Teachers’ Perception on the Effectiveness of Head Teachers’ Supervisory Role on Teaching and Learning of Adaptive Skills by Learners with Intellectual Disabilities
Ruteere, Rosallin Kananu
Awori, Beatrice Bunyasi
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The purpose of this study was to explore teachers’ perception on the effectiveness of head teachers’ supervisory role on teaching and learning of adaptive skills by learners with Intellectual Disabilities (ID), Kenya. The study used Effective School Theory advanced by Lezotte. A descriptive survey design involving both qualitative and quantitative approaches was used. The target population was 227 respondents (207 learners, 5 head teachers and 15 teachers). The sample size was 124 respondents (104 learners, 15 teachers and 5 Head teachers). Purposive sampling was used to select special schools and units. Stratified sampling technique was used to divide population into strata and then through simple random sampling, the exact respondents were identified, i.e., head teachers, teachers and learners in special programmes. Data was collected by use of interview guide for head teachers, observational check list for learners and questionnaire for teachers. Piloting was conducted in Kathelwa Special Unit in Igembe Central Sub-county. Test-retest method was done and a coefficient level of 0.7 was obtained. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS Version 23.0 while qualitative data was analysed thematically. Data was presented using tables and figures for quantitative data while qualitative data was presented using reported verbatims and narratives. The key finding of this study was that majority of head teachers did not use appropriate instructional supervision skills due to lack of essential professional qualifications and knowledge of adaptive skills for learners with intellectual disabilities. The finding also established that teachers perceived majority of head teachers as ineffective in instructional supervision as they did not orientate or guide them in teaching strategies or even skills to teach their learners. The study also found that lack of adequate training and knowledge in adaptive skills, limited provision of teaching and learning resources hindered effective instructional supervision. The study recommended that there should be a policy that head teachers for special institutions be trained in the area of that disability so as to benefit both teachers and learners. The study also recommended that the government, through the ministry of education to provide and allocate adequate funds for both refresher courses and seminars for teachers and also for acquiring teaching and learning resources.