Factors Affecting Transfer of Training within Military Officers' Training in the Ministry of State for Defence, Kenya.
Misiani, O. Geoffrey
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A common experience is that learning from a formal training program is not carried back for application on the job. After that kind of training it's important to assess whether transfer of training has taken place during the use of actual aspects and accessories and equipment. The purpose of the study was to find out the factors affecting transfer of training within military officers' in the Ministry of State for Defence, Kenya. A descriptive research design was used this study. The target population of this study composed of 286 military officers trained staff at the Army headquarters and trainers. This research study used a stratified random sampling method to select 30% of the respondents. The researcher therefore selected 86 respondents from the military institutions. The researcher used primary data for this study and was collected using questionnaires. The questionnaire was administered using a drop and pick later method to the sampled respondents. The questionnaire designed by the researcher based on the research questions. The quantitative data in this research was analyzed by descriptive statistics using statistical package for social -sciences (SPSS) version 21. Content analysis was used in processing the qualitative data and results presented in prose form. In addition, a multivariate regression model was applied to determine the relative importance of each of the four variables with respect to transfer of training. Data was presented in tables and figures. The study found that trainer characteristics had the greatest effect on transfer of training followed by training design, then trainee characteristics while the environment had the least effect. The study found that self-efficacy and career and job attitudes affected transfer of training to a very great extent. In addition, the continuous learning culture, social support/ workgroup support, opportunity to perform and situational cues and consequences affected transfer of training to a great extent. Moreover, ambient conditions (sound, light, temperature, air) and student involvement affected transfer of training to a great extent. The study found that provision of additional or supportive guidance on using the skills back on the job, training content and guidelines for effective training affected transfer of training to a very great extent. The study found that knowledge of the subject matter and professional experience affected transfer of training to a very great extent. The study concludes that trainee characteristics such aspersonality, trainee ability, and motivation effects were originally identified by training practitioners as factors affecting transfer of training. How much the trainee was liked and the perceived potential for the trainee and workgroup support are important in establishing how much of an opportunity the trainee had to perform trained tasks on the job. High levels of training fulfillment were associated with increased training motivation, self-efficacy and organizational commitment, their training fulfillment measure incorporating expectations of content, perceptions of actual content and desired content. With over learning, practice training in a skill continues beyond the point of skill mastery. Trainers stick closely to the instructional material through careful focus on instructional objectives and few used interesting material to spice up. The study recommends the trainees the trainees need to have high level of confidence so as to attain anticipated performance. The organization need to encourage trainees to update the technical knowledge and skills and personal growth. Supervisors and peers should provide trainees with opportunities for practicing new skills and knowledge in the job setting. Unlimited practice opportunities need to be provided to trainees. Cultural commitment to learning should be encouraged in the organization. Trainers need to use interesting material to spice up their teaching.