Major causes of outmigration in Mukurweini, Nyeri County, Kenya 2000-2015
Kinyua, Paul Kamau
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This study focused on finding the major factors explaining the decline in population in Mukurweini Region, Nyeri County, Kenya 2000-2015. The researcher used 1989, 1999 and 2009 censuses data to determine the trend. The study was hinged on education level, economic status, age and gender with emphasis on how they affect Outmigration in Mukurweini. The study was based on the neoclassical theory pioneered by Harris and Todaro (1970) which indicates that international migration is influenced by the world‟s availability and need for labour. This was prompted by the data collected in the previous population censuses. Mukurweini West Division was used as a case study as the area of study is of similar climatic conditions, economic activities and cultural background but a division like Muhito could be having a different trend as it hosts Mukurweini town which is the headquarters of the Sub-County. Descriptive survey design using both quantitative and qualitative approaches was used in this study. The survey design enabled the researcher to explore a wide range of factors. The target population was all the 3913 households in the area of study. The sample size of the homesteads was determined by using the formula indicated by Kathuri and Pals (1993). The formula gave us 202 homesteads which were selected through snowball sampling. The household head was interviewed in every homestead. Questionnaires were used to gather data for the study. The instruments were tested among 5 households in the adjacent divisions, which share the characteristics with Mukurweini West Division. The researcher used the drop and pick method to administer the questionnaires. The completed questionnaires were picked from the participants at the agreed time. Data collected were processed, coded and analyzed to enable the researcher to answer the research objectives and questions. The descriptive analyses, including frequencies, percentages, tables, and figures were used. They were applied in organizing, summarizing, data description and identifying the characteristics of the sample population. Inferential statistics used the Pearson‟s correlation and the chi-square test of association. This was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. This is the version that runs on Windows Xp. In this research, the participants‟ information and identity were kept confidential and information gathered was only used for the purposes of the study. The study found that education was related to outmigration in Mukurweini area and that economic status was significantly related to outmigration. Age and outmigration were also related in a statistically significant way. The most vulnerable gender to outmigration was male. The researcher recommends that employment opportunities should be created and agriculture sector be revitalized in Mukurweini Region so to employ and also feed the growing population so that those who are educated can secure employment in the area. The study concluded that sensitization be carried out so that the ones who are economically stable do not leave the area to settle in other areas.