Public Private Partnership and Implementation of Affordable Housing Projects in Mombasa County, Kenya
Mswaili, Nawushao Victoria
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More than half of the world's six billion inhabitants live in cities and towns. Governments are under increasing obligation to fulfill fundamental human essentials including shelter. In Kenya, most County Government PPP affordable housing projects have failed or halted. The Government of Kenya states that both the National and County Governments have had difficulty in implementing projects. The PPP application is still in its infancy in most poor countries. The Affordable Housing Project (AHP) in Mombasa uses PPP in form of joint ventures than other existing projects. This form of PPP provides a knowledge gap in assessing the effects of public private partnerships on the implementation of affordable housing projects in Mombasa County.This research explores the effects of public private partnerships on affordable housing projects in Mombasa County, Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to determine the effects of stakeholders’ management, development partner’s commitment, legal framework and political systems in the implementation of affordable housing in Mombasa County. The study was guided by agency theory and stakeholder theory in understanding the variables. Data was collected by use of a structured questionnaire. Thus, this survey employed a descriptive research design. The study used a proportionate stratified random sampling to select the study sample from the County officials, Non-governmental organizations managers, development partners’ managers and Households heads from in Likoni Customs estates, Likoni flats and Changamwe estate in the affordable housing projects. Pre-testing was done at Likoni flats and customs where validity and reliability was tested. A total of 395 questionnaire were sent out to the stakeholders in affordable housing project estates in Mombasa County that include county official managers in DoLPH (15), NGO’s managers (25), development partners managers (5) engaged in affordable housing and household heads (350). Out of the 395 questionnaires, 77 were incomplete and had missing data hence were excluded in the study. Thus, the response rate was 80.5%. In the inferential analysis, all the predictor items had a Cronbach’s Alpha value of .965. A response rate of 80.5% (318) was achieved. The odds ratio measures the ratio of two odds. In the study the Odds ratio measures the independent variables versus the dependent variable. The odds of effective implementation of affordable housing project increases by a factor of 14.197 on stakeholder’s management, 0.004 on development partners Commitment, 6.184 on legal framework, and 7.986 on political systems for every one unit increase on affordable housing project in PPP framework. Hence, the predictor variables were found to be statistically significant in the effect of the implementation of PPP in affordable housing projects. Moreover, the correlation was 0.430 on stakeholders’ management, 0.545 on development partners Commitment, 0.757 on legal framework indicator and a very great extent correlation 0.845 on political system indicator. Therefore, for effective implementation of affordable housing projects, the influence of the stakeholders’ management should first be in place. Secondly, the legal framework coupled with political system framework should be in support. Finally, the development commitment should be promoted. The County Government of Mombasa should ensure there is regulated interactions amongst stakeholders in the contextual framework of affordable housing. There should also be promotion of an institutionalist-stakeholder approach where there is multi-dimension approach in addressing housing needs.