Factors influencing care-giving approaches in rehabilitation centres for street children during in-formal learning activities in Nairobi, Kenya
Gichuba, Wambui Catherine
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The Government of Kenya led an emergency response to provide and improve the situation of the street children, youth and families, which was initiated in 2003 and commenced in 2004. This led to establishment of rehabilitation centres to cater for children from the streets. Care-givers were employed to perform responsibilities of reforming and promoting the developmental aspects of these children through rehabilitation, according to set standards in the country. However, this is not the case and the problem of the street children seems to persist. There is a possibility that care-giving services offered in the centres are not of quality that can transform and help reduce the psychosocial imbalance in street children. The purpose of the study was to investigate factors that influence care-giving approaches among care-givers, in rehabilitation centres during non-formal education sessions for street children. The objectives were to identify care-giving approaches, investigate management styles used, and establish if there was any significant relationship between these approaches and the age, experience, training and management styles of the care-givers. The study was guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory. It emphasized on the role of the adult and social environment of the child. From existing literature, it showed that early interpersonal experiences with the family plays a decisive role in the psychosocial development of a child. The study adopted an exploratory ex-post-facto research design. Fifteen care-givers were involved from three Government rehabilitation centres in Nairobi Province. The sample was selected using purposeful sampling procedure. A questionnaire was used to establish demographic data from care-givers; observation schedule was utilized to probe for the frequency of the use of the care giving approaches and management styles. The data collected were coded, quantified, and then analyzed. Data presentation was done using means, percentages, tables and graphs. Hypotheses were tested using ANOVA and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r). The probability level of testing hypotheses was at 0.05 and 0.5 respectively. This was done in line with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) program. The study was of great significance to policy makers, social workers, managers, educationists, practioneers, care giving institutions, and curriculum developers. The study reports findings on use of care-giving approaches and management styles among the care-givers. It was noted that determination approach was more frequently used in all centres. The management style that was more frequently used by care-givers was authoritarian in all the centres. However, the findings showed that, there was no significant difference between care-giving approaches used in all centres, and there was no significant relationship between the management styles and care-giving approaches in the centres. Recommendations were made to managers, social workers, educationists who deal with street children, policy-makers, curriculum developers and others who are interested with rehabilitation of street children. Further studies were also recommended on other factors thought likely to affect the use of the overall care-giving approaches.