In Vivo Safety of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Lippia javanica in Mice Models
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Rural dwellers in Kenya often resort to herbal remedy and dietary control in the treatment of several diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, cancer and cardiac diseases. The therapeutic applications of such plants has largely rested upon their long-term clinical experience, however, their safety profiles has not been well evaluated. The present study aimed at determining the in vivo toxic effects of orally and intraperitoneally administering Lippia javanica leaf extract at dosage levels of 450 mg/kgbwt, 670 mg/kgbwt and 1000 mg/kgbwt daily for 28 days on the body and organ weights, hematological indices and biochemical parameters in normal male swiss white albino mice. During this period, the mice were allowed free access to mice pellets and water ad libitum and observed for signs of general illness, change in behavior and mortality. Phytochemical composition was assessed using standard procedures. The oral and intraperitoneal administration of 450 mg/kgbwt, 670 mg/kgbwt and1000 mg/kg body weight of the extract decreased the body weight gain and altered the organ to body weight percentage of the brain, kidney, liver, heart, testes and lungs. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of the same doses caused a change in levels of RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, PLT, MPV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and biochemical parameters: AST, ALP, ALT, GGT, CK, α-AMYL, LDH, T-BIL, D-BIL, I-BIL, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, BUN, UA, Urea and Creatinine. The extracts contained alkaloids, sterols, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins.