Community Policing and its Effect on Crime Management in Mombasa County
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The security environment continues to face dynamic issues and prospects that demand new strategies. Majority of nations worldwide Kenya included, began to adopt CP as strategy of the 21st Century. Despite the adoption of the concept, the prevalence of crime has remained high in several regions in Kenya including Mombasa County. This is evident as in 2016; police received reports of an aggregate of 6,986 offences compared to reported cases of 2,496 in 2015. This investigation hence, aimed at ascertaining the effect of CP on crime management in Mombasa County. The investigation's objectives were derived from the operational concepts of Community Policing. The specific objectives comprised; to ascertain the degree at with re-oriented operations of the police in line with CP concept, to assess the extent of established partnerships in the framework of Community Policing and lastly to examine the emphasis that had been placed on crime prevention in the operationalization of CP in Mombasa County. Descriptive research design was employed to conduct the investigation. The investigation targeted 692 police staff and members of Nyumba kumi households in Mombasa County from which a sample size of 69 members, male and female above 18 old, were picked using stratified random sampling. Social capital theory and the Broken Window formed the basis and anchor for the research. The primary data was sourced through structured and open-ended questionnaires. The quantitative and qualitative data obtained from the respondents was presented using tables and figures. Measures of central tendency were used to analyse descriptive data. Respondents‟ views were analysed through content analysis. The study found that re-oriented operations through community policing was implemented through survey of citizens to allow the agency point out needs and prime concerns; there were recruitment and selection approaches aimed at applicants suited to CP undertaking, and there were staff assessments to strengthen CP and problem-solving. The investigation‟s outcomes also pointed out that the involvement in policing practice by the community is done through frequent forums held to discuss the crime issues; police and the community members worked beside one another in the identification and reporting of crimes; and there was trust between security officers and the public making it easier to report crime. The study also found that the influence of CP and crime management were reduced physical conflict between the general public and security officers; reduced crime on the properties; increase in the number of report cases by the citizen at the police station; and positive attitude of the citizens in regards to the police work. The study concluded that Mombasa County Police has greatly established partnerships in its approach to Community Policing and the impact it has had on crime management. The study further concluded that a lot of emphasis on prevention has been adopted in the implementation in CP in Mombasa County and its effects on crime management. The study concluded that Mombasa County Police has re-oriented its operations in line with the concept of CP and what effect has it had crime management. The study recommends the following; increased funding for community policing, increased police and community forums, increased police posts and ease in accessing of police services this will reduce the crime rate in the county. Further, there should be increase in the utilization of technology in a manner that encourages community partnership.