Epidemiology of Bovine Fasciolosis in Kinango, Kwale County, Kenya
Foustine, Odede John
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Bovine fasciolosis is known globally to be an important parasitic disease of the cattle. It is mainly caused by two trematode species; Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Both species have been known to cause the disease in Kenya. However, there are few recorded epidemiological data on bovine fasciolosis in Kenya which is a disease of great economic importance to livestock farming. The current study was undertaken with the aim of investigating the epidemiology of bovine fasciolosis in Kinango sub-County of Kwale County. The percentage prevalence of fasciolosis was determined by retrospective study and the coprological examination. In the retrospective report, a 5 year study was conducted between years of 2011 to 2015 using retrieved data from the two main abattoirs of Mariakani and Kasemeni. For the cross-sectional study, a 5 months study was conducted between November, 2016 and March, 2017 and fecal samples were collected randomly from 295 adult cattle and all fecal samples analyzed for Fasciola species eggs using the fecal sedimentation test at Veterinary Investigation Laboratory (V.I.L) of Mariakani. Prevalence of fasciolosis was calculated as the number of cattle found to be infected by Fasciola parasites expressed as a percentage of the total number of the cattle slaughtered. The livestock rearing practices carried out by the livestock owners in the study area were captured using a standard questionnaire. Using the average weight and market price of a bovine liver, the monetary loss occasioned by condemnation of Fasciola parasite infected livers were calculated. The raw data were recorded in a Microsoft excel spread sheet during the field survey and then encoded in the Microsoft Excel database and analyzed using the SPSS Version 24 Statistical software. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data collected using questionnaires. Inferential statistics of chi-square was used to determine the % prevalence of the disease as well as significant differences. A p value less or equal to 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results from the retrospective study indicated that a total of 57,577 cattle were slaughtered between the period and 1,600 cattle livers were recorded to be positive for Fasciola parasite hence a prevalence rate of 2.8%. The coprological examination of the liver indicated a prevalence of 26.1% of bovine fasciolosis in Kinango sub-County. The coprological examination through standard sedimentation revealed a relatively higher (26.1%) prevalence of bovine fasciolosis than the prevalence findings from the retrospective study. Out of the 295 fecal samples analyzed, 77 fecal samples were found to be positive for Fasciola hepatica eggs giving a prevalence rate of 26.1%. The study showed that risk factors such as age of cattle, level of education of livestock farmers, cattle breeds and regions of cattle farms didn’t show significant effect on the prevalence of infection (p>0.05). However, sex, cattle attendance and access to veterinary services revealed significant difference (p<0.05). The economic loss incurred due to condemned liver was estimated to be approximately US$ 20,571. Based on these findings, the present study concludes that, bovine fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica was prevalent in Kinango Sub-County, Kwale County and caused great economic loss to the livestock industry. It is therefore, recommended that the ministries of Health, Agriculture and Trade at both the national and county government levels use the current results to draw up policies that are aimed at controlling fasciolosis.
- MST-Zoological Sciences