Effectiveness of Intelligence-Led Policing in Prevention of Crime by the Directorate of Criminal Investigation in Mombasa County, Kenya
Kissorio, Tito Kiptoo
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Intelligence-led Policing (ILP) is a framework for conducting policing activities with an aim to bring out more effective, efficient, timely and well-coordinated crime investigation and crime intelligence analysis. Currently, Kenya is experiencing an enormous challenge in criminal investigation matters posing new challenges which need to be addressed if criminal incidences in the country are to be curbed. The study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of Intelligence-led policing in criminal investigations at the Directorate of Criminal Investigations with a focus on Mombasa County. The specific objectives of the study were to: (i) Determine the application of human resource aspects in prevention of crime, (ii) Establish the use of information and knowledge in prevention of crime; (iii) Determine the utilization of intelligence-based strategies in prevention of crime, and (iv) Estimate the use of information systems in prevention of crime. The study was guided by the Open Systems and the Structural Contingency theories and utilized the cross-sectional research design. The study used the census method to reach all the 46 detectives in four stations of Changamwe, Kisauni, Bamburi and Central stations. Questionnaire was the primary data collection instrument and data collected was analysed and presented by the use of descriptive measures, tables and graphs. A Spearman rank correlation was run to establish the relationship between Intelligence Led Policing aspects and crime prevention. Based on this finding, the study concluded that intelligence-led policing strategies used by the Directorate are related to crime prevention. The Spearman correlation results indicated that all the four ILP variables had a positive correlation on crime prevention at α = .001, (rs = .410, P = .005), (rs = .225, P = .133), (rs = .558, P = .001) and (rs = .415, p = .004) for human resource aspects, knowledge and information, intelligence strategies and information systems respectively. The findings show that the success of the intelligence-led policing is hinged on comprehensive crime intelligence which enables the Directorate to get a better understanding of the criminal environment. The study recommends the need for the Directorate to improve its human resource aspects through employing more detectives to boost the operations of crime prevention. In addition, the government should allocate more resources to train law enforcers to enhance their application on surveillance and intelligence collection which are important aspects of proactive prevention of crime. The study recommends the Directorate improves the current information systems and databases by developing forensics and its associated information systems which is still lacking as this will aid the identification and screening of the criminals. The study therefore recommends that more resources be channelled to enhancing electronic and Human Intelligence (HUMINT) sources which make it possible to access actionable signal intelligence from criminal networks which is then corroborated with electronic intelligence in prevention of crime.