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dc.contributor.advisorElijah Gitongaen_US
dc.contributor.advisorEdna Thanguen_US
dc.contributor.authorKimtai, Rotich Jonathan
dc.date.accessioned2023-08-07T06:55:30Z
dc.date.available2023-08-07T06:55:30Z
dc.date.issued2023
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/26564
dc.descriptionA Research Thesis Submitted In Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Doctor Of Philosophy in Recreation and Sports Management In The School Of Business, Economics and Tourism, Kenyatta University, July, 2023en_US
dc.description.abstractThe Athletic support personnel (ASP) significantly influence athletes' attitudes, perceptions, and use of Performance Enhancing Drugs (PEDs). Among the ASP, General Practitioners and Pharmacists play a substantial role in providing medical and pharmaceutical support to athletes. Health practitioners are in a position to influence, advise, encourage or discourage the use of PEDs to precarious athletes yearning to improve their performance beyond the limit. Nonetheless, the decision of General Practitioners or Pharmacists to encourage or discourage the use of PEDs depends on their knowledge, experience, and attitude toward doping. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate General Practitioners’ and Pharmacists’ doping knowledge, attitudes, and experience from seven purposely selected counties in Kenya and to examine if there were significant differences in doping knowledge and attitude between General Practitioners and Pharmacists in Kenya. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used to examine General Practitioners’ and Pharmacists’ doping knowledge, attitudes, and experiences. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select General Practitioners and Pharmacists from the seven targeted counties. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for the study. Six hundred and fifteen practitioners (250 General Practitioners and 365 Pharmacists) participated in the study. Of these, 151 (60.4%) male and 99 (39.6%) female were General Practitioners, while 209 (57.3%) male and 156 (42.7) female were Pharmacists. Results demonstrated that General Practitioners and Pharmacists in Kenya are well aware of WADA and ADAK. General Practitioners and Pharmacists self-reported average to slightly above average doping knowledge (47.77 ± 14.03 and 46.63 ± 13.36), respectively, where the average doping knowledge was measured at 42.5. Mann-Whitney test results revealed no significant difference in doping knowledge between General Practitioners and Pharmacists (p = .518). General Practitioners and Pharmacists had a negative attitude towards doping (45.23 ± 13.64 and 47.28 ± 13.65), where a score of 59.5 and above implied being positive towards doping attitude. Mann Whitney test showed a significant difference between General Practitioners and Pharmacists towards doping attitude (p = .039). Male respondents demonstrated more doping knowledge, 49.04 ± 13.57, compared to the female respondents, 44.35 ± 13.29. Mann-Whitney test revealed that gender significantly influenced respondents, doping knowledge (p = .006), and attitude towards doping (p = .016). Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that age contributed to significant difference in doping knowledge among Pharmacists (p = .024) but not with the General Practitioners p = .024. Kruskal-Wallis analysis also indicated that work experience contributed remarkable variation in doping knowledge among General Practitioners (p < .001) but not among Pharmacists. In addition, age and work experience demonstrated (Kruskal Wallis test) significant influence on the doping attitude of General Practitioners (p =.003) and (p = .008), but no significant difference was identified among the Pharmacists, p =.301 and p = .063 respectively. Pharmacists in Kenya were an essential source of doping and related information. As many as 155 (25.2%) General Practitioners and Pharmacists had been requested for doping information or substances during their professional work. It was concluded that General Practitioners and Pharmacists in Kenya have unreliable doping knowledge and negative attitudes towards doping. Age significantly influenced the doping knowledge of General Practitioners and Pharmacists. A considerable difference exists in the doping attitude between General Practitioners and Pharmacists. The study recommended more anti-doping education, campaigns, and training that start at the college level to address the low doping knowledge of younger practitioners. An emphasis is needed to involve more female practitioners in anti-doping campaigns to ensure doping knowledge across the board. A study involving all General Practitioners and Pharmacists in Kenya is recommended to provide a comprehensive view of the current doping status in the country.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.subjectAnti-Doping Knowledgeen_US
dc.subjectAttitudesen_US
dc.subjectExperiencesen_US
dc.subjectGeneral Practitionersen_US
dc.subjectPharmacistsen_US
dc.subjectSelected Countiesen_US
dc.subjectKenyaen_US
dc.titleAnti-Doping Knowledge, Attitudes and Experiences of General Practitioners and Pharmacists In Selected Counties in Kenyaen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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