Effects of Police Reforms on Leadership within the Kenya Police: A Study of the Directorate of Criminal Investigation Headquarters
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In the year 2010, the Kenya police force underwent a reform which sought to revamp the police service and address cases of police welfare, impunity by rogue officers, inefficiency and gross human rights violations. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of police reforms on leadership within the Kenya police service in reference to the Directorate of Criminal Investigation. The study was based on the objectives that include establishing the factors affecting leadership in the national police service in Kenya, defining the relationship between the factors and police reforms in Kenya and interrogating the strategies towards addressing challenges to police leadership in the current reforms. The study was based on functional leadership theory. Data was collected from police officers in the DCI headquarters and the members of public in Kiambu County. The target population was 200 police officers at the DCI headquarters. The researcher used stratified random sampling to select 60 police officers for the study. Data was collected by the use of questionnaires for police officers and members of public. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics generated using SPSS. Qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis. Data was edited and coded into SPSS for effective analysis. The quantitative data was presented in form of frequency tables and graphs for quick and easy interpretation. The qualitative data was presented in prose form. The study established that the respondents indicated that organizational structure, education of the police, organizational culture and police-community relationship in the police service affected the leadership. The respondents indicated that organizational structure in the police service, education of the police, organizational culture and police-community relationship affected police leadership to a great extent. The study established that these factors positively affected police leadership. The study established that the police leadership faced challenges in the current reforms. The respondents indicated that police leadership had not established strategies to mitigate the challenges facing them. The study concluded that organizational structure, education level of police officers, organizational culture, police-community relationship and organizational structure all affects the leadership within the DCI headquarters to a great extent. The police service has not adopted strategies to mitigate the challenges facing them in the current reforms. The study recommends that the oversight committee, steering police reforms in Kenya need to initiate an organizational culture that is change driven, this will help to accommodate the dynamicity of leadership challenges that depress the overall reform process. Thorough campaigns should be held to sensitize the public on embracement of community policing strategy. The study proposes that a similar research need to be conducted this time assessing the role of county commissioner’s role in shaping police leadership under decentralized government.