In-Vivo Antidiabetic Activity and Safety of The Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Kleinia squarrosa
Agyirifo, D. S.
Ngugi, M. P.
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Kleinia squarrosa has been used traditionally to manage several diseases including diabetes, however, its efficacy and safety is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine in-vivo hypoglycemic activity and safety of the aqueous stem bark extracts of this plant in male swiss white albino mice. The antidiabetic activity was screened in alloxan induced diabetic mice using oral and intraperitoneal routes. The safety of the extract was studied in mice that were orally and intraperitoneally administered with 1 g/kg body weight daily for 28 days by recording changes in body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters and histology. Mineral composition was estimated using total reflection X-ray fluorescence system (TRXF) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Phytochemical composition was assessed using standard procedures. The extract showed hypoglycemic activity at dose levels of 50, 100, 200, 300 mg/kg body weight. Administration of 1 g/kg body weight of the extract decreased the body weight gain using both routes, and altered the organ to body weight percentage of the liver and lungs for intraperitoneal route while oral route only altered the liver. Oral administration of the same dose caused a change in levels of RBC, ALP, AST, LDH CK and Creatinine while the same intraperitoneal dose caused a change in RBC, WBC, Hb, PCV, PLT, MCH, MCHC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes and biochemical parameters: AST, ALT, GGT, LDH, T-BIL, D-BIL, Urea and Creatinine. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration caused significant histological lesions to the kidney, liver and spleen. The extracts contained tannins, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids. Sodium, Chlorine, Potassium, Calcium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron, Copper, Zinc, Arsenic, Cadmium, Magnesium, Nickel and Lead were present in the extracts at levels below the recommended daily allowance. The observed hypoglycemic activity and slight toxicity could be associated with the phytochemicals present in this plant extract.