BC-Department of Agricultural Resources Management (ARM)

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    The Orma Boran—ten years of field observations
    (Towards Increased Use of Trypanotolerance: Current Research and Future Directions, 1994) Munga, Leonard
    In 1913 Balfour reported Bos indicus cattle in the Koalib area of Sudan which he claimed were immune to trypanosomiasis (Balfour, 1913). Since that date trypanotolerance has been reported in other Bos indicus breeds in Sudan, Zaire, Uganda and Kenya (see Dolan, 1987 for references). Yet, despite these reports in the literature, little effort has been made to investigate the nature or extent of differential susceptibility to trypanosomiasis amongst
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    Economic returns of organic and mineral fertilizer inputs for soil nutrient replenishment in Meru South district, central Kenya.
    (Kenya Forestry Research Institute, 2009) Mugwe, J. N.; Muriuki, J.; Mugendi, D.N.; Kung'u, J.B.; Mucheru-Muna, M.; Merckx, R.
    Farmers in the central highlands of Kenya are experiencing low land productivity due to declining soil fertility. On-farm trials were established at two sites in Meru South district, Kenya in 2004 to evaluate economics of using organic and mineral fertilizer inputs to replenish soil fertility. Net benefit, benefit to cost ratio and return to labor were used as the main economic tools. Relationship between ranking of the inputs based on the number of farmers choosing them and ranking based on calculated economic returns was determined using Spearman correlation. In Mukuuni site, net benefits for the two seasons were highest for tithonia plus fertilizer (USD420.9 ha-1), tithonia (USD410.5 ha-1) and tithonia plus manure (USD393.2 ha-1). Similarly in Murugi, net benefits were highest for tithonia plus fertilizer (USD337.9 ha-1), tithonia plus manure (USD314.5 ha-1) and tithonia (USD294.5 ha-1). Returns to labor were highest for fertilizer, manure and tithonia in Mukuuni while in Murugi, fertilizer, tithonia plus fertilizer and tithonia had the highest returns to labor. Majority of the farmers chose technologies combining organic and mineral fertilizer for further trial with 70.5% in Mukuuni and 54.1% in Murugi. Manure and tithonia were the preferred organic inputs possibly due to multiple benefits perceived, though labor requirements were high. There was a positive correlation between ranking of the inputs based on the number of farmers choosing them and ranking based on calculated economic returns. This suggests that economic returns could be used to predict choice of technologies for adoption by farmers.
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    Dissemination of Integrated Soil Fertility Management Practices using Participatory Approaches in the Central Highlands of Kenya
    (2011) Mugwe, J. N.; Mugendi, D.N.; Mucheru-Muna, M.; Merckx, R.; Vanlauwe, B.; Bationo, A.; Mairura, F.
    Declining soil fertility is a critical agricultural challenge facing smallholders in central Kenya. A study to improve soil fertility and farm productivity in the area was carried out during the period 2003 to 2007. Problem- solving tools were used to build the broad conceptual and methodological approaches needed to address farming constraints. The study identified farming systems constraints and disseminated “best-bet” integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) interventions using participatory methods and mutual collaborative action. This paper describes processes in the participatory approaches, project milestones and joint experiences that were gained. The participatory approaches included Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), Mother-baby approach (M-B approach), Farmer training groups (FTGs), Annual stakeholder planning meetings, Village training workshops, Cross-site visits and Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation (PM & E). Food shortage was the main problem identified by farmers resulting from low crop yields. The causes of poor yields were biophysical factors, but several socio-economic factors influenced farmer ability to manipulate farm productivity. Village training workshops attracted a 20% higher farmer turnout than mother trial field days. Farmer and experimental evaluations showed that the most favoured technologies were tithonia, manure, manure-fertilizer combinations, and tree legumes while the most effective dissemination pathways included demonstrations, farmer training grounds, field days and farmers’ groups. Using PM& E procedures, farmers developed indicators that they used to monitor progress, and annual ISFM milestones were achieved, leading to the achievement of overall project objectives. Innovative adjustments to ISFM technology dissemination were proposed by both farmers and scientists.
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    Import Substitution as an Industrial Strategy: The Tanzania Case
    (2008-12-04) Kuuya, P.M.
    1st Five 2nd Five ammonia anhydrite Arusha Declaration backward linkages balance of payments British calcium sulphate capacity capital intensive capitalist cement industry Cement Manufacturers LTD cement plant cement production chemical synthesis choice coal deposits coke colonial consumer costs of production country's current account decision developing countries domestic production East African Community economic activities economists established example export fertiliser plant firm Five Year Plan fuel gypsum horizontal diversification import content import substitution independence industrial strategy industrialisation interest investments investors Kenya Kenya and Uganda kiln labour LDCs limestone machinery Mahalanobis management agreement manpower Mbeya necessary nitrogenous fertilisers output paper bags phosphate Portland Cement Manufacturers problem production per tonne projects raw material inputs Ruhuhu Rweyemamu Salaam salary satellite industries sector set-up steel industry strong industrial base structural distortions substitute imported sulphuric acid Tanga Tanganyika technical total average costs trade type of import Uganda Wazo Hill
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    Effect of Vesicular-arbuscular Mycorrhiza (vam) Inoculation on Growth Performance of Senna spectabilis
    (CIAT, 2004) Kung'u, J.B.
    The influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) fungi inoculation on growth performance of Senna spectabilis was studied in a screen house experiment. The results obtained indicated the dependence of Senna spectabilis on mycorhizal symbiosis. Inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza significantly improved the growth performance of Senna spectabilis. The height growth increased significantly by 85% after only three months while the root collar diameter increased by 71%. Shoot production increased by 213% while root biomass increased by 241%. Inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza increased plant tissue phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium content. The better growth response of mycorrhizal plants were attributed to improvement in nutrient uptake, especially phosphorous, nitrogen and potassium. Vesiculararbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation has a high potential in agroforestry as a bio-fertilizer. .
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    THE COFFEE CRISIS: Old interests, new interests and illusions of development
    (Lambert Academic Publishing, 2009-11-10) Mbataru, P.
    Working through the coffee value chain, this work analyses the strategies of stakeholders in the wake of devastating socio-economic effects of the coffee crisis. Between 1985 and 2004, annual coffee production in Kenya fell from 150 000 to 50 000 tons. The fall in quantity and prices consequently affected the livelihoods of over two million people who depended on coffee. But the coffee problem is global in scope, a situation that threatened economies painstakingly built over the years in the south. In Kenya, coffee income in the family budget fell from 40 percent in the 1980s to less than 10 percent in the 2000s. The persistence of the price depression is more than any other in the history of coffee growing. The study asks if there is emerging a society whose economic foundations are not built on coffee: a post-coffee society. This is in the context of radically changing value chain.The study was conducted in Nyeri District in the central highlands of Kenya. The district is the leading producer of coffee in Kenya and is source of some of the best Arabicas in the world. It is a perfect microcosmic mirror of the world of peasant cash crop production and the inherent paradoxes