Humanitarian Intervention and Conflict Situation in Somalia, 1992-2015
Nyabicha, Osiemo Obed
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This study examined humanitarian intervention and the conflict situation in Somalia 1992-2015. The specific objectives of the study included examining the conflict trends in the Somalia, exploring the various debates on humanitarian interventions and examining the humanitarian missions that on stability in Somalia. Historical research design was adopted to explore the escalation of conflict in Somalia despite humanitarian intervention. The targeted population of the study included representatives of regional and international humanitarian organizations in Somalia, members of civil society, academicians, government officials, security experts and the Somali population living in Kenya. The study used purposive sampling procedure and snowballing to identify the targeted population of specialists on the Somalia violence. Primary and secondary sources were utilized in analyzing the information. Primary sources included data from questionnaires and key informant interviews. Secondary data included data from books, journals, articles and other existing information on the Somali crisis. This study adopted the Just War Theory and the Fiduciary theory in explaining humanitarian intervention in relation to the Somalia crisis, methods used to terminate the war, and security and political developments guided by the assertions of the Just war theory and the fiduciary theory that evaluate whether the reasons of going to war have been achieved. The findings indicate that after the collapse of the state in 1991, the dynamics of the conflict changed and conflict trends had been evolving. The study findings from the humanitarian intervention doctrine agree with majority of other scholar’s findings that there has been use of force by foreign states with an aim of saving civilians from a violent conflict, without the consent of the affected state just like Somalia. The findings also noted that the nature of sovereignty has eroded from absolute state to having the checks by the international community. The findings further indicate that the new concept of Responsibility to Protect (R2P) redefined the concept of state sovereignty; the norm was to ensure that mass violations of human rights in violent conflicts were addressed by the international community. The findings revealed that the United Nations resolved to deploy the United Nations mission assistance mission (UNISOM I) in trying to restore peace and protect humanitarian operations. In December 1992, a more robust humanitarian intervention (United Task Force) was authorized in support of UNISOM I, which was mandated to use all necessary means to establish a safe Somalia. The United Nations Security Council approved the transition of UNITAF to UNISOM II in 1993 with a mandate of covering nation-building responsibilities and restoring law and order in Somalia. African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) was deployed in 2007 and urged to use all necessary measures to ensure the establishment of the transitional institutions of the Somalia government and bolster dialogue and reconciliation. This study sought to add more knowledge for the academicians and the international community and thus act as a guide in the process of finding peace and establishing governance in Somalia. establishing governance in Somalia. Equally, the study provided insights to the Somalia community in support of the humanitarian intervention efforts in the realization of long lasting peace in Somalia.