Ethnic conflicts and insecurity in Kenya: a case of Molo in Nakuru County: 1992-2008
Ngului, James Ikumbu
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Ethnic conflicts and insecurity in Kenya have been a major source of conflicts since independence. Insecurity in Kenya have an ethnic dimension. The study focused on the causes, effects and interventions to ethnic conflicts and insecurity by the Kenya government and other stakeholders with reference to Molo Sub-County of Nakuru County, between 1992 and 2008. The specific objectives of the study were to analyzing the major causes of ethnic conflicts in Molo Sub County between 1992 and 2008, assessing the level of instigation into ethnic conflicts and incitement by the political class, and how opinion leaders, Church leaders, local administrators and elders react to the menace as well as determining the effectiveness of opinion leaders, Church leaders, local administrators and elders in preventing ethnic conflicts in Molo Sub County. The study was guided by the theory of the plural society model advanced by Smith and Greed. The Grievance model of Collier and Paul was also applied in the study. The research uses both the qualitative and quantitative approaches to gather and analyze the required information. The presentation of the data uses descriptive approach and the presentation uses graphs, pie-charts, and frequency tables. Research ethics was observed strictly to avoid compromising the confidentiality of the respondents and studied work. Data were was collected using both primary and secondary approaches comprising of a sample of 385 respondents sampled from a survey population of 156,732 from Molo Sub-County, Nakuru County (2019 Kenya Population Council). Primary information was collected through interviews and administering questionnaires. Secondary data was gathered through examining relevant critical non- Governmental Organizations reports as well as government official files. The study participants were chosen using purposive sampling, random and snowballing sampling techniques. Secondary information was sourced from newspapers books, journals, and articles, from public and private college libraries and included thesis/projects and reports from the Kenya National Archives. Online sources were also be used. Some of the findings of the study indicated that, land in Molo subcounty is such a valuable resource that, it triggers inter-ethnic conflicts easily. Political instigations, incitements, negative ethnic stereotypes were also found as key social factors which influenced ethnic conflicts. Based on the results of this reseearch, the researcher recommended capacity building for the opinion leaders, church leaders, local administrators and elders so as to give them the necessary peace building and conflict management skills to address land related inter-ethnic conflicts with ease. It was recommended that, Politicians who instigate ethnic conflicts should be prosecuted and made to compensate for the loses that are incurred during the conflicts. The different ethnic groups should be encouraged to have regular dialogues to reduce friction in the event of ethnic impasse as well has having peace agreements and sanctions to ensure social order among the communities to enhance ethnic cohesion. Finally, the Government should provide multiagency approaches which would enable the public to participate in community policing and other community safety initiatives.