Teachers' factors related to the teaching of art and craft in pre-schools in Kaloleni and Kikambala divisions in Kilifi district
Gumo, Alice W. M.
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Practical subjects such as Art and Craft are important in awakening hidden, talents and enhancing creativity to human beings' (Guilford,1968; Tudor, 1972). The role played by Art and Craft is for holistic growth and development of an individual, self-employment, independence and communication (Hendrick, 1980; Feinburg, 1993;McCupely, 1995). Hence Art and Craft teachers as well as children need to have skills and knowledge in teaching and handling the subjectas well as children. However, this has not been the case. Research revealed that Art and Craft teachers lack skills and knowledge in teaching the subject (Otieno, 1980; Sakwa 1996). Also due to the academic oriented 8.4.4 curriculum and changes that occurring the curriculum, teachers opt to teach the academic or subjects such as mathematics, science and others. Since Art and Craft is non-Examinable in the current curriculum it faces the threat of not being taught. This study was prompted by the need to determine the relationship that existed between teachers' quality (performances) in teaching Art and- Craft and teachers' factors such as academic level, experience, training level, attitudes and knowledge in Art and Craft. The behaviouristic learning theories such as Reinforcement Theory, Classical Conditioning, and Social Learning Theory were adopted to guide the study The study was descriptive, applying the correlation design since the study was focusing on relationships between variables. The dependent variables were teachers' factors and the independent variables were the teachers' quality scores in teaching Art and Craft. The study was carried out in two divisions Kaloleni and Kikambala in Kilifi District. The population was 272 pre-school teachers with a sample of 51 subjects selected through multi-stage sampling method. The' sample comprised all the teachers derived from ten percent (10%) or one tenth C/1O) of the 223 pre-schools in the two divisions. Data were collected through questionnaires completed by pre-school teachers gathered at two different central points.The researcher observed and scored marks when Art and Craft teachers were teaching. The researcher used a modified Teaching Practice Observation Checklist form (TPOC) to score the marks. Datawere then analysed using frequencies, percentages, tables, graphs and figures to summarise and describe the findings. The data were computed in the computer using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and application of Spearman Rank of. Order (RHO) Correlation Statistics to test the hypotheses and determine the nature of the significance alpha /=. 0.05 and 0.01. The hypotheses were tested at significance alpha level = 0.05 The findings revealed that there were a positive correlation in 'the teachers' quality in teaching Art and Craft and the teachers' academic level, training attitudes, and knowledge. It was also found that there was no significance between the teachers' years of experience teaching Art and Craft and the quality of teaching. All the were discussed and recommendations made.