International NGO’S and Organizations in Slum Upgrading in Kibera Area, Nairobi County 1963-2003

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Mwangi, Catherine Muthoni
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Kenyatta University
The study focused on International NGO’s (UNHABITAT) in Kibera from the years 1963- 2003 linking them to housing infrastructure. Housing infrastructure encompasses water and waste drainage systems, sanitation services and the housing structures. From studies and reports, housing conditions and the state of living in Kibera is deplorable and a number of stakeholders have being involved in the developing of the area. The donor funded projects aim to promote development by strengthening organizations at the community level. However, despite numerous attempts by these organizations, the results are not quantifiable, as the state of life seems to be never- changing. The research questions addressed the trends witnessed as from independence, characteristics of housing infrastructural development projects resulting from aid by the NGOs. The study focused on participatory approach regarding projects set up by donors, their significance and the impact on the people of Kibera regarding the development of housing structures. The study established that there are contradictions between the anticipated outcomes by the funding institutions and the outcome of the funded projects. Could the three political regimes between 1963 and 2003 be more comfortable having Kibera as a slum or better without? The study was guided by modernization and dependency theories of which were useful in explaining the two-sided opinion on donor funding and the housing infrastructure projects where it leads either to the modernization of the peri-urban area or the exploitation of the same people. The study was carried out in Kibera with the utilization the descriptive cross-sections study. Respondents from the different locations were included by use of random sampling technique. Respondents include both inhabitants of Kibera and representatives from the NGO’s. Data analysis was descriptive analytical method, which include use of percentages of which were presented using tables, graphs and pie charts. In conclusion, the study strived to explain the NGO trends that were present after independence until the year 2003, lay down the impact of these NGO has as well as describe foreign aid channelled to these organizations. It also puts forward recommendations to improve the effectiveness of these projects for the greater benefit of Kibera people.
A Project Submitted to the School of Humanities and Social Sciences in Partial Fullfilment of the Requirement for the Award of the Degree of Master of Arts (International Relations and Diplomacy), Kenyatta University