Relationship between school infrastrcture, pupil- . teacher ratio, learning materials and standard three pupils achievement in mathematics in Dandora zone, Nairobi county
Mathematics plays a vital role in individual, national and international development. Mathematics for young children lays a foundation of the concepts and skills on which future learning is built on. However, despite the role it plays in society, in Kenya it has continued being a major concern because of the persistent poor performance which has been below average. Although several factors have been pointed out as making major contribution, limited studies have focused on relationship between infrastructure, pupil-teacher ratio and learning materials on pupil's performance in mathematics. The study investigated the relationship between school infrastructure, pupil-teacher ratio and teaching-learning materials. Ecological model by Urrie Bronfenbrenner guided the study. The study employed descriptive research design. The dependent variable was pupils' achievement in mathematics; while the independent variable was conducive school environment. The study targeted all the primary schools and standard three pupils and teachers in Dandora Zone. Purposive sampling was used to select the location of the study and standard three pupils, while stratified random sampling and simple random techniques were used to select categories of schools and standard three teachers to be involved in the study. The sample consisted of 19 primary schools, 4 public, 15 private and all the standard three teachers and pupils in the sampled schools. Questionnaire, pupils achievement proforma and observation schedule were used to collect the required data. Content validity was used to ensure the validity of instruments, while test-retest method was used to determine reliability of the instruments. Data collected was coded and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Quantitative and Qualitative methods were used to analyse data. Descriptive statistics computed included frequencies, means and percentages. The inferential statistics used to test null hypotheses was chi-square test at alpha value 0.05(p<0.05). The results from data analysis revealed that there was significant relationship between availability of infrastructure and pupils achievement in mathematics where p value was 0.0294. Materials and pupil-teacher ratio were not found to be significantly related to pupils' achievement in mathematics where p value was 0.294 and 0.386 respectively. It was concluded that school environment in most schools was not conducive hence affected pupils performance in mathematics. The study recommended emphasis to be placed on importance of school environment through sensitization and empowerment seminars for primary school teachers and other stakeholders. The Ministry of Education Science and Technology should liaise with other stakeholders to provide schools with adequate infrastructure, teaching-learning materials and also enforce policy on staffing quality and pupil-teacher ratio in order to facilitate learning and improve pupil's performance in mathematics.