Determinants of career advancement among female secondary school teachers in Masinga district, Machakos County
Nzioka, Charles Kioko
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Women Play an important role in society as procreators of the coming generation, as well as producers of goods and services. In the modern economies they are playing an important role in the labour force. However, in many Kenyan communities, traditional perceptions of women as inferior to men continue to prevail as many people invoke the preservation of African culture to justify the subordination of women. In recent years, women‟s participation in management in all spheres is being advocated. This study sought to determine the challenges facing career advancement by female secondary school teachers in Masinga District. The objectives of the study were to determine the influence of culture on career advancement of female secondary school teachers, establish the influence of stereotyping on the career advancement of female secondary school teachers, find out the effect of familial factors e.g environmental factors such as religion, friends among others on the career advancement of female secondary school teachers and to find out how organizational set up such as location of the learning institution have affected career advancement of female secondary school teachers. The study will be of help to the government in making policies that will help address the problem of career advancement by women, the secondary school teachers, other stakeholders in the gender sector and researchers. The study adopted a descriptive research design in which all the 123 female secondary school teachers were studied. The study used questionnaires to collect data from the respondents. Data was then analysed using desctiptive statistics such as the percentages and frequency distributions. Presentation was in the form of pie charts, graphs and tables. The study established that the even though the perception of the society about the career women being positive, the women are still perceived as home makers who should be there at home to take care of the children which influenced their career advancement. The study further established that despite some female teachers showing ability to outperform their male counterparts, the male teachers were favored in some instances for promotions just because they are men and because the position cannot be given to a woman. The study also established that the familial factors like the house chore duties affected the female teachers‟ career performance as they missed to report o duty on many occasions, reported late for work as they have to leave the house in order. Finally, the study established that despite the female teachers efforts being recognized by the school, their were largely bypassed during promotions despite their qualifications. The study recommended that the government to make policies aimed at empowering career women so as to making them as equally important as men; more policies that will eliminate such connotations as home maker illegal should be enforced and more women encouraged to advance their careers; the communities should sensitized on the need to see career women just as able as men and the house chore duties should be for everyone and not left to the woman and all the teachers should be regarded as equal regardless of their gender and their efforts and qualifications recognized equally.