Determinants of on-the-job training: a study of final manufacturing firms in Nairobi-Kenya
Anyoli, Wilfred Ambundo
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This study was designed to investigate the need for on-the-job training and its implication on educational requirements. The main research question that guided the study were:- 1. What brought about the need for additional job training? 2. What were the characteristics of workers who went through on-the-job training (e.g. age, level of schooling, Employment status)? 3. What were the main constraints to additional job training from employers perspective? 4. How many workers were supplied with on-the-job-training for the previous 2 years? 5. Which training providers were used? 6. What other factors affected the quality of on-the-job training provided? The method of data collection involved random sampling of firms; training and personnel managers in Industrial area in Nairobi. A total of 240 firms', and personnel and training managers were randomly sampled. The purpose was to assess the need for providing on-the-job to their employees. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire that was piloted in three manufacturing firms in Industrial area before being used in the study. Comparison of sample to the population in terms of general characteristics (e.g. age, employment status, company performance etc) showed that the sample was fairly representative of the population. The data collected was analysed manually. It was illustrated and presented by simple frequencies like percentages and in a series of summary tables each relating to a question on the questionnaire. Major Findings: The under mentioned findings were established from this study. 1. There existed a significant inverse relationship between the age of the trainee and on-the-job training received. 2. The University degree was the basic consideration for those to be on-the-job training. 3. Turnover rates (quits) was highest in skilled manual occupations. 4. There existed a significant relationship between amount of time spent on-the-job training and the type of occupational level undertaken. 5. Major reasons that brought about the need for on-the-job training were mainly caused by anticipated changes, filling a training gap, failure of jobholder and new technology. Conclusions: From the findings, it was concluded that training in the firms mainly originated from the supply side. This was so because it was from the firm's point of view that the need was perceived and action taken to meet this need. Recommendations: The study recommended: increased Government incentives and minimum wage policy, improved efficiency of skills training, strengthening of employer training, a closer link of training to employment, and a study of training costs as part of an evaluation of economic returns to alternative investment in skills in the formal manufacturing firms in Kenya.