ratio of p=0.002. Thirdly, loss of farmland (17.98%), houses and property (69.66%) were considered the most serious effects of floods. Fourthly, 100% of the respondents agreed that construction of dykes/dams was a very effective flood mitigation measure. The study therefore concludes that socio economic determinants such as household income, household size and type of housing have a significant role in determining household vulnerability to floods. The study recommends an integrated approach to floods management through government led initiatives that incorporate local knowledge. Finally, the watershed managers must prioritize activities and interventions such as policy changes that will help effectively use and manage flood plains.
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    Effects of Oil Production on Groundwater Levels in Lokichar Basin, Turkana County. Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Gitari, Franklin Muchiri; Mary Makokha; Christopher A. Shisanya
    Oil production requires large volumes of water for hydraulic fracturing. Globally, water demand for oil production has been increasing over the past decade. Kenya successfully completed the Early Oil Pilot Scheme (EOPS) project which was being undertaken in Lokichar basin in Turkana County in 2020 and expects to commence full commercialization in 2022. Water required for oil production during the EOPS was being obtained from ten boreholes drilled in the study area. Increased groundwater abstraction leads to decline in water levels. This study sought to investigate the effects of oil production on groundwater levels in Lokichar basin in Turkana County, Kenya. The specific objectives for this study were: to establish changes in groundwater demand in Lokichar basin, to determine borehole water levels in Lokichar basin and to establish rainfall trends in Lokichar basin. The changes in groundwater demand were related with the changes in borehole water levels to identify relationship. With rainfall being the major agent of groundwater recharge in the area, rainfall trends were analysed to establish whether it is contributing to groundwater level changes. Water levels for two boreholes within the study area were recorded between 12th August to 11th September 2020. To analyse rainfall trends, CHIRPS rainfall data for the study area was adopted. Kenya Ministry of Water and Irrigation design manual guidelines were adopted in estimating groundwater demand. Study findings showed that groundwater demand in Lokichar basin increased from 1,846,001.55 l/d in 2009 to 4,951,043.44 l/d in 2019 and is projected to increase to 145,235,374.23 l/d when full commercialization of the oil fields begins in 2022. This represents an increase in groundwater demand of 168% and 2833% for the periods 2009-2019 and 2019-2022 respectively. On borehole water levels, the study showed that the average daily levels remained fairly constant with Chinese 1 and Nawoyatira boreholes registering average daily water level of 18.12m and 19.5m respectively. The study however found out that major decline in borehole water levels is experienced during peak hours with levels declining to 29.0m and 26.6m for Chinese 1 and Nawoyatira boreholes respectively. Incorporation of oil production water demand into abstraction results to further decline in water levels to lows of 74m and 61m for Chinese 1 and Nawoyatira boreholes respectively. The study showed no statistically significant trend in the rainfall patterns between 1981 to 2019. The average annual rainfall amount was obtained as 142.48mm. The average annual groundwater recharge was estimated at 21.37mm. From the study findings, it has been concluded that increased groundwater abstraction led to borehole water level decline which is further exacerbated by incorporation of oil production water demand. It has therefore been recommended that an alternative source of water be identified during full commercialization of the oil fields to avoid overreliance on groundwater for oil production. Turkana County government should enact policies aimed at protecting the Laggers which are the main agents of groundwater recharge. Further research should be carried out to establish the extent of groundwater level changes during full commercialization of the oil fields.
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    Seasonal Rainfall Variability Effects on Maize Yields and the Smallholder Farmers’ Adaptive Strategies in Nyeri County, Kenya
    (2022) Kabata, Lilly Njeri; George L. Makokha; Kennedy Obiero
    Agriculture is Kenya's economic backbone and a source of income for the vast majority of the population. The primary goal of the agriculture sector is to achieve national food security. Because most agricultural activities in Kenya rely on rainfall patterns, short- and long-term variations in rainfall patterns affect crop productivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal rainfall variability on maize yields and assess the adaptive strategies of smallholder farmers in Nyeri County's Kieni East sub-County. The specific objectives were to determine the inter and intra seasonal temporal rainfall variability in Kieni East sub-County between 1988 and 2018, analyze the effects of seasonal rainfall variability on maize yields in the sub-County between 2009 and 2018, and assess smallholder maize farmers' adaptive strategies to the effects of seasonal rainfall variability. The following data sets were used in the study: rainfall data (1988-2018), maize data (2009-2018), a household survey (N=223), and in-depth interviews with MoA, meteorological personnel, and local administration (N=8). Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from smallholder maize farmers in the sub-County. Rainfall data was evaluated using trend analysis, standard deviation, correlation of variation, running means, and the variability index, to assess if there is variability in rainfall annually, within and between the two rainfall seasons. Similarly, maize yield data acquired from the MoA in Nyeri County was used to conduct trend analysis and calculate the variability index on an annual and seasonal basis. A correlation analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship between annual and seasonal rainfall and maize yields. According to the findings, yearly rainfall mean was 780.07mm, a standard deviation (SD) of 156.38mm and a correlation of 0.20.For the long rains, a mean of 260.86mm, an SD of 84.49mm and a correlation of 0.32.The short rains mean was 276.55mm, an SD of 126.09mm and a correlation of 0.46. The Karl Pearson Correlation test revealed a relationship between annual rainfall and annual maize yield of r (10) = 0.821, p = 0.004. Similarly, the Karl Pearson Correlation test found r (10) = 0.634, p = 0.009 for rainfall and maize yield under the long rains. The Karl Pearson Correlation test between rainfall and maize yield following short rains yielded r (10) = 0.918, p= 0.000, showing a strong significant positive relationship. According to the findings of the study, most farmers in Kieni East sub-County respond to rainfall variability by planting maize varieties that are early maturing (82.9 %) and drought tolerant (57.5 % ), high yielding (77 %), disease resistant (57.6 % ), use manure and fertilizers (92 % ), seek extension training (29.6 % ), and employ various water harvesting strategies. The outcomes of the research will be used by the MoA, other policy-makers and stakeholders to develop policies that address rainfall variability. The information will be used by smallholder maize farmers to evaluate their adaptive tactics and develop successful techniques for dealing with extreme rainfall variability. This will increase food yield and resilience to rainfall fluctuation, supporting the country in meeting the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 13, which aim to eliminate hunger and address climate change, respectively.
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    Effect of Vegetation Cover on Runoff and Soil Loss in Akiriamet-Kimpur Catchment, West Pokot County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Bukoma, Emmanuel; Shadrack K. Murimi; Joy Obando
    Climate and soil characteristics contribute to development of sparse vegetation cover in semi-arid areas. It is recognized that total annual rainfall experienced in such environment is low. However, it is quite infrequent and often erratic causing occurrence of massive runoff. Existing soil and vegetation characteristics favour erosion and movement of large loads of sediment in runoff leading to substantial soil loss. There is need for assessment of environmental factors which influence soil erosion in these areas in order to develop soil conservation policies for proper soil resource management and land use planning. This study aimed at establishing the effect of vegetation cover on runoff and sediment production in Akiriamet-Kimpur catchment. In particular, the study sought to determine the volume of runoff and quantity of sediment generated from runoff plots under natural vegetation cover and rainfall characteristics. Erosion plot experiment was set up based on quasi experimental research design. Two 20m long by 10m wide runoff plots were constructed on gentle slopes, 1.5–2.0% slope grade. Vegetation cover on the soil was measured using the transect line-intercept survey method. The first plot had 25–50% vegetation cover and the second plot had 50–75% vegetation cover. Each plot was replicated twice. Runoff and sediment generated from the plots were collected in cubical tanks at the base of each plot, measured and recorded for fifteen rainfall events during the long rains season. A standard rain gauge was used to measure rainfall. Data was analysed using correlation analysis and linear regression methods. The findings were presented in tables and graphs. The results show that runoff production varied from 1.03% to 1.44% of total rain water. Soil loss was 120.3–155.55 g/m2. Runoff-rainfall correlation analysis showed a significant positive relationship (r =0.9609). Percentage variance in runoff generation (r2) was 92.33%, P<0.05%). Soil loss had significant positive relationship with runoff (r =0.9840). Percentage variance in soil loss (r2) was 96.83%, P<0.05%. The study established that runoff production and soil loss is slow under dense vegetation cover. Hence, the study recommends planting more trees and protection of existing natural vegetation in the study area in order to improve plant cover on the soils. It also recommends development of a soil conservation and management strategy in the study area.
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    Factors Influencing Adoption of One Acre Fund Agricultural Innovation Program Among Smallholder Maize Farmers in Bungoma County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Maxwell, Sifuna N.; Philomena Muiruri
    The adoption of agricultural development programs is the basis of a country’s economic development. In the past, the adoption of new agricultural practices has helped address the country's food shortages. However, despite efforts to distribute this technology to emerging farmers, research reports report low levels of technology acquisition. This study was prompted by the low levels by most smallholder maize farmers to take up all the components of the One Acre Fund (OAF) agricultural innovation program amid declining maize production and increased population in Bungoma South Sub-County. The study examined factors influencing adoption of OAF agriculture innovation program adoption among smallholder maize farmers, Bungoma County based on the following objectives; To determine socio-economic factors that influence the adoption of OAF programs, to determine the types of OAF agricultural innovations adopted by farmers, to explore the phases involved in the adoption of OAF agricultural innovations and to examine the benefits and challenges as well as the strategies of improving OAF agricultural innovation program adoption to improve the adoption of the OAF agricultural development program. The study embraced the descriptive research design to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. Data collection was done mainly using questionnaires, interview schedules, focus group discussions, and direct observation of 204 OAF households. The second data was collected from published materials, journals, and magazines. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics while quantitative data was filtered, coded, and analyzed using the Social Sciences Statistical Package (SPSS). The regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between dependent and independent variables. The situation analysis was also performed to determine the status of the various types of OAF agricultural innovation by smallholder farmers in the area of study. Pairwise ranking was used to determine advanced acquisition strategies. Findings showed that the socio-economic characteristics of farmers such as age (p = 0.002), marital status (p = 0.000), level of education (p = 0.001), family size (p = 0.047), non-farm work (p = 0.327) and size of land (p = 0.110) affected the adoption of the OAF agricultural renaming. They also pointed out that the phases of adoption of group memberships (p = 0.047), farm visits (p = 0.012), and training (p = 0.000) by field officers also contributed to the adoption of OAF agricultural adoption. Situation analysis identified improved maize varieties, fertilizer application, intercropping, pesticide application, corn drying bags, and acetylic provision as new OAF varieties. Farmers have identified various challenges such as high interest costs, high registration fees, high farm inputs, poor and fertile soil and the small size of land affected farmers in adopting the OAF agricultural rehabilitation program. Proposed interventions for improved acceptance proposed to reduced interest rates (7), crop insurance (6), reduced farm input costs (4), increased fertilizer use (1), and awareness of all new agricultural innovations (1). The study concluded that the adoption of the new OAF for agriculture is influenced by other factors as shown in the adoption model. The study recommends awareness programs, crop insurance, the establishment of farm cooperatives, and the strengthening of farmers' knowledge systems. The study results are expected to be useful to agricultural stakeholders so as to increase the adoption of agricultural technology
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    Effects of Rainfall Variability and Groundwater Abstraction on Mtoni and Bububu Springs Discharge in Masingini Catchment, Zanzibar, Tanzania
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) I, Abdalla, Yussuf; Mary Makokha; Mohammed K. Maalim
    Spring discharge from the Masingini catchment plays a crucial role in the Zanzibar Municipality water supply scheme. However, there has been remarkable attenuation in spring discharge over the years due to a change in rainfall patterns and groundwater over-exploitation. Rainfall is the only source of freshwater recharge on Zanzibar, and groundwater is the primary source of water supply in Zanzibar. The study's main objective was to assess the effects of rainfall variability and groundwater abstraction on Mtoni and Bububu springs discharge in the Masingini catchment, Zanzibar. Specifically, the study evaluated rainfall variability on the Masingini catchment between 1992 and 2018 to assess spring discharge at least ten years before and after the water policy; determined groundwater levels in the Masingini catchment; evaluated spring discharge trends in the Masingini catchment and assessed the response of the Mtoni and Bububu springs discharge with regard to rainfall variability and groundwater abstraction in the Masingini Catchment. The monthly rainfall data was collected from the Tanzania Meteorological Agency in the Zanzibar office. Monthly groundwater levels data of fifteen (15) boreholes for wet and dry seasons were obtained from field measurements and supplemented by Zanzibar Water Authority's groundwater abstraction data collected. The spring discharge data were collected from the Zanzibar Water Authority. The data analysis was carried out using the Mann-Kendall test, Surfer 18, ArcGIS 10.8, and multiple regression. The results revealed a statistically non-significant downward trend in all three rainfall seasons for both rainfall stations due to the decline of seasonal rainfall over the years. Annual rainfall showed a significant decreasing trend for Kizimbani Agromet station (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the groundwater level dropped by an average of 5±2.6m between the long rainy and dry seasons. The results showed that water level contours are ranging from 2 to 46m, meanwhile, groundwater is flowing from high level to low ones. Besides, the contour maps revealed that the aquifer system drains toward West-north and West-south of the catchment. The drawdown range from -30.35 to -2m indicates that the groundwater table and head levels are declining with pumping age, which has resulted in diversion on the groundwater flow system and affects the natural groundwater discharge system. Besides, the maximum and minimum spring discharges corresponded to wet and dry seasons, respectively. There was a significant decreasing trend in annual spring discharge at p = 0.05 and p = 0.01 for Mtoni and Bububu spring discharge, respectively. The M-K revealed a significantly positive correlation of annual spring discharge and rainfall, τ = 0.333 and τ = 0.453 for Mtoni and Bububu springs, respectively, implying that discharge increases as rainfall increases. The average annual discharge of Mtoni and Bububu springs declined by 23.9% and 18.9%, respectively, before and after water policy. However, groundwater abstraction showed a significant increasing trend over the years (2013-2016), τ = 0.929 (p = 0.01). The multiple regression revealed that rainfall and groundwater abstraction accounted for 78.0% and 71.2% of the variation in average daily spring discharge for Mtoni and Bububu springs, respectively. Hence, the study concluded that rainfall variability and groundwater abstraction were the primary factors for declining spring discharge on the catchment. The study urged ZAWA to engage in rainwater harvesting technologies and improve water services to meet water demands for sustainable groundwater management.
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    Performance of Small-Scale Commercial Fish Farming Supported by Economic Stimulus Program in Nyeri County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Kariuki, Mwangi Richard; Philomena Muiruri; Jackson Musau
    global economic recession of 2008-2009 made the government of Kenya introduce economic stimulus packages to cushion their citizens. Fish farming program was one of the stimuli introduced to provide income to farmers and diversify food sources in selected 160 high potential fish farming constituencies in Kenya. Each selected constituency was supported to construct and stock 300 fish ponds to selected farmers who had land and reliable water sources. All the six constituencies of Nyeri County benefited from the program despite fish farming been a new activity in terms of fish management and consumption, because of her economic and cultural orientation. Selected farmers were supported with funds to construct ponds, 1000 fingerings for each pond, training and initial fish feeds. The study examined how the new practice performed in an alien county that had no cultural linkage. It examined social-economic factors that influenced farmers to adopt fish farming, farmers training influence on the adoption of fish farming, the consequent effects of fish farming on farmers’ income and households’ fish consumption patterns and the challenges facing fish farmers in the county. The study used cross-sectional survey design applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches. It was carried out in Mathira constituency of Nyeri County and targeted 1566 fish farmers who benefited from government ESP support in Nyeri County. Purposive sampling was used to select the sample constituency and systematic sampling to identify the study respondents. Open ended questionnaires were administered to the respondents and interview scheduled with key study informants. Secondary data was obtained from critical textual analysis of books journals, reports, thesis and dissertations. Analysis was done with and aid of SPSS version 23 creating themes around the study objectives. Quantitative data was analyzed in terms of percentages. Logit regression model used to determine social economic factors that influenced adoption of fish farming and chi square tested the associations and relationships between variables. Presentation of analyzed data was by bar-graphs, pie-charts and tabulation followed by brief explanations. The study found that age of the farmer, family size, membership to a farmers group, household frequency of fish consumption and marital status were significant in explaining farmers will to adopt fish farming. Further farmers training had a strong association with adoption of fish farming at x2=98.571, p=0.001, a statistically significance between fish farming and household income of farmers at x2=58.068, p=0.001, a strong association between fish farming and change of consumption patterns at x2=120.313, P=0.001 and inadequate extension services, quality fingerings and high prices of fish feeds were main farmers challenges. The study recommends inclusion of farmers’ socio-economic characteristics when introducing new farming technologies, investing more on farmers training and ascertaining availability of quality fish feeds and fingerings affordable by the farmers. The study findings provide the impact of trainings in awareness and skills acquisition, the viability of fish farming substituting other low performing small-scale income generating agricultural activities and its impact in provision of safe, affordable high quality food sources.
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    An Assessment of Community’s Perception on Landslides vulnerability In Meteitei Highlands, Nandi County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Ironoh, Mary S.; Shadrack K. Murimi; Philomena Muiruri
    As idevelopment iexpands, ithe ipressure iof iincreasing ipopulation ihas iresulted iin ian iincrease iin ilandslide ilosses iin iKenya iand iaround ithe iworld. iThis istudy iassessed iCommunity‟s iPerception ion iLandslides iVulnerability iin iMeteitei iHighlands, iNandi iCounty, iKenya. iThe ispecific iobjectives ithat iguided ithis istudy iincluded: ito iestablish ithe ifrequency iof ilandslide ioccurrences iin iMeteitei, iNandi iCounty iovertime ifrom i1961 ito i2018, ito ievaluate ithe inatural iand ianthropogenic ifactors ithat icontribute ito ioccurrences iof ilandslide iin iMeteitei, ito ianalyze ithe ieffects iof ilandslides ion ihouseholds, ito iassess icopying istrategies ito imitigate ilandslide ioccurrences iby ihouseholds ion iMeteitei. iThe iPressure iand iRelease i(PAR) iModel iand ithe iSustainable ilivelihood i(SL) iframework iwere iused iin ithe istudy. iThe itheory iof ireasoned iaction iand iexpected ibehavior iwas iused ito iexplain ithe ilink ibetween ithe istudy ivariables. iThe idescriptive iresearch idesign iwas iadopted iin ithis istudy. iThe istudy itargeted ihousehold imembers, iNon-Governmental iOrganizations, iagricultural iofficers, iand ilocal igovernment iadministration isuch ias iChiefs iand iSub-Chiefs. iThe iarea ichiefs iwere isampled iusing ia ipurposeful isampling imethodology, iwhile ithe imembers iof ithe ihouseholds iwere isampled iusing ia ibasic irandom isampling imethodology ibased ion ithe ithree isub-locations inamely; iKamelil, iSetek iand iTaptengelei iof ithe iDivision. iBased ion iKrejcie iand iMorgan's i(1970) itable iof icalculating iSample iSize ifor iResearch iActivities, iEducational iand iPsychological iMeasurement, ithe iresearch isample isize iwas i216. iIn iorder ito iaddress ithe ibasic iissues, ia iquestionnaire iwith idemographic iprofiles, ihuman iactivities, ilandslide iconsequences, iand ilandslide imitigation istrategies iwas icreated, iwith iboth iclosed-ended iand iopen-ended iquestions. iIn iaddition, iin-depth iinterviews iwere iconducted iwith ichiefs, iagricultural iofficers, iand inon-governmental iorganizations i(NGOs). iQuestionnaires, iinterview ischedules, iand ian iobservation ichecklist iwere iutilized ias idata icollecting itools. iThe idata icollection iprocedure iwas itested iprior ito igathering iactual idata iin iorder ito iverify iit, iand ia iCronbach ialpha ireliability iindex iof i0.774 iwas iobtained. iThe idata iwas ianalyzed iusing ibasic istatistical itechniques i(tables iand ipercentages) iand idescriptive istatistics iin ithe iStatistical iPackage ifor iSocial iSciences i(SPSS) iVersion i20. i(Correlations). iA itotal iof i216 irespondents iwere isampled ifor ithe istudy, iwith i207 iresponding ifor ia iresponse irate iof i95.8 ipercent. iThe ifindings irevealed ithat, iof ithe ithree ikey icomponents icorrelated, ithe iarea iunder iforest i(Km2) ihad isignificant ideforestation, ithe inumber iof ihouseholds iin ithe iMeteitei iHighlands iincreased iover ithe ispecified itime iperiod, iand ithe itendency iof ilandslide ioccurrences iin ithe istudied iregion iincreased isignificantly. iGenerally, ithe iperception iof ilandslide ivulnerability ihas ibeen ishown ito ibe ipredominantly itriggered iby ihuman iactivities, imost inotably icrop iproduction, iroad iconstruction, iand iexcavation iat ithe ifoot iof imountainous islopes. iIt iwas ialso idiscovered iand ishown ithat ithe ikind iof isoil iand iamount iof irainfall iin ithe istudy iarea iplayed ian iimportant ieffect iin ithe iincidence iof ilandslides. iThe istudy isuggests ithat iyoungsters ireceive ivocational itraining iso ithat ithey ican iengage iin ialternative ioccupations ithat ialleviate iland ipressure icaused iby ideforestation iand iongoing ifarming.
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    Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Crime Patterns Using Geographic Information System Methodologies in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Owino, Okode Polive; Shadrack Murimi; Philomena Muiruri
    This study analysed spatio-temporal crime patterns using Geographic Information System methodologies in Kasarani, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Kasarani ward is one of the areas with high concentrations of crime. The Kenya National Police Service lists Kasarani ward among the crime hot spots in Nairobi City County. The study focused on crimes on persons and property. Quantitative and qualitative data collection was conducted in two phases. First, questionnaires, focus group discussions, and interview schedules were used to collect data from members of the public and key informants. Secondly, the Global Positioning System receiver was used to collect coordinates of the crime hot spots in the area identified through participatory Geographic Information System. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 was used for data processing and analysis. Percentages and frequencies were used to describe, analyse and summarize the data. Paired sample T-test was conducted to test research null hypotheses to establish relationships between variables. All the null hypotheses were rejected as there was a significant relationship (p≤0.05). The conclusion that emerges is that crime is not randomly dispersed across space but concentrates in particular areas and at specific times. Several push and pull factors were identified as perpetuating crimes on person and property in the area. Poor police patrols were attributed to contributing to crime occurrences in Kasarani. Geographic Information System was used to map and analyse crime hot spot attributes in the area. The analysis entailed creation of the attribute table with information on crime hot spot names, crime types, number of crime types per hot spot, and coordinates of latitude and longitude. The geodatabase layers were added into the ArcMap desktop version 10.5.1. and then overlaid to form crime hot spot maps. In an era where criminals have taken their game higher, urban security managers need to match their fight by engaging the use of GIS for mapping crime hot spots. The benefit of GIS in crime mapping and analysis is that it possesses capabilities to identify crime trends necessary for advising police officers on areas to intensify their patrols. This study reinforces a recommendation that has already been made in other studies about the need for concerned government agencies to roll out plans aimed at addressing factors perpetuating crimes on person and property. One such is the need for the government, through the Ministry of Interior and Coordination of National Government, to embrace the use of GIS in the Police department for crime mapping and analysis. The tool will inform the government decision making in resource allocation, such as assigning police patrol vehicles in places recording high cases of crime at particular times. GIS enable digital automation of OB records and linking them with geo-location of crime hot spots
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    Effects of Climate Variability on Tea Yields And Adaptation Strategies by Smallholder Farmers In Bomet County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Agnes, Cherono; L.G. Makokha; A.N. Macharia
    Changes in weather elements such as temperature and rainfall have a strong influence on tea yields. The extent to which climate variability has impacted on tea yields, the main source of livelihood in Bomet Central sub-County is still not documented. To bridge that gap, this study investigated the effects of climate variability on tea yields and the adaptation strategies by smallholder farmers in Bomet Central sub-County, Bomet County. The data used in the study include: observed monthly rainfall and temperature for Bomet Central sub-County obtained from Bomet Water Supply Weather Station and monthly tea yields data for Kapkoros and Tirgaga tea Factories obtained from Kenya Tea Development Agency from 1993–2013. The research was based on a descriptive survey design with a target population of 10,800 tea farmers with a sample size of 130 respondents. Questionnaires were used to collect data on adaptation strategies and determinant factors influencing adaptation strategies from farmers in the study area. Regression analysis and descriptive statistical methods of data analysis were used. Regression analysis was used for time series rainfall, temperature and tea output data over the 21-year period. Descriptive analysis involved computation of frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation of the data on adaptation strategies used by smallholder tea farmers. The first objective was to evaluate the effects of rainfall and temperature variability on smallholder tea yields in Bomet Central sub-County from 1993–2013. The results showed that Bomet County experienced a slight increase in rainfall and temperature trend by 6.471mm and about 0.029oC respectively per year. Pearson correlation showed that there was a weak positive relationship between rainfall variability and tea yields R=0.122 (R2=0.015) and a strong positive relationship between temperature and tea yields R=0.908 (R2=0.825). The second objective of the study was to determine the adaptation strategies used by smallholder tea farmers in response to climate variability in Bomet Central sub-County. Weed management to reduce competition for moisture (78.9%) and proper drainage systems on long and steep slopes (47.7%) were the most common adaptation strategies. The third objective was to investigate the determinant factors that influenced the adaptation strategies used by smallholder tea farmers in Bomet Central sub-County. Gender, age, education level and household size were vital in facilitating adoption of better and affordable climate variability adaptation strategies which enhances smallholders’ tea production. Based on the findings, the study concluded that rainfall variability has negatively affected tea production in Bomet Central sub-County. The study also concluded that there was a positive correlation between temperature and tea yields. Majority of tea farmers have embraced at least one adaptation strategy to climate variability but confirmed that they had never been involved in climate variability adaptation planning beforehand. The study also revealed that education, age and gender significantly influenced a number of these adaptation strategies. The study recommends that farmers be advised to enhance the use mulching, planting drought resistant tea varieties, planting cover crops during young tea stage and regular weeding to mitigate the effects of Rainfall variability. The study also recommends that the County and National Government institutions need to enhance the adaptation strategies used by farmers by providing advice on the need to plant drought resistant varieties such as purple tea so as mitigate the effects of climate variability. Purple tea processing units should also be established in the existing factories to allow farmers earn more profit.
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    An Assessment of Factors Influencing the Performance of Metallic Artisans at Kamukunji Enterprise Cluster, Nairobi County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Wamalwa, Pauline Angerlyline; Thomas Kibutu; Jackson Musau
    The informal sector (Jua Kali) is significant to the developments of many countries. Its importance is reflected in terms of employment generation, interlink between various firms and contribution towards the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, besides the Jua Kali sectors importance, its survival has been susceptible by numerous obstructions that impede their growth. Thus, the studies main objective was to assess the factors influencing the performance of Jua Kali artisans’ businesses at Kamukunji enterprise cluster in Nairobi County. The specific objectives of the study were; to determine the economic factors influencing the performance of Jua Kali metallic artisans’ businesses at Kamukunji enterprise cluster, to identify the social factors affecting the performance of Kamukunji enterprise cluster metallic businesses and to establish how the institutional and individual based strategies influence the performance of Jua Kali metallic artisans businesses at Kamukunji enterprise cluster. The study utilized descriptive research design. The target population was 4,500 registered Jua Kali metallic artisans and the sample size of the study was 181 Jua Kali artisans and 3 officials from the selected institutions. The questionnaires were administered to 181 randomly selected metallic artisans, interview schedules were administered to the 3 officials from each of the following; Kamukunji Informal Association (KIA), Kenya National Federation of Jua Kali Association (KNFJKA) and Nairobi County ministry of trade. Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to identify the spatial distribution of the sampled respondents. The collected data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21.0 to generate percentages, frequencies and measures of central tendency. In addition, tables, graphs and pie charts were used to present the results for ease of reference and understanding. The research adopted Regression Analysis and Chi-Square in determining the degree of relationship among the variables. The study findings showed that accessibility to finances by the artisans, availability of managerial skills and education, market competition and digital social platforms are key factors influencing the performances of Kamukunji enterprise cluster businesses. From the research findings, the pseudo-R-squared was 0.0367. The socio-economic factors that were utilized include; market competition, infrastructure, level of education Accounting and trainings, usage of digital social network and work conditions encountered which explained about 3.67% of the probability of rating a business performance good. The Jua Kali artisans should be encouraged to attend further trainings on management and entrepreneurship to enhance their skills. The financial institutions should be flexible in their terms required for loans awarding so that they can attract the jua kali entrepreneurs. The study also recommends that Kamukunji Jua Kali metallic artisans should adopt the theoretical models like the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Theory and the Resource Based View Theory (RBV) in their need to improve the performances of their businesses.