Integration of environmental education into the secondary school curriculum in Kenya: strategies and constraints.
Kanini, Mbwesa Joyce
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Environmental problems at the global, regional and local levels have been escalating at such a rapid rate in the last few decades that they have emerged as a major concern for the international community particularly the educational planners and curriculum developers. Several strategies to tackle these problems have been considered and one of them has been to use the school to create public awareness about the need for environmental protection and conservation. The underlying objective of this study was to determine the actual strategies that have been laid to integrate environmental education in the secondary school curriculum, at the same time highlighting the constraints that have been encountered. The study attempted to investigate the extent to which environmental education has been integrated into the Secondary school curriculum. It looks at the attitude of both teachers and pupils towards the programme and how this has affected the integration. Other attributes of status looked into include: provision of physical and human resources, learning resources to the schools, training of teachers in the programme and some of the constraints experienced in integrating the programme into the school curriculum. The sample of the study was composed of form two students and teachers from fifteen selected Secondary schools in Kajiado, Murang'a and Nairobi District. Data were collected using questionnaires, interview schedule and an observation guide. Using simple descriptive statistics data were analyzed and results presented in tables of frequency distributing. The study revealed that a multi-disciplinary approach has been used in integrating environmental education into the Secondary school curriculum; that teachers and students in Secondary schools have positive attitudes towards environmental education and considered the subject a very basic strategy of dealing with today's environmental crisis; that most teachers had not been adequately trained in environmental education; and that teaching resources especially books on environmental education were not adequate in secondary schools. In conclusion, the findings were examined and then implications discussed. General recommendations were made for the improvement of environmental education in the Secondary school curriculum.