Antioxidant, Anti-Inﬂammatory, Acute Oral Toxicity, and Qualitative Phytochemistry of The Aqueous Root Extract of Launaea cornuta (Hochst. Ex Oliv. & Hiern.)
Akimat, Evans Kapanat
Omwenga, George Isanda
Moriasi, Gervason Apiri
Ngugi, Mathew Piero
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The root and leaf extracts of Launaea cornuta have been locally used in traditional medicine for decades to manage inﬂammatory conditions and other oxidative-stress-related syndromes; however, their pharmacologic efﬁcacy has not been scientiﬁcally investigated and validated. Accordingly, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant activity, anti-inﬂammatory (in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo) efﬁcacy, acute oral toxicity, and qualitative phytochemical composition of the aqueous root extract of L. cornuta. The ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and the 2,2-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test methods were used to determine the studied plant extract’s antioxidant activity. Besides, the anti-inﬂammatory efﬁcacy of the studied plant extract was investigated using in vitro (anti-proteinase and protein denaturation), ex vivo (membrane stabilization), and in vivo (carrageenaninduced pawoedema in Swiss albino mice) methods. The studied plant extract demonstrated signiﬁcant in vitro antioxidant effects, which were evidenced by higher DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP activities, in a concentration-dependent manner (p<0.05). Generally, the studied plant extract exhibited signiﬁcant in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo anti-inﬂammatory efﬁcacy, respectively, and in a concentration/dose-dependent mannercompared with respective controls (p<0.05). Moreover, the studied plant extract did not cause any observable signs of acute oral toxicity, even at the cut-off dose of 2000 mg/Kg BW (LD50>2000 mg/Kg BW), and was thus considered safe. Additionally, qualitative phytochemistry revealed the presence of various antioxidant- and anti-inﬂammatory-associated phytochemicals, which were deemed responsible for the reported pharmacologic efﬁcacy. Further studies to characterise bioactive molecules and their mode(s) of pharmacologic efﬁcacy are encouraged.