MST-Department of Early Childhood Studies

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    Exploring The Relationship between Remedial Instructions and Grade Three Learner’s Reading Abilities in Public Primary Schools in Ruaraka Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2024) Masaba, David Mulama; Muthee, Jessina
    Research has shown that a substantial number of school-age children experienced significant difficulties in learning how to read. Despite numerous interventions implemented in many Western countries to address this issue, children in Sub-Saharan Africa, such as Kenya, continued to struggle with poor reading capabilities. Specifically, the research focused on the influence of remedial instructions in addressing reading disabilities among grade three learners in Ruaraka, Nairobi County. The study was based on the Communicative Language Teaching Theory. A descriptive survey research design, employing a mixed-method research approach, was utilized. The research targeted 1,023 grade three learners, 12 head teachers, and 24 teachers within 12 primary schools in the Ruaraka sub-county. Purposive sampling was employed to select 5 schools with known interventions for learners with reading difficulties. Grade three learners were selected using the census method, while two teachers and one head teacher were conveniently sampled from each school. Data collection involved using questionnaires for grade three teachers, interview guides for head teachers, and the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC) test for grade three learners. Quantitative data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentages, chi-square, and correlations with the assistance of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (v23). Qualitative data were analyzed thematically, adhering to all ethical guidelines throughout the research process. The findings revealed that Remedial Teaching, while promising, did not exhibit a statistically significant impacton reading performance. The study concludes that selecting the right intervention strategy when seeking to improve the reading abilities of grade three students. The study recommends that a rigorous and detailed investigation be undertaken to discern the specific strengths and weaknesses of Remedial Teaching as an intervention strategy. This in-depth analysis can provide valuable insights into its efficacy in addressing reading disabilities.
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    Public Support Grants and their Influence on the Development of Early Childhood Programmes in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) Ngari, Catherine M.; Rachel W. Kamau-Kang'ethe; Wanjohi Githinji
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of Grants and the development of carly childhood programs in Meru South Sub County, Tharaka Nithi County. This study was therefore carried out as an evaluation that was aimed at cstablishing whether Grants had an impact on the development of physical facilities, the provision of instructional and plays materials, and the terms of service and motivation of ECDE teachers in Meru South Sub County, Tharaka Nithi County. The study was guided by system theory of organization development. This study employed a descriptive survey design. The study’s target population was all the ECDE teachers, head teachers and county ECDE officers within Meru South Sub County. Stratified random sampling was used to sample 36 ECDE centers from the six zones in the Sub County. A total of 49 ECDE teachers, 34 school head teachers and 3 county ECDE officers participated in this study.This study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data was collected through questionnaires and an observation checklist. The researcher used the "drop and pick" method in collecting the data from the respondents. The secondary data was collected from archival data that was obtained from the county ECDE office in Meru South sub-county registers and ECDE statistical return books. Before the actual data collection, the questionnaires were piloted on a selected sample similar to that of the study in order to ensure the validity of the instruments. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Quantitative data from close-ended items were descriptively analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 26.0). Descriptive statistics played a significant role in the presentation and interpretation of the analysed data. The analysed quantitative data were presented using figures and tables.Qualitative data on the other hand was analysed by organizing data with similar content into sub-themes and themes as per the objectives of the study. Findings revealed that the amount of Grants received by the ECDE centres was inadequate to cater for many demanding activities that require finances. Classrooms were still in bad conditions in more than half of the ECDE centres under the study. However, there was an improvement in projects such as construction of new classrooms, repair of floors, sitting facilities and classroom renovations after the implementation of Grants funding. It was observed that sanitation facilities such as toilets/latrines for the children were in bad state in most ECDE centres under study. Teaching and learning materials were adequate because Grants fund was sufficiently utilized for their purchase. However, play materials were not adequate while some were totally missing in more than half of the ECDE centres. The major impediments to Grants funding include limited funds, high increasing number of children, random location of ECDE centres, lack of sensitization, lack of quality monitoring, poor catering of feeder schools and unclear policies. The study concluded that the disbursed funds were inadequate and were not released on time to the schools. The study recommended that the Kenyan government should make sure that the ECDE centers receive the Grants in a sufficient amount of time.
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    Phonological Awareness and Literacy Development among Preschool Children at Risk for Speech Disorders in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-12) Ngugi, Janet Wangui; Mathew Karia
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    Determinants for Enhancing Learning of Science among Students with Visual Impairment in Special Secondary Schools in Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-08) Kiplimo, Ronoh Tiony; Lubna Mazrui; Margaret Murugami
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    Teacher’s Characteristics on Implementation of Competency-Based Curriculuminper-Primary Schools in Kiambu County,Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) Nthiga, Jane Wawira; Gladwell Wambiri
    Many education stakeholders are concerned because the implementation of competence- based curriculum has been delayed and fraught with difficulties. Despite the laudable goals of CBC in promoting holistic student development and competence-based learning, challenges persist in its effective execution. Pre-primary teachers, as pivotal facilitators of this trans formative educational approach, bring with them a diverse set of characteristics that may impact the implementation process. These characteristics encompass variables such as teaching experience, educational qualifications, training in CBC methodologies, pedagogicalapproaches, and attitudestowards educationalchange. In Juja, KiambuCounty, Kenya, the study aims to analyze the impact of teachers' characteristics on the implementation of competency-based curriculum. The objectives included; to examine the influence of teacher training, teachers’ experience, teachers’ attitude on implementation of competence-based curriculum in pre-primary schools on implementation of competence- based curriculum. The Curriculum Implementation Theory guided the research. The study took a mixed methodologies approach with a concurrent triangulation research design, which allowed the researcher to apply both quantitative and qualitative approaches at the same time and with equal weight. A total of 304 respondents were surveyed, with 76 headteachers and 228 pre-primary teachers making up the target population. Yamane's Formula picked a sample of 172 from this group. Based on the number of zones in Juja Kiambucounty, stratifiedsamplingwas utilizedtoestablishfourseparatestrata.Atotalof3 headteachers and 40 pre-primary teachers were chosen via purposive sampling from each zone, with a focus on pre-primary schools that had experienced significant difficulties implementing competency-based curriculum. The researcher was able to obtain a sample of 12 headteachers and 160 pre-primary teachers. Data was collected from pre-primary teachers using questionnaires, while headteachers were interviewed using an interview guide. To establish validity and reliability, piloting was undertaken among 17 respondents from a sample of pre-primary schools in Juja Kiambu county. The validity of the study was assessed by experts in early childhood studies and university supervisors. The test-re-test approach was used to determine reliability. Using the Cronbach Alpha Method, a reliability index of r=0.75 was obtained, indicating strong internal reliability. The first step in the data analysis was to uncover similar themes among the respondents' accounts of their experiences. Data in quantitative nature was analysed with the use of Chi-square and presentation was in tables and figures. Themes were used in analyzing qualitative data and displayed in narration. The study concludes that in Juja, Kiambu County, Kenya, a substantial number of teachers in pre-primary schools had not been trained on how to execute the curriculum. Despite the autonomy they have to choose appropriate information, teachers often find the resources unproductive and unsuitable. The findings revealed that majority of teachers received training based on CBC implementation. All pre-primary schoolteachers had anegativeattitudetoward thecurriculum and wereunwillingtoexecute itduetoalackofabilitytodosoduetoalackofproperin-servicetrainingonhowtodoso. The study recommends that the government of Kiambu County, Kenya should establish a regular in-service training program to prepare pre-primary school teachers to apply the curriculum. Teachers should strive to ensure the use of learner centered approaches in spite of the obstacles like heavy workload, lack of adequate time in the implementation of CBC and limited resources. The study also recommends that the Kiambu County government, in collaboration with other education stakeholders, should take advantage of pre-primary school teachers' positive attitudes toward the curriculum and equip them with the necessary knowledgeandskillsforeffectiveimplementationoftheCBCinpublicpre-primaryschools.
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    Pre-Primary Teachers Perception of Classroom Evaluation and Types of Assessment Activities for Learners in Kiambu County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2023) Richu, Margaret Wanjiku; Wanjohi Githinji
    The purpose of the study was to find out Teachers’ perception of classroom evaluation on types assessment activities for learners joining grade one in Githunguri Sub-County. This is because the Basic Education Act in Kenya distinctly specify that learners transiting to grade one from pre-primary should not be subjected to sitting an examination as a pre-requisite to join grade one. This also comes at a time when the CBC curriculum is being implemented. Despite this, studies show that teachers still perceive examination as the best measure of transiting learners from pre-primary to grade one. There is no documented study on pre-primary school teachers’ perception of classroom evaluation and types of assessment activities in Githunguri Sub-County, hence the need for the study. In theoretical framework, the study adopted Blooms Taxonomy of educational objectives which focuses on the learning domains. The study used mixed methods approach. This design was suitable because it allowed the researcher to collect first-hand information on the pre-primary school teachers’ perception of classroom evaluation and also it allowed triangulation of research instruments. The study was carried out in public and private pre-primary schools in Githunguri Sub-County. The target population was all pre-primary school teachers, all pre-primary school parents and all pre-primary school learners in Githunguri Sub- County. Purposive sampling was used to sample the pre-primary schools and the preprimary school teachers, simple random sampling was used for the pre-primary school parents and systematic sampling for the pre-primary school learners. Interview schedules, observation schedules, focus group discussions and documentary analysis were used as data collection tools. Data collected was organized using atlas.ti software and open coding as well as thematic analysis of research objectives. The findings were presented using tables, frequencies, percentages and verbatim quotations. The findings showed that grade one entry examination is perceived as the most preferred way of evaluating learners. The teachers also perceived classroom evaluation that uses a variety of activities as most effective. The teachers evaluated language and mathematics frequently leaving other learning areas. The results from grade one entry tests are used in placing learners to lower primary. The assessment activities used by teachers include homework, classroom activities, portfolios and tests. There is a significant relationship between perception of classroom evaluation and assessment activities. Recommendations were made by the researcher to the curriculum developers, county government, ECDE teachers and ECDE parents to ensure that they participate fully in classroom evaluation assessment activities in the best way possible.
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    Pre-Primary School Teachers’ Use of Teaching/Learning Resources in Acquisition of Literacy Skills among Young Children in Bungoma County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2019) Nambuswa, Dorice Wanyonyi; Ong‟ang‟a HM. Ouko
    Over the years of teaching in lower primary classes, the researcher noticed that the teaching of pre-school children has not been taken seriously. This study investigated the pre-school teachers‟ use of teaching/learning resources to develop literacy skills among preschoolers in Bungoma County. This study was guided by Piaget‟s theory. The objectives of this project were to establish the types of teaching/learning resources used in activities that aim at promoting literacy development in early childhood centers in Bungoma County; to establish the attitudes teachers have regarding the use of appropriate teaching/learning resources and to establish teacher factors that encourage learner participation in the learning process. The researcher used a cross-sectional survey approach. Information and data were collected from randomly selected schools using questionnaire research methodology. Qualitative and quantitative data analyses were used throughout the survey. Information was collected through open-ended questions in the questionnaires. Statistical package for social science (SPSS) version was used for data organization. Findings revealed that teaching and learning materials were not sufficient in most primary schools under study. The number of teachers could not accommodate the big number of children during teaching and learning hence most teachers were discourage to teach literacy skills in pre-schools in Bungoma Sub-County. Highest professional qualification, highest level of education and Medium of instructions used by teachers positively the use of teaching/learning resources by teachers. However, types of learning groups formed by teachers during teaching and learning literacy skills had no relationship or negative relationship between types of learning groups and the use of teaching/learning resources by teachers. The study concluded that schools did not have resources for teaching and learning literacy skills. However, among the schools which were reported to have such teaching/learning resources did not have sufficient resources for teaching and learning. The overall mean of below 3.0 (mean<3.0) implied that teaching and learning resources were not adequately utilized by teaching in instruction of languages in primary schools under study. High student/teacher ratio was an attribute to the negative attitude among teachers because they felt that they were understaffed and hence could not individually attend to each and every child during teaching activities. The study recommended that the school administration need to push the language department should form departmental guidance and counselling committee composed of HoD language and two teachers. Teachers should develop positive attitudes towards education, which in turn would influence the curriculum implementation in ECDE centres. Teachers should also appreciate the importance and complexity of discipline management to enhance their roles in enforcing and strengthening the measures and strategies used by school managers as this will ensure that goals and objectives of the school are met. To motivate teachers to improvise, the schools BoGs in conjunction with county quality and assurance standards officer (CQASO) should develop a county mathematics panel where teachers can present their improvised resources and how they can be used to teach various topics
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    Perceptions on Hearing Aid-Use and its Influence on Self-Esteem of Learners with Hearing Impairment in Integrated Settings, Nairobi City County-Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Thiga, Elizabeth M.; Beatrice Bunyasi Awori; Tom Abuom
    Children with hearing impairment have been hypothesized as having low esteem. Many teachers have reported that there is an increasing number of children who are reluctant to wear hearing aids despite the fact that they are being issued at no cost by non-governmental organizations like Starkey Ear Foundation. The purpose of the study was to find out the perceptions on hearing aid use and its influence on self-esteem of learners with hearing impairment in integrated units in Nairobi City County Kenya. Regarding specific objectives, the study sought to: examine the perceptions of learners with and without hearing impairment towards hearing aid use, determine the perceptions of parents towards hearing aid use by their children, investigate the perceptions of teachers towards hearing aid use and establish the influence of hearing aid use on self-esteem among learners with hearing impairment. The study was guided by Identity Control Theory by Peter Burke. The researcher used descriptive survey design. The target populations were 8 integrated schools from Nairobi City County, head teachers, teachers in charge of learners with hearing impairment, parents and learners with and without hearing impairment. The study employed census sampling technique to select the head teachers while purposive sampling technique was used to select parents of learners with hearing impairment using hearing aids, learners with and without hearing impairment and teachers. The sample size was 90 respondents comprising 8 head teachers, 15 parents, 8 teachers, 51 learners with hearing impairment using hearing aids and 8 learners without hearing impairment. Data was collected by administering questionnaires to learners, parents, teachers and a complimentary interview to the head teachers. A pilot study was conducted at a primary school in Nairobi. The supervisors’ judgment was used to determine the content and face validity of the items on the questionnaires and interviews guide. Test re-test reliability test was used to establish reliability of the questionnaires developed. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Inferential statistics were carried out based on each objective using a computer program SPSS version 22.0. Qualitative data was analyzed thematically based on each objective of the study. The study found the general perceptions of learners with HI, learners without HI, parents, and teachers towards hearing aids-use were generally positive. The overall result of the study indicated a weak positive influence of hearing aids use on self-esteem of learners with hearing impairment. The study recommended that the Government should provide schools with speech therapists/ audiologists to follow up on language intervention of learners with hearing impairment using hearing aids and also encourage collaboration of multi-disciplinary team that includes teachers, parents, head teachers, audiologists/speech therapist to ensure they benefit from hearing aid-use and improve on their self-esteem.
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    Parental and Health Professionals’ Awareness of Speech Therapy for Effective Intervention among Children with Communication Disorders in Selected Hospitals, Mwanza, Tanzania
    (Kenyatt University, 2022) Emmanuel, Obunge Leonard; Jesicah Muthee
    This study sought to assess parental and health professionals‟ awareness of speech and language therapy for effective intervention of children with communication disorders in three selected hospitals in Mwanza City, Tanzania. The objectives of the study were: determine level of awareness among parents and health professionals concerning available speech-language therapy services for effective intervention for children with communication disorders; to examine parental and health professionals‟ views on referral and information related to speech-language therapy for effective intervention for children with communication disorders, to establish parental and health professionals „roles in speech and language development for effective intervention for children with communication disorders and to investigate parental and health professional influence on awareness creation about speech-language therapy for effective intervention for children with communication disorders. The research was guided by Normalization Process Theory. The study employed descriptive survey design with both qualitative and quantitative methods. The target population included parents of children with communication disorders and health professionals who attend to children with communication disorders specifically, those with hearing loss, cleft palate/lip, Down syndrome and autism. The study used sample size of 100 respondents in which 85 were parents and 15 health professionals. The study employed purposive sampling in selecting respondents who were parents and health professionals. Validity was ensured through professional reviews, while reliability test was performed using Cronbach‟s Alpha to establish internal consistency of the items in the questionnaires. Test-retest method was used to measure reliability in the piloting institution. Data was collected by using questionnaires for the parents, interviews for the health professionals and document analysis of records of parents of children with communication disorders. Qualitative data from interview and document analysis was analyzed thematically and quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of frequency, percentage, tables and graphs with the aid of SPSS computer program. The study found that majority of the parents and health professionals have limited awareness on availability of speech and language therapy services. Many parents and health professionals reported that there is low level of information and referral systems related to speech-language therapy. The study also found that many parents have limited awareness of their roles in speech and language development, while some health professionals try to help the children but not effectively. The findings indicated that there were low level of awareness and limited roles of parents and health professionals on speech therapy services in the selected hospitals. The study recommended that there was a great need to raise awareness of speech and language therapy to the parents and health professionals for effective intervention for children with communication disorder.
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    Teachers’ Perception on Influence of Tusome Intervention Strategies on Reading in Public Primary Grade Two Pupils, Kilifi County Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Savaco, Adagi Betty; Gladwell Wambiri
    Young children experience difficulty in acquiring the necessary skills for reading such as fluency and phonemic awareness. Most students lack confidence, they may be reluctant to raise questions or request clarifications. Reports from the Sub-County Education Office in Kilifi North Sub-County have showed that despite the pupils being advanced to higher classes, their reading literacy is extremely low. The purpose of the study was to establish the teachers‘ perception on the influence of Tusome instructional intervention strategies on reading levels in public primary schools in central zone, Kilifi North Sub-County, Kenya. The study focused on reading ability among children in grade two. The study sought to establish the impact of Tusome intervention strategies on reading levels. The study was guided by three objectives to; establish the impact of Tusome instructional intervention strategies on reading levels, determine availability of teaching and learning resources in reading lessons and identify the challenges teachers are facing in implementing the program. The study employed descriptive design to carry out the study. A pilot study was conducted in two schools. The sample size comprised of 60 grade two children, 18 teachers, 5 headteachers, ICSO and 1 sub county director of education. Data collection techniques involved the use of observations and questionnaires to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. The collected data obtained from observations and respondents were grouped together, coded, transformed and analyzed through the use of Statistical Packages for Social Scientists (SPSS) software version 21. Then the analyzed data was presented in form of frequencies and percentages while figures and tables will be used to present the result where necessary. The findings revealed that teaching strategies have influence on the implementation of Tusome in lower primary schools. Pupil‘s text books, teacher‘s guides and story books were adequately provided. There were no other ICT resources provided for the learners. There was high pupil/teacher ratio and hence implementing Tusome program is a challenge because the program works effectively with small groups. Further, the study findings also revealed some weaknesses with the Tusome programme, which included: lack of durability of the teaching and learning materials; lack of timely certification of head teachers and teachers who had attended Tusome trainings and participated in the implementation of Tusome programme; and delay in the distribution of teaching and learning materials to schools. It was concluded that indeed, the Tusome literacy intervention program was strongly related to the improved learner achievement in other tasks that require reading, in the improvement of the overall learner achievement at grade 2. The ANOVA statistics was used to test the fitness of regression model. The significance F value of 47.345 (p<0.001) was obtained implying that the regression model was fit and statistically significant and can be deemed fit for prediction. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education implements literacy interventions as a means of improving learner achievement in other subjects. Also, KICD should also include the Tusome pedagogy in the curriculum for pre-service primary teacher training so that teacher trainees graduate with Tusome skills.
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    Early Intervention on Speech and Language Development of Pre-School Children with Hearing Impairments in Nakuru County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Okinyi, Jackline; Mathew Kinyuakaria; Tom Abuom
    The purpose of this study was to examine the status of early intervention services ofpre-school children with hearing impairments in Nakuru County, Kenya. Several studies have emphasized the significance of early intervention services of children with hearing impairments during critical periods of language development. However, many children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Kenya are not identified for hearing loss early and do not receive timely intervention thus enter pre-school later than their hearing counterparts without a firm language base. The objectives of the study were to establish the type of early intervention services available for pre-school children with hearing impairments in Nakuru county; to examine the role of Special Needs Education(SNE)personnel in early intervention for pre-school children with hearing impairments in Nakuru county; to determine the level of parental involvement in early intervention services for pre-school children in Nakuru county; to identify barriers to early intervention on speech and language development among children with hearing impairments in Nakuru county. The study was guided by Lenneberg‟s “Critical period hypothesis” theory of language development. Descriptive survey design with mixed methods was adopted for the study. Questionnaires were used to collect data from preschool teachers and Educational Assessment and Resource Centre (EARC) officers. Focus group discussion was used to gather information from parents and observation checklist was used to collect data from the children with hearing impairment. The study targeted six pre-school teachers teaching children with hearing impairment at Ngala school for the deaf and Koinange primary special unit for the Hearing Impaired, thirty (30) pre-school children in the Special school and unit, sixty (60) parents and three (3) EARC officers at Ngala Educational Assessment and Resource Center. Purposive sampling was used to select the special school and unit, Educational Assessment and Resource Center, pre-school teachers, EARC officers and the parents. Pilot study was done at Esageri Special School for the deaf in Mogotio Sub-County. The study showed that early intervention on speech and language development of children with hearing impairment has been achieved fairly to some extent. Teachers adopted some appropriate communication strategies to enhance the children‟s achievement in speech and language skills. However, most of the key intervention services from the Special Needs Education professionals were offered on a minimal scale. The level of parental involvement was found to be minimal to a large extent. Various challenges mitigated against effective provision of early intervention services. Based on the study findings, recommendations and suggestions for further studies were made. The major recommendations were that the government should put in place adequate funding for proper infrastructure, adequate personnel provision as well as regular monitoring and evaluation of early intervention services and programs for pre-school children with hearing impairments. Also, a multidisciplinary approach needs to be adopted in the provision of early intervention services for the pre-school learners with Hearing Impairments. Further research needs to be done on the constraints to effective implementations of early intervention of children with hearing impairments in Kenya in view of global best practices.
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    Parental Involvement’s Influence on Access-Transition Rate from Pre-Primary to Primary Education in Kakamega County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Waswa, Polycarp Sisa; Catherine Gakii Murungi; Ong’ang’a Hudson Ouko
    Pre-primary school years present significant opportunities for children acquiring the required competencies for transition. One of the challenges facing basic education in Kenya is poor access and transition. A lot of research has been carried out on the importance of parental involvement in children’s education but quite few have examined contributions that parents make to their children access and transition from one class to another. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate parental involvement influence on pre-primary pupils’ access and transition to primary school education in Kakamega County, Kenya. This study was guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system model that described pattern of interplay of different people and institutions to the life of a child over time. The study employed survey design approach. The study was carried out in Kakamega County which is characterised by low access and transition from pre-primary to primary school education focusing on Kakamega central Sub-county. Target population were all pre-primary schools. For inclusivity, stratified sampling was used, whereas simple random was used to sample 45 pre-primary schools including both private and public schools. Purposive sampling was used to get the area of study and the 38 respondents from public and 52 from private pre-primary schools. The collective sample size was 90 respondents. Piloting was done in 4 schools drawn from rural and urban. Content validity was done by the specialists in the department who checked the tools to see if they captured the necessary information. Reliability was done using test and retest method. Data collection utilised questionnaires for pre-school teachers and interview schedule for parents. Data cleaning, organization and coding was done before analysis. Data was analysed using qualitative and quantitative techniques. The teachers reported that only 51.1% of parents participated in supporting in feeding program, 26.7% participated in providing writing materials and only 15.6 % participated in checking if children did school work. Further revealed that parents never participated in providing play materials to school, coming to school to tell children stories or coming to school as resource persons in outdoor activities. On the other hand, parents revealed that 46% participated in providing writing materials, 42.2 % involved in calling teachers to monitor children learning and 44.4% promptly paid school fees. Further, parents revealed that 1% engaged in supporting feeding program, 2% providing reading materials, 1% visit schools to monitor children learning, 2% read stories to children at home and 2% parents attend school meetings. It was recommended that strategies should be put in place to enhance parental involvement such as sensitization, regular communication about children progress and parents involved in decision making in schools. The study results are significant in aiding school administrations and other policy makers to come up with ways of creating awareness and promoting parental participation in pre -primary education.
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    Teacher Related Factors as Predictors of Teaching Literacy Skills among Grade One Learners in Mombasa County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Olando, Emelda Juma; Margaret Mwangi
    Early Childhood Education is universally defined as the education of children in their early years of life. The identified teacher factors which inform literacy skills for the children include writing, reading, speaking, listening and other basic skills. Policies governing basic education in Kenya do emphasize the importance of skilled, qualified teachers in the classroom, including early childhood settings. The study sought to determine the teacher factors that influence teaching literacy skills among grade one learners in Mbaraki zone within Mombasa County in Kenya. The study target area was Mbaraki zone comprising of 20 primary schools from which all the head teachers (20) were interviewed using a complete enumeration method, in addition, two teachers for grade one learners were observed in each of the schools 20 schools using purposive sampling criteria. Further, a simple random sampling methodology was adopted to identify 6 learners each in the 20 schools, thus 120 learners representing 15% of the total grade one learners were identified. The qualitative responses were analyzed thematically or coded into categories using qualitative values, as well quantitative data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Both Descriptive statistics in form of the frequencies and percentages as well as non-parametric tests using Chi-Square Tests were conducted to establish the association between teacher factors and literacy skills. Results showed that majority of the teachers for grade one learners were female (80%), 59% were Early Childhood Development (ECD) diploma holders and majority representing 84.62% had over 5 years teaching experience. On the relationship between academic qualification and literacy skills, the critical value from the distribution table was 7.378. The calculated value for writing (7.9746), reading was 8.0706552, speaking (33.73995), listening (1.212933) and basic skills (14.38557). All the calculated value appeared greater than critical value except for listening at 5% confidence level. Therefore, academic qualification of teacher for grade one influences literacy skills. On the association between teaching experience and literacy skills, the critical value from distribution table was 9.348. The calculated value for writing (1.248927) reading (7.127797), speaking (13.34939), listening (3.484822) and basic skills (3.916710). All calculated values were established to be less than the critical value at 5% confidence level except for speaking. Therefore, number of years of experience does not necessarily influence literacy skills. On the association between teacher of grade one gender and literacy skills, the critical value from distribution table was 5.024. The calculated value for writing was 0.0119, reading (5.90492), speaking (3.68363), listening (44.121) and basic skills (0.64071). We conclude that only reading is not dependent of gender of the teacher for grade one. On the association between teacher of grade one workload and literacy skills the critical value from the distribution table was 9.348. The calculated value for writing was 6.22958, reading (3.98737) for, speaking (7.15579), listening (34.6456) and basic skills (2.56608). The study recommends emphasis on trainings to improve mainly literacy skills in writing, reading and speaking.
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    Determinants of Teachers’ Attitude towards Competence-Based System of Education. A Case of Lower Primary Schools in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Mutonya, Susan Mukami; Nyakwara Begi
    Competence Based Education is a system that gives more significance on acquiring of competencies instead of acquisition of content knowledge. Teachers are key components in adoption of any new system of education. Teachers’ attitude is crucial in ensuring that teachers are prepared and motivated to adopt and implement the change. Attitude can influence the adoption process thus affecting the implementation process. The study explored the factors influencing teachers’ attitude towards adoption of competence based system of education. The objectives of the study were to establish teachers’ attitude towards adoption of competence based system of education. To explore relationship between availability of instructional resources and teachers’ attitude and also to determine the relationship between use of strategies and teachers’ attitude towards competence based system of education. The study was guided by Michael Fullan’s (1991), theory of educational change. Descriptive research design was adopted. The independent variables were the determinants of teachers’ attitude towards adoption of Competence Based system of Education. The dependent variable was teachers’ attitude towards adoption of the education system. Mixed methods of descriptive research design were used in the study. Target population of this study was respondents from 103 public and private schools in Langata Sub-county, Nairobi City County. The sample size was 29 respondents consisting of lower primary school teachers and the head teachers. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used. The study ensured content validity of instruments by piloting research instruments and ensuring they were in line with the research objectives. Cronbach alpha coefficient was applied to measure the reliability of the instruments. To collect the data, questionnaires and interview guides were used. For data analysis, descriptive statistics was used and results were presented using tables and figures. The results indicated that teachers’ attitude towards adoption of Competence Based of Education was positive for teachers in private schools than that of teachers in public schools. There was a relationship between availability of instructional resources and teachers’ attitude towards adoption of Competence Based system of Education was significant at 0.05 levels. The relationship between use of strategies and teachers’ attitude towards adoption of Competence Based system of Education was also significant. It was recommended that teachers should attend more training especially on competence based assessment. The school management and stakeholders should also ensure that there were adequate learning resources and employ strategies like training, workshops and bench marking for their teachers.
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    Relationship between School and Family Related Dynamics on Reading Abilities among Grade One Pupils in Kinango, Kwale County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Achieng, Okeyo Everlyne; Wanjohi Githinji
    Reading ability is fundamental for academic and social progress. It even becomes more important for schooling since it determines learning in all other subjects. However, reports have indicated that majority of learners in Kinango Sub-County, Kwale County lack basic reading skills. This affects their understanding of concepts in other subjects, leading to poor learning outcomes. While pupils‟ acquisition of reading abilities is largely dependent on teachers‟ guidance, one cannot downplay school and family related dynamics such as enrolment, attendance and pupils‟ family socio-economic status, factors which researchers have not paid much attention to. Therefore, this study purposed to investigate the influence of school and family related dynamics on reading abilities among grade one pupils in Kinango Sub-County, Kwale County. The study was guided by the following objectives; to establish the reading abilities of grade one pupils, to establish the relationship between pupils age during school enrolment and reading abilities among grade one pupils, to find out the relationship between pupils‟ school attendance and reading abilities among grade one pupils and to find out the relationship between family socio-economic status and pupils‟ reading abilities among grade one pupils in Kinango sub-county. The study was anchored on the Constructivist Learning theory by Jerome Bruner, which proposes that learning is an engaging process in which children create ideas, depending on the their past or existing knowledge. The study utilized a correlational research design. The target population of the study was 5,610 participants comprising of 3,740 parents and 1,870 grade one pupils. Stratified, purposive and simple random sampling techniques were employed to select respondents for the study. The sample size for this study was 374 respondents which constituted 10% of the total population. The sample comprised of 187 parents and 187 learners. Pilot study was conducted in two schools in Kinango Sub-County. Validity of the instruments was determined through content analysis by experts whereas reliability was ascertained through split-half method and Cronbach‟s Alpha coefficient of 0.802 was obtained. Reading assessment tool, interview schedule and document analysis guide were used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics which included frequencies and percentages were used to summarize data while inferential statistics which involved Pearson Product Moment of correlation was used to establish the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable whereas regression analysis was used to establish the extent to which the dynamics influenced pupils‟ reading abilities. Data was presented in graphs, pie charts and tables. The study established that there is a positive and significant relationship between pupils‟ time of enrolment in school, school attendance, parents‟ educational background, family social economic status and their reading abilities. Therefore, the study concluded that pupils‟ school enrolment, school attendance and family socio-economic status are significant predictors of their reading abilities. As such, the study recommend that one way of improving learners‟ reading abilities would be through ensuring timely enrolment and regular school attendance.
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    Determinants of Creative Play Activities in Public Pre-Schools in Bureti Sub-County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Mitei, Evelyn Chepngeno; Teresa Mwoma
    In improving intellectual, emotional and social skills, creative activities play an important role in supporting children's learning and progress. The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of creative play activities in public pre-school children in the Bureti sub-county, Kenya. The objectives of the research were to: investigate the effect of time allocation for creative play activities, determine teachers’ attitude towards creative play, evaluate the effect of availability of resources on creative play activities and to establish challenges experienced by teachers in enhancing creative play activities among public pre-primary school children in Bureti Sub-County, Kenya. The study was guided by Froebel’s theory (1852). The research adopted a descriptive survey design. The study targeted 135 public pre-primary schools in Bureti Sub-County. The sample size for the study was 236 participants. This comprised 92 head teachers and 144 pre-schools teachers from a sample of 121 pre-primary schools in Bureti Sub-County. Data was collected using questionnaires and observation schedule as a research tool. Two schools were selected for pilot study. To determine reliability, the results of the pilot study were analyzed and determined the coefficient alpha using the split-half method using Pearson's product-moment correlation equation and Spearman-Brown Prophecy (RE) equation. The factor was 0.55, indicating that the research tool was reliable. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 computer software program. Data was displayed in the form of percentages, charts, pie charts, and tables. Findings showed that most schools allocated about 10-30 minutes of creative play time per day and lacked sufficient materials and resources. The study recommended that, the government should provide resources and materials that learners use when engaging in creative play activities. Learners should also be given ample time for play to improve their creative play activities in schools. The study also recommended that school principals to emphasize more on creative play activities as it is on academic excellence
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    Parental Economic Status and Girl-Child’s Talent Development in Lower Primary Public Schools in Mumias Sub-County, Kakamega County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Akala, Namusendo Joseph; Rachel W. Kamau-Kang’ethe
    Educating a girl occupies a special place in the world. It is a tool societies use to empower its people so that they can be productive and spur economic and social equality. Therefore, all people should access this service irrespective of their gender, region of residence or socio-economic background. In its report, the United Nations (2008) ranks Sub-Sahara Africa second to South-Asian countries in terms of gender disparity in education and talent development. The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of parents‟ economic status on talent development among lower primary school girls in Mumias, Kakamega County. The objectives of the study were: to determine the influence of parents‟ economic status on talent development among girls in Mumias, Kakamega County, to establish how educational status of parents influences talent development among lower primary school girls in Mumias and, to establish the challenges facing talent development among school girls in Mumias, Kakamega County, Kenya. The total study population had 818 including teachers, class teachers, pupils, parents, Board of Management Chairpersons as participants. The sample size was 12 public primary schools, 12 head teachers, 12 class teachers, 72 teachers, 240 girls and 12 Board of Management members. Data collection tools were questionnaires and interview schedules. The procedure for collecting raw data was moving from one school to another and handing over the tools to respondents, explaining to them on what was expected of them, agreeing on time to collect them and left the school for another station. Descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and correlation were used to analyze data which was presented in tables. Head teacher questionnaires were to collect information about their educational attainment, training and professional experience. The teachers and pupils questionnaires sought information on talent development among lower primary school girls. For chairpersons, interview schedules sought to collect information about their educational backgrounds. Before the main study, a pretest was carried out in three schools randomly selected to test the validity and reliability of the tools, which were verified by the researcher‟s supervisor. The schools used in the pre-test were not part of the main study. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and the analysis tables duly shown and discussed. Findings from interviews with school Boards of Management Chairpersons were also discussed. The study findings generally indicate, through Pearson‟s Correlation, that there is indeed a relationship between the economic and educational status of parents and the development of talents among lower primary school girls in Mumias. The results indicated that the higher the economic status and education level, the more positive the attitudes towards girls talent development. In line with this, the study recommends that: The government should allocate more funds to provide facilities in schools for talent development, particularly for girls; more teachers should be trained in talent development for girls; and, communities and the private sector/corporate bodies should support the government in talent development activities in learning institutions.
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    School Feeding Programmes and how they Affect Academic Performance of Grade Two Pupils in Nakuru County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Ouma, Amollo Chrispinus; Wanjohi Githinji
    Kenya has over 30 years history of school feeding Programme. It began in 1979 with a government-led school milk programme. The purpose was to improve intellectual capabilities of school going children. A study by the Ministry of Education indicated that 80% of grade two pupils performed poorly in their final examinations with low grades posted by grade two pupils in Gilgil Sub County, there was need to establish whether this Programme has any influence on academic performance. This research work will help primary school head teachers, and administrators to understand better the issues related to nutrition and healthy eating habits. Previous studies have contextual and methodological gaps that were addressed by this study. This research therefore aimed at establishing the influence of school feeding Programmes on academic performance of grade two pupils in public primary schools. The study was guided by the theory of nutrition and the theory of academic achievement. The survey adopted a mixed methodology that made use of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The sample population was 2302 respondents, consisting of 41 head teachers, 79 teachers of grade two, 82 representatives of parents, and 2100 pupils of grade two. A sample of 340 respondents was obtained using the Yamane Formula. Stratified sampling was used in the sub-county of Gilgil to produce five different strata based on the number of zones. Two head teachers, 13 grade two teachers, and two parents from each zone were selected using purposeful sampling. However, 51 grade 2 pupils were selected from each zone using the simple random sample to avoid bias. This sampling process allowed the researcher to get a sample of 10 head teachers, 65 grade two teachers, 10 parents’ representatives and 255 grade two learners. Questionnaires were used to gather data from teachers in grade two, interviews with school heads and parents' representatives. In contrast, a checklist of observations was used to collect data from pupils in grade two. A pilot study was carried among 34 respondents from a sample found from public primary schools in Gilgil, Using the test-re-test technique, reliability was determined and the consistency ratio, r = 0.725, was acquired using the Cronbach Alpha Method, which showed high adequate validity. Qualitative data were analyzed along the study goals using Kitwoods Qualitative Technique of Analysis and presented in narrative forms, while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics and percentages and using Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Test Analysis inferentially with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS Version 23) and presented using tables. This study’s findings contribute to knowledge gap by ascertaining the idea that school feeding Programmes have significant contribution in motivating pupils and enhancing their academic performance. The study found that school feeding Programmes influence pupils’ ability to grasp basic numeracy and linguistics skills. The study suggests that all public primary schools should have school feeding Programmes as a way of motivating grade two pupils and enhancing their academic performance
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    Velopharyngeal Insufficiency on Quality of Life of Adults with Repaired Cleft Palate in Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi City County, Kenya By
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Bundi, Irene Gatwiri; Tom Abuom; Mathew Karia
    Cleft palate is one of the most prevalent birth defects that impacts on the quality of life of both children and adults around the world. It is estimated that 10%-20% of patients with cleft palate will present with Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI) residual post palatal repair. This study evaluated the effects of VPI on the quality of life among adults with repaired cleft palate in order to: to establish the effect of VPI on social interaction, and functional ability; determine the level of accessibility/availability of speech therapy and counseling services; and to also determine the role of speech therapy on communication of these patients. The study was guided by the Self-Verification Theory. The study targeted adults, both males and females with repaired cleft palate at Kenyatta Hospital, Nairobi City County. The study adopted a case study research design. 22 adults with repaired cleft palate, 2 maxillofacial surgeons and 1 speech and language therapist were purposively sampled for the study. Stratified random sampling was used to avoid gender bias. The pilot study was carried out at Kijabe Hospital. The data was collected using questionnaires, and interviews. The data was analyzed with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21 for quantitative data. Categorical data was summarized using frequency tables and proportions. The study found out that VPI had significantly negative effects on different aspects of life of adults with repaired cleft palate; there was lower level of social interaction and functional ability due to challenges with speech production and perception, and low level of accessibility of speech therapy and counseling services. The study recommends that Hospitals should consider adopting speech therapy as a significant healthcare delivery section that will emphasize on improving the wellbeing of patients who need speech therapy and multidisciplinary team, i.e., maxillofacial surgeons, plastic surgeons, orthodontists, in understanding the quality of life for patients undergoing treatment at the facility, hence creation of better protocols in management of these patients.
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    Teenage Mothers’ Involvement in their Children’s Acquisition of Pre-Literacy Skills in Kilifi County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Mugambi, Henry Murong’a; Murong’a Henry Mugambi; Ong’ang’a H. Ouko; Teresa Mwoma
    The main aim of this study was to explore some factors that influence teenage mothers’ involvement in children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills. The specific objectives of the study were: to establish whether teenage mothers’ knowledge on parenting skills influences their involvement in children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills; to determine whether teenage mothers’ level of education influences their involvement in children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills; to establish whether teenage mothers’ socio-economic status influences their involvement in children’s development of pre-literacy skills; and to determine whether social support given to teenage mothers influences their involvement in children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills in selected pre-primary schools in Kilifi County, Kenya. The study was guided by Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems model. The study employed descriptive survey design. Both purposive and stratified random sampling methods were used to generate a sample of 115 teenage mothers with children in pre-primary 2 out of a study population of 1150. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data. The research tools were piloted in two public pre-primary schools and one private pre-primary school in Magarini Sub-County, Kilifi County which were not involved in the actual study Face validity was tested to ensure that the results obtained represented the phenomenon under study. Test-retest method was used to ensure reliability and a correlation co-efficient of 0.78 was yielded. The quantitative data from the questionnaire was coded and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 22) to generate descriptive statistics in terms of frequency and percentage. Qualitative data from the interview schedule was transcribed and then coded as per the objectives. Thematic and narrative methods were used to analyze the qualitative data. In thematic analysis, deductive approach was used. Qualitative data generated from interview schedule was put into themes for easier interpretation and discussed as per the objectives of the study. The study established that teenage mothers do not have adequate knowledge on parenting skills and this in turn limits their involvement in children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills. It was also established that the education level attained by teenage mothers influence their involvement in children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills. The study revealed that the socio-economic status of teenage mothers influences their involvement in children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills. However, teenage mothers who received social support such as instrumental support, financial support and informational, guidance and counseling support were more involved in their children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills than their counterparts who did not receive any form of support. The study concluded that knowledge on parenting skills, education level, socio-economic status and social support given to teenage mothers influence their involvement in children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills. The study recommended that; the county governments should increase the amount of money given to pre-schools, the back to school policy should be totally implemented and professionals such as counselors should offer guidance and counseling and informational support to teenage mothers to promote their involvement in children’s acquisition of pre-literacy skills.