Multidrug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter lari isolated from asymptomatic school-going children in Kibera slum, Kenya [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]
Gathura, Peter B.
Gicheru, Michael M.
Wandia, Beautice M.
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Background: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in asymptomatic school-going children and establish the antibiotic resistant patterns of the isolates towards the drugs used to treat campylobacteriosis, including macrolides, quinolones and tetracycline. Campylobacter spp. are a leading cause of enteric illness and have only recently shown resistant to antibiotics. Methods: This study isolated Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari, in stool samples from asymptomatic school-going children in one of the biggest urban slums in Kenya. The disc diffusion method using EUCAST breakpoints was used to identify antibiotic-resistant isolates, which were further tested for genes encoding for tetracycline resistances using primer-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results: In total, 580 stool samples were collected from 11 primary schools considering both gender and age. Subjecting 294 biochemically characterized Campylobacter spp. isolates to genus-specific PCR, 106 (18.27% of stool samples) isolates were confirmed Campylobacter spp. Out of the 106 isolates, 28 (4.83%) were Campylobacter coli, 44 (7.58%) were Campylobacter jejuni while 11 (1.89%) were Campylobacter lari. Campylobacter jejuni had the highest number of isolates that were multi-drug resistant, with 26 out of the 28 tested isolates being resistant to ciprofloxacin (5 mg), nalidixic acid (30 mg), tetracycline (30 mg) and erythromycin (15 mg). Conclusions: In conclusion, a one-health approach, which considers overlaps in environment, animals and human ecosystems, is recommended in addressing campylobacteriosis in humans, since animals are the main reservoirs and environmental contamination is evident.