Teaching and Learning Materials, Teacher Pupil’s Ratio and its Influence on Pupils’ Performance in Social Studies, the case of Kibwezi Zone, Kenya

Thumbnail Image
Makau, Mathia Wambua
Murungi, Catherine Gakii
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
International researchers
The purpose of this paper is to find out the explore the classroom learning environment on lower primary school pupils’ performance in social studies in lower primary schools in Kibwezi zone in Makueni County, Kenya. The paper determines the availability and use of teaching and learning materials and the influence of teacher - pupil ratio on pupils’ performance in social studies in lower primary schools in Kibwezi zone, Makueni County Kenya. The paper is guided by ecological model by Urie Brofenbrenner (1979) which focuses on child development within context of systems of relationship that form the child environment into five layers. Descriptive survey design was used. The independent variable was classroom learning environment while dependent variable was pupils’ academic performance in social studies. The study targeted all pupils and teachers in lower primary schools in Kibwezi zone. Purposive sampling was used to select location of the study while stratified random sampling and simple random techniques were used to select categories of schools and lower primary school teachers to be involved in the study. The sample comprised of all lower primary school pupils in the sampled schools. Data was collected using questionnaires and observation schedules and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results showed that lower primary school classroom environment in Kibwezi zone were not conducive for pupils to learn Social studies effectively. Availability and use of teaching and learning materials in social studies was below average and there was a huge number of pupils to be handled by one teacher. Pupils’ performance in social studies was below average. It was recommended that parents be sensitized to participate in forums which could help primary schools get funded for teaching /learning materials and facilities such as CDF and county Government. It was also recommended that TSC should employ more qualified teachers to reduce pupil-teacher ratio. More so, the Government should increase the Free Primary Keywords: Classroom environment; Pupils performance; lower-Primary Schools
Research Article
Classroom environment, Pupils performance, Lower-Primary Schools
International Researchers Vol. 7:2, 2017