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dc.contributor.advisorMichael Gicheruen_US
dc.contributor.advisorJoshua Mutisoen_US
dc.contributor.authorBuuri, Kaburia Martin
dc.date.accessioned2024-02-02T06:21:30Z
dc.date.available2024-02-02T06:21:30Z
dc.date.issued2023-11
dc.identifier.urihttps://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/27421
dc.descriptionA Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of the Degree of Master of Science (Immunology) in the School of Pure and Applied Sciences of Kenyatta University, November 2023.en_US
dc.description.abstractAflatoxicosis is caused by Aflatoxins. The pathogenic fungi responsible are A. parasiticus and A. flavus that contaminate foods such as maize, rice, groundnuts, sorghum, wheat, millet and cassava among others. Aflatoxins mainly cause health issues that target the liver with fatal consequences. Aflatoxin toxicity range from acute to chronic and disease severity depends on age, diet, nutrition quality, extent of exposure, pre-existing health issues and gender. Preventive strategies are mainly focused on proper pre- and post-harvest food handling especially cereals. Aflatoxicosis is highly prevalent in the eastern region of Kenya despite the existence of preventive measures. The present study was carried out in Makueni County at the County referral hospital, which was selected purposively because it had the highest death rate during the 2004 aflatoxin-poisoning outbreak. The study aimed at establishing the detection level of aflatoxicosis using the Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) urine immunoassay as well as evaluating the level of compliance to the aflatoxin preventive strategies put in place and challenges associated with control of aflatoxicosis by residents of Makueni County. A cross-sectional design was chosen for the study in which one hundred and six volunteers took part. Data were obtained via questionnaires and urine samples were analyzed for presence of Aflatoxin using Aflatoxin M1 immunoassay. Collected data were entered into an excel worksheet and later analyzed using SPSS version 20 with a P value considered significant at < 0.05. Results showed that 99.1% of study participants had AFM1 in the range of 25-2337 pg./ml, with a mean concentration of 637.6 ± 512.7. Notably, majority (n=82; 77.4%) of the residents knew the negative effects of aflatoxin on their health. Additionally, the sampled residents had a compliance rate of 72.6% (n=77) while 26.4 % were not compliant to mitigation measures put in place to minimize aflatoxin contamination. At the baseline, while 67.9% of the residents indicated that handling of cereals hygienically and using proper means to dry and store their farm produce, 1.9% reported that smoking of cereals was the most effective means to prevent aflatoxin contamination. It was concerning that, 29.2% of the residents did not know which method of cereal handling was the most effective in controling aflatoxins. The study concludes that the present prevalence of aflatoxicosis in Makueni County is high despite high rate of compliance with aflatoxins preventive measures. The study recommends further research to be carried out on better aflatoxins preventive methods and the residents to be educated on proper application of mitigation strategies in order to achieve effective control of aflatoxicosis.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.subjectAflatoxinen_US
dc.subjectUrine Immunoassayen_US
dc.subjectMakueni Residentsen_US
dc.subjectCounty Hospitalen_US
dc.titleAflatoxin Detection Rate Using Urine Immunoassay and Compliance Level with Control Strategies among Makueni Residents Attending the County Hospitalen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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