MST-Department of Gender and Development Studies

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    Gendered Implications of Involuntary Resettlement of Displaced Families: The Case of Karimenu II Dam, Kiambu County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) Njuku, Lawrence Kiarie; Geraldine Musyoki; Mutuma, Sheila
    Abstract
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    Gendered Implications of Involuntary Resettlement of Displaced Families: The Case of Karimenu II Dam ,Kiambu County,Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) Kiarie, Njuku Lawrence; Geraldine Musyoki; Sheila Mutuma
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    Men, Masculinities and Insecure Livelihoods in Mukuru Informal Settlement, Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2020-11) Kabala, Nathaniel Henry Nyawate; Pacificah Okemwa; Mildred Lodiaga
    Abstract
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    Determinants of Vulnerability to Risk taking Behavior among Girls in Public Day Secondary School in Kiambaa, Kiambu county, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) Mwangi, Lucy N; Pacificah Okemwa
    ABSTRACT The study investigated the determinants of vulnerability to risk taking Behaviour (RTB) among girls in Public Day Secondary Schools (PDSS) in Kiambaa Sub- County, Kiambu County, Kenya. This was due to the high levels of RTB among secondary school girls that had been reported. The specific objectives were to identify the types of RTB among girls in PDSS, examine internal and external factors influencing vulnerability to RTB, assess gender-related challenges faced by girls engaged in RTB, and propose gender-responsive strategies to mitigate vulnerability. The study integrated two theories, problem behaviour theory and empowerment theory .It employed a descriptive survey methodology. Using proportional stratified random sampling and purposive sampling procedures 68 teachers, 96 girls, 12 principals from 12 PDSSs, along with 6 sub-county education authorities and 12 parents, totalling 194. Participated in the study. A pilot study involving 1 teacher and 10 students from Kiambu Sub-County was conducted to assess content and construct validity. Cronbach's alpha (u= 0.7) ensured internal consistency and reliability of variables. Data was collected through questionnaires and interviews, analysed using SPSS version 24 for quantitative data and content analysis for qualitative data, and presented via tables and figures. The findings revealed various RTB among girls, including unprotected sex, prostitution, drug use, abortion, theft, and fighting. RTB determinants encompassed factors like parental divorce, absenteeism, peer pressure, financial hardship, and lack of role models, excessive idle time, societal influences, and declining values. Gender-specific challenges emerged, such as early pregnancies, abortions, forced marriages, academic failure, rejection, and health risks from unsafe abortions. Gender-responsive strategies suggested included enhanced counselling programs, life skills development, rehabilitation facilities, job opportunities, loans for mothers, bursary funding clear disciplinary policies, spiritual guidance, and second chances for young mothers to complete their education. In conclusion, this study highlights the existence of RTB among girls in PDSS and underscores the complexity of factors influencing these behaviours. To effectively address RTB, a comprehensive approach that considers both internal and external factors is essential. Recognizing the specific challenges faced by girls is crucial. Gender-sensitive interventions that involve collaboration between schools, parents, and the community are vital in creating a supportive environment that encourages healthier behaviours among girls in PDSS.
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    Gendered Implications of Involuntary Resettlement of Displaced Families: The Case of Karimenu II Dam, Kiambu County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) Njuku, Lawrence Kiarie; Geraldine Musyoki; Sheila Mutuma
    This study investigated the gender implications of involuntary resettlement at Karimenu II Dam. The specific objectives were: to examine the particular resettlement strategies employed by the government on the displaced families for the construction of Karimenu II Dam; to assess the gender implications on the lives and livelihoods of the displaced families through the government‟s development project at Karimenu II; to establish the coping mechanisms adopted by women and men following their involuntary resettlement and to suggest possible ways for the government to come up with involuntary resettlement programs that are gender responsive. The study employed the Impoverishment, Risks and Reconstruction (IRR) model developed in the late 1990s by the World Bank and coined by Michael Cernea (2002); which provides a conceptual tool for identifying the inherent risks that may cause impoverishment through involuntary displacement and resettlement. It also employed the refined IRR model by Andnet Gizachew in 2015 to cater for omissions of other risks of involuntary resettlement. Karimenu II dam which was constructed between the years 2018 to 2022 is located in Gatundu North Sub-county of Kiambu County. The study employed a case study design. Out of the target population of 600 families, the researcher found out that only 300 families had been resettled during the first phase, and the sample size of 169 respondents was selected by use of Krejcie & Morgan sampling table. It also included 6 key informants. Data was collected by use of questionnaires, direct observation, structured and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and presented in form of tables, figures and histograms while qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The research brought to light the socio-economic gender outcome of the involuntarily displaced persons of Karimenu II Dam construction. There were significant social and economic disruption of the lives of the PAPs. The shock of being displaced caused distress especially among the elderly and women. Problematic valuation of property followed by delays in compensation led to riots and mistrust between the implementers and the affected. However, following the Involuntary Resettlement an opportunity of growth arose for the PAPs rather than the anticipated impoverishment. Many were able to relocate with their livestock, resettled well and were able to invest better agriculturally and in business, setting them on a path of economic growth. There were significant gender outcomes where many women got an opportunity to share in decision-making at the domestic level during relocation and investments on their new lands while a sizeable number of men gave up alcoholism to manage their new settlements and investments. This data may be helpful in acquiring gender disaggregated outcomes on the lives and livelihoods of PAPs of Involuntary Resettlement, to the government and other stakeholders in the future for a gender responsive planning of development projects where populations are to be displaced involuntarily. It will also contribute to the body of knowledge on Involuntary Resettlement from a gender perspective. The study has made recommendations to implementers of IR, community leaders and the PAPs that may help improve future IR outcomes.
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    Gender Analysis and Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kericho County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Miyawa, Harrison Joshua; Casper Masiga
    Entrepreneurship is increasingly recognized as an important driver of economic growth, productivity, innovation and employment, and it is widely accepted as a key aspect of economic dynamism. The Kenyan economy relies heavily on small, and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to support livelihoods and provide jobs. Over 15 million people are reportedly employed in the sector, which also adds about 30% to the country's overall worth. Despite this, MSMEs nevertheless face many difficulties that hinder their growth, chief among which is their limited access to financing. Thus, the study was informed. The goal of this survey was to analyze the performance of SMEs among the gender in Kericho County. The objectives of the survey were; to explore the extent of gender influence on performance of SMEs after accessing credit from micro-finance institutions, to find out the challenges affecting performance of SMEs funded by micro-finance institutions, to identify the factors contributing to gender gap in SMEs performance and to establish entrepreneurship’s characteristics that influence access to credit from micro-credit institutions. The institutional theory, which focuses on elements that are externally or internally central inside the company and sustainable innovation, served as the study's main theoretical framework. The research design for the survey was a descriptive survey. The researcher created the state of affairs in the field for this study, and no variable was altered, leading to the decision to use a descriptive survey research design. Purposive sampling was utilized to interview management officials while random sampling was used in group interview. The target population was 1000 SMEs operators in Kericho County and the sample for the study was 44 households. Structured questionnaires for business owners and interview guides for in-depth information from microcredit employees served as the primary data gathering instruments for this study. In order to determine the uniformity of responses, the reliability testing formula known as the prophesy was used. The pilot instrument was split into two equal halves, and the correlation coefficients between the two halves were determined by Spearman-Brown. The survey findings established that most of the SME were started in the last five years, between 2006 and 2021. This can be attributed to several factors in the Kenya economy such as structural adjustment programs (SAPs). The major source of capital was savings from the farming and micro-credit institutions. The government and NGOs should ensure that finances are made available to both men and women in business. This could be done through awareness campaign on the existence of such financial institutions with the help of the government. This will improve capital base and create more opportunities hence assisting in reducing unemployment which is the main purpose of the informal sector. The government should come up with a policy that require micro-finance institution and NGOs in individual capacities or in collaboration with the government to have a human resource or manpower development to train the target population before accessing credit or loans.
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    Influence of Social Capital on Performance of Self Help Groups in Nambale Sub-County of Busia County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Joy, Wasirimba N.; Dickson M. Ombaka
    Self Help Groups (SHGs) are informal groups formed to allow its members to get financial benefits by helping one another. Their objective is to build savings as well as credit for their members. Social capital (SC) is viewed as a combination of a SHG‟s characteristics of bonding, bridging, and linking forms. The main aim of this study was to examine the influence of social capital on the performance of self-help groups (SHGs) in Nambale Sub-County of Busia County, Kenya. The study was guided by four objectives: 1) to examine the relationship between social capital and performance of self-help groups; 2) to examine the relationship between trust and performance of self-help groups; 3) to examine the relationship between social cohesion and performance of self-help groups; and 4) to establish the challenges facing self-help groups in Nambale Sub-County and recommend solutions. This study was anchored on two theories: the Social Capital Theory and the Group Development Theory by Bruce Tuckman which explains the link between social capital and the performance of self-help groups. The study used a mixed-method approach and adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study targeted all Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in Nambale Sub-County. The researcher purposively selected twelve (12) SHGs in three sub-locations of Nambale Township Location from a sample size of 96 respondents who were randomly selected. Questionnaires, focused group discussions (FGDs), and key informant interviews (KIIs) were used to collect primary data. The researcher administered 96 questionnaires with a response rate of 95%; 9 FGDs, and 12 KIIs. Quantitative data was analysed quantitatively using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 23 while qualitative data was analysed qualitatively through content analysis. The study observed all ethical considerations throughout the research process. The study found that 58% of the respondents indicated that their group members were trustworthy and had grown very close over the last five years while 42% per cent felt that their group members were somehow trustworthy and had grown somehow close. Overall, the respondents indicated that they agreed that there was strong group cohesion within their SHGs. Eighty-three percent (83%) indicated that they would be willing to give their support in terms of time, money, and labour toward a community project that would not be of direct benefit to them. It is therefore clear from the findings that trust levels, mutual reciprocity, and social cohesion play a pivotal role in determining the performance of SHGs. Study concludes that performance of SHGs in Nambale Sub-County was a function of different factors such as effective leadership, cohesiveness of members, effective communication, sharing of benefits and liabilities, effective participation in projects and activities of the group, proper record-keeping, and proper conflict resolution framework. It recommends proper regulations on registrations, financial and non-financial support to SHGs, homogenous membership, and training for members for efficiency and enhanced performance.
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    Determinants of Gender Differential in Access and Utilisation of Reproductive Health Services among Youth in Limuru, Kiambu County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Mugure, Ngugi Eunice; Mildred J. Lodiaga.; Grace Okong’o.
    Gender differential in access and utilisation of Reproductive Health Services (RHS) among young women and men is a major challenge in ensuring healthy youthful population. Differential access and utilisation of Reproductive Health Services is determined by many factors which may be personal, social-cultural, and socio-economic, or due to institutional arrangements occasioned by policies and practices. This study investigated the determinants of gender differential in access and utilization of reproductive health services by male and female youth in Ndeiya Division, Limuru Sub- County. The objectives were: to explore the institutional determinants, to establish the social-cultural determinants and to assess the social-economic determinants that affect differential access and utilisation of Reproductive Health Services by the male and female youth in Ndeiya Division. The study was guided by the Social Cognitive Theory. Descriptive survey design was adopted to collect numerical and non-numerical information. The target population consisted of 28667male youth and 28686 female youth aged between 15-24 years. The study solicited information from a sample size of 397individuals comprising 198 males and 199 females. Stratified and simple random sampling were employed to select the youths whose data were collected using questionnaires. In addition, five health officers from the two public health facilities within Ndeiya division were selected using census survey.Numerical information was collected using questionnaires while qualitative data was collected using key informant interview guide. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20,aidedin analysing the primary data. The study established that more young women accessed and utilised Reproductive Health Services as compared to young men. The findings gathered from this research will arm the government and stakeholders with information on determinants of differential access and utilisation of Reproductive Health Services by the male and female youth. Information provided may be used to design interventions, such as policies and programmes that are gender sensitive in addressing this differential access and utilisation of RHS. Study recommendations were: The empowerment of young men through training programs to create awareness on the need of seeking RHS without being influenced by gender stereotype notions, young women to be empowered to make their personal decisions on issues of RH, training and employment of more health service provider personnel in all health facilities in Ndeiya Division, more training and employment of male service providers in health facilities to cater for the young men and to ensure comfort and confidence, providereproductive health services at a time convenient to the youth, especially outside official working hours when youth are available, provision of separate male and female clinics integrated in the same health facility, introduction of RH programmes particularly targeting male youth to address their risky behaviour of poorly seeking RHS, andestablish more youth centres with separate activities and discussions for men and women.
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    Influence of Social Capital on Performance of Self Help Groups in Nambale Sub-County of Busia County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Joy, Wasirimba N; Dickson M. Ombaka
    Self Help Groups (SHGs) are informal groups formed to allow its members to get financial benefits by helping one another. Their objective is to build savings as well as credit for their members. Social capital (SC) is viewed as a combination of a SHG‟s characteristics of bonding, bridging, and linking forms. The main aim of this study was to examine the influence of social capital on the performance of self-help groups (SHGs) in Nambale Sub-County of Busia County, Kenya. The study was guided by four objectives: 1) to examine the relationship between social capital and performance of self-help groups; 2) to examine the relationship between trust and performance of self-help groups; 3) to examine the relationship between social cohesion and performance of self-help groups; and 4) to establish the challenges facing self-help groups in Nambale Sub-County and recommend solutions. This study was anchored on two theories: the Social Capital Theory and the Group Development Theory by Bruce Tuckman which explains the link between social capital and the performance of self-help groups. The study used a mixed-method approach and adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study targeted all Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in Nambale Sub-County. The researcher purposively selected twelve (12) SHGs in three sub-locations of Nambale Township Location from a sample size of 96 respondents who were randomly selected. Questionnaires, focused group discussions (FGDs), and key informant interviews (KIIs) were used to collect primary data. The researcher administered 96 questionnaires with a response rate of 95%; 9 FGDs, and 12 KIIs. Quantitative data was analysed quantitatively using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 23 while qualitative data was analysed qualitatively through content analysis. The study observed all ethical considerations throughout the research process. The study found that 58% of the respondents indicated that their group members were trustworthy and had grown very close over the last five years while 42% per cent felt that their group members were somehow trustworthy and had grown somehow close. Overall, the respondents indicated that they agreed that there was strong group cohesion within their SHGs. Eighty-three percent (83%) indicated that they would be willing to give their support in terms of time, money, and labour toward a community project that would not be of direct benefit to them. It is therefore clear from the findings that trust levels, mutual reciprocity, and social cohesion play a pivotal role in determining the performance of SHGs. Study concludes that performance of SHGs in Nambale Sub-County was a function of different factors such as effective leadership, cohesiveness of members, effective communication, sharing of benefits and liabilities, effective participation in projects and activities of the group, proper record-keeping, and proper conflict resolution framework. It recommends proper regulations on registrations, financial and non-financial support to SHGs, homogenous membership, and training for members for efficiency and enhanced performance.
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    Influence of Social Capital on Performance of Self Help Groups in Nambale Sub-County of Busia County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Wasirimba, N. Joy; Dickson M. Ombaka
    Self Help Groups (SHGs) are informal groups formed to allow its members to get financial benefits by helping one another. Their objective is to build savings as well as credit for their members. Social capital (SC) is viewed as a combination of a SHG’s characteristics of bonding, bridging, and linking forms. The main aim of this study was to examine the influence of social capital on the performance of self-help groups (SHGs) in Nambale Sub-County of Busia County, Kenya. The study was guided by four objectives: 1) to examine the relationship between social capital and performance of self-help groups; 2) to examine the relationship between trust and performance of self-help groups; 3) to examine the relationship between social cohesion and performance of self-help groups; and 4) to establish the challenges facing self-help groups in Nambale Sub-County and recommend solutions. This study was anchored on two theories: the Social Capital Theory and the Group Development Theory by Bruce Tuckman which explains the link between social capital and the performance of self-help groups. The study used a mixed-method approach and adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study targeted all Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in Nambale Sub-County. The researcher purposively selected twelve (12) SHGs in three sub-locations of Nambale Township Location from a sample size of 96 respondents who were randomly selected. Questionnaires, focused group discussions (FGDs), and key informant interviews (KIIs) were used to collect primary data. The researcher administered 96 questionnaires with a response rate of 95%; 9 FGDs, and 12 KIIs. Quantitative data was analysed quantitatively using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 23 while qualitative data was analysed qualitatively through content analysis. The study observed all ethical considerations throughout the research process. The study found that 58% of the respondents indicated that their group members were trustworthy and had grown very close over the last five years while 42% per cent felt that their group members were somehow trustworthy and had grown somehow close. Overall, the respondents indicated that they agreed that there was strong group cohesion within their SHGs. Eighty-three percent (83%) indicated that they would be willing to give their support in terms of time, money, and labour toward a community project that would not be of direct benefit to them. It is therefore clear from the findings that trust levels, mutual reciprocity, and social cohesion play a pivotal role in determining the performance of SHGs. Study concludes that performance of SHGs in Nambale Sub-County was a function of different factors such as effective leadership, cohesiveness of members, effective communication, sharing of benefits and liabilities, effective participation in projects and activities of the group, proper record-keeping, and proper conflict resolution framework. It recommends proper regulations on registrations, financial and non-financial support to SHGs, homogenous membership, and training for members for efficiency and enhanced performance.
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    Impacts of Financial Literacy on Economic Empowerment of Small Scale Women Traders in Kisii County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Nyamagwa, Richard; Pacificah Okemwa; Leah Wanjama
    The study sought to find out the effects of financial literacy on economic empowerment of small scale women traders in South Mugirango sub-county. Small scale women traders in South Mugirango sub-county have continued to show limited growth if not retardation. The need for financial literacy skills has become significant with the emphasis of economic empowerment of women. Low levels of financial literacy skills or lack of it among small scale women traders inhibit their growth hence diminish their economic success. The study objectives were; to find out the relationship between budgeting practices and economic empowerment among small scale women traders, to determine the effects of book-keeping practices on economic empowerment among small scale women traders, to establish the effects of credit management practices on economic empowerment among small scale women traders and to find out the challenges experienced by women in accessing financial literacy training programmes in South Mugirango Sub-County. The study was guided by the financial literacy theory. The descriptive Survey research design was used to guide the study. The target population for the study was registered small scale women traders who were beneficiaries of Equity Group Foundation project in South Mugirango Sub-County. A sample size of 34% trained small scale women traders and untrained small scale women traders was selected through random sampling technique. Primary data was obtained using questionnaires administered to the two groups; and key informant interviews with women traders and EGF Credit officers. Data collected was then organized, coded and entered in the computer for analysis. Quantitative analysis yielded frequency distributions, one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with F-statistic, as well as cross tabulations with Chi-square statistic, t-test was used to analyze the differences in performance between the trained and the untrained. The study findings revealed that budgeting skills acquired through financial literacy programmes played significant roles in growing sales, profits and ensuring smooth running of the business. However, some women traders did not carry out any budgeting in their business citing household commitments. In addition, Credit management skills played key roles in enhancing performance of SSEs through facilitation to acquire and manage loans to ensure that loan liability was minimized. Results further indicate that most women traders do not keep proper books of account. However, for those practicing book keeping the skills obtained influenced the performance of their businesses by providing them with mechanisms for tracking performance, and accurate decision making. The findings further revealed that women traders who had undergone financial literacy training were more economically empowered than those who had not. Results also revealed that financial literacy training had a significant positive impact on economic empowerment on small scale women traders. Despite the importance of financial literacy trainings, the programmes are not gendered so as to accommodate the interests of the small scale women traders. The effects of financial literacy skills are evident in economically empowering small scale women traders. The government and Non-governmental organizations should therefore initiate and fund gender-responsive financial literacy programmes throughout the country as a strategy to economically empower small scale women traders.
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    Role of Social Risk Management Strategies in Reducing Vulnerabilities of Pastoral Nomadic Households after Subdivision of Group Ranches in Kajiado County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022-06) Ngatti, Anastasia Mghoi; Daniel M. Muia
    The study aimed to gain an understanding of the Social Risk Management Strategies (SRMS) applied by pastoral households in sub-divided group ranches so as to support their resilience to extreme events and to support the development of these communities. The study was undertaken in Nkukuon, Sholinke and Olooloitikosh villages of Oloosirkon Division – which are areas where pastoral-nomadic households from the former Ololoitikosh Group ranch can be found. The main study objectives were to: (i) identify and analyse the SRMS that were established or adjusted to support pastoral-nomadic households in Oloosirkon Division; (ii) establish the effect of SRMS on pastoral recovery strategies and subsequent maintenance of pastoral-nomadism as a livelihood stream; and (iii) suggest measures that can be undertaken at community and policy level to facilitate sustainable SRMS in favor of pastoral-nomadism. The social exchange theory was considered to explain (i) whether pastoralists would set up new relationship based on new social systems to reduce vulnerabilities, especially after the loss of socially protected common grazing grounds under the group ranch system; (ii) whether the households would retain and build these relationships after seeing their value to reducing vulnerabilities on their livelihoods. The study used a descriptive case study research design and used household surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and field observations as data collection methodologies in pastoral nomadic households in a segment of the former Ololoitikosh Group Ranch. The Kenyatta University Graduate School, the Kenyatta University Ethical Review Committee (KUERC), and the National Commission for Science, Technology, and Innovation (NACOSTI), all gave their approvals and permits prior to the field investigations. The study used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze the data, and the chi square test of independence was used to determine whether the null hypothesis should be accepted or rejected. The study found that the top four socioeconomic challenges faced by pastoral-nomadic households are inadequate food, inadequate grazing resources, inadequate water supply and health challenges. It also found that the main mechanisms applied to manage these challenges that were driven by the community’s social network / social capital were establishment of Self-Help Groups (SHGs), Community Based Organisations (CBOs) and Co-operative Societies. The findings show that the role of traditional social risk management strategies applied by pastoralists such as communal protection of dry season grazing grounds and reciprocity have evolved from maintenance of stock as the main objective, to one that (i) applies a multiple approach of ensuring the ability to meet the ongoing household’s basic socio-economic needs that rely on a cash based economy; while (ii) ensuring the ability to purchase new stock and / or the ability to maintain existing stock thus ensuring the survival of livestock keeping as a livelihood stream. The results of the study Chi square test findings also led to the acceptance of the study’s null hypotheses namely (i) increased vulnerability to extreme events causes pastoral-nomadic households to participate in SRMS; and (ii) households that survive extreme events after participating in co-operative social risk management strategies are more likely to maintain their membership in such groups. However, the study also found that these SRMS are not without challenges and recommendations were made on: (i) development of financial literacy and business development skills training programs; (ii) improvement of group access to financial services; (iii) formalization of SHGs, CBOs and Co-operatives (iv)land-use planning; and (v) responsive training for land-use planning professionals.
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    Influence of Social Capital on Performance of Self Help Groups in Nambale Sub-County of Busia County, Kenya
    (2022) Wasirimba, Joy N.; Dickson M. Ombaka
    Self Help Groups (SHGs) are informal groups formed to allow its members to get financial benefits by helping one another. Their objective is to build savings as well as credit for their members. Social capital (SC) is viewed as a combination of a SHG’s characteristics of bonding, bridging, and linking forms. The main aim of this study was to explore the influence of social capital on the performance of self-help groups (SHGs) in Nambale Sub-County of Busia County, Kenya. The study was guided by four objectives: 1) to examine the relationship between social capital and performance of self-help groups; 2) to e the relationship between trust and performance of self-help groups; 3) to examine the relationship between social cohesion and performance of self-help groups; and 4) to establish the challenges facing self-help groups in Nambale Sub-County and recommend solutions. This study was anchored on two theories: the Social Capital Theory and the Group Development Theory by Bruce Tuckman which explains the link between social capital and the performance of self-help groups. The study used a mixed-method approach and adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study targeted all Self-Help Groups (SHGs) in Nambale Sub-County. The researcher purposively selected twelve (12) SHGs in three sub-locations of Nambale Township Location from a sample size of 96 respondents who were randomly selected. Questionnaires, focused group discussions (FGDs), and key informant interviews (KIIs) were used to collect primary data. The researcher administered 96 questionnaires with a response rate of 95%; 9 FGDs, and 12 KIIs. Quantitative data was analysed quantitatively using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 23 while qualitative data was analysed qualitatively through content analysis. The study observed all ethical considerations throughout the research process. The study found that 58% of the respondents indicated that their group members were trustworthy and had grown very close over the last five years while 42% per cent felt that their group members were somehow trustworthy and had grown somehow close. Overall, the respondents indicated that they agreed that there was strong group cohesion within their SHGs. Eighty-three percent (83%) indicated that they would be willing to give their support in terms of time, money, and labour toward a community project that would not be of direct benefit to them. It is therefore clear from the findings that trust levels, mutual reciprocity, and social cohesion play a pivotal role in determining the performance of SHGs. Study concludes that performance of SHGs in Nambale Sub-County was a function of different factors such as effective leadership, cohesiveness of members, effective communication, sharing of benefits and liabilities, effective participation in projects and activities of the group, proper record-keeping, and proper conflict resolution framework. It recommends proper regulations on registrations, financial and non-financial support to SHGs, homogenous membership, and training for members for efficiency and enhanced performance.
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    Gender Participation in Soil Fertility Management among Smallholder Farmers in Sabatia and Mbeere South, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Githome, Jackline Wangui; Jane Wangaruo; Jane Mugwe
    The focus on improving soil fertility is a key concern in development today. Previously, Soil Fertility Management (SFM) was studied from the biophysical perspective with various paradigms dominating research and development studies. These approaches focused majorly on the external inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, and quality seeds) as well as farming techniques intended to maximize productivity such as mechanization. These methods have been criticized for failing to produce their intended objectives. Recently, research has emphasized on the need to adopt integrated soil fertility management practices which also considers the economic, social and cultural dynamics in the management of soil fertility. The study is focused on gender participation in the management of soil fertility in Sabatia sub-county as well as Mbeere South subcounty. The theory of change in agriculture by Ester Boserup was applied due to its emphasis on need to revisit agricultural practices to meet the demands of present and future generations. The study employed a cross-sectional design of survey. Simple random and Purposive sampling techniques were employed in achieving a sample of 384 respondents from Sabatia and Mbeere. The researcher used key informant guides, a focus group discussion guide, and an interview schedule as the research instruments to acquire the baseline data. Quantitative data in from the completed interview schedules was coded, cleaned and analyzed. This was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21.0. Both inferential and descriptive statistics has been used in the study. The qualitative data obtained was analyzed qualitatively and presented through thematic description. Ethical considerations were adhered to during the study as well as ensuring the safety of the information. The findings of this study established that in Sabatia, female farmers practiced ISFM more than male while for Mbeere, male farmers practiced ISFM more than female. The study also revealed that there was no significant influence of land ownership and extension services in the participation of both female and male growers in soil fertility management. This study also established that more female farmers are likely to be in a farmer group as compared to male farmers. In conclusion, there was therefore need for sensitization of farmers to join farmer groups. There was also a need to increase the number of extension service officers in the two selected areas. The findings of this study may benefit farmers, academicians, and the realm of extension services and the broader Connessa project for instance in innovation platforms.
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    Gender Differentials and Sustainable Wildlife Ecosystem: A Case of Selected Conservancies in Maasai Mara, Narok County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Karoki Mercyjoy Mugambi; Casper Masiga; Muthoni Mainah;
    This study aimed at assessing the gender differentials and sustainable wildlife ecosystem in selected conservancies in Maasai Mara, Narok County, Kenya with an aim of coming up with the best strategies to enhance gender responsive and sustainable wildlife ecosystem. The study was guided by the following objectives: Establishing prevalence of men and women in wildlife management and conservation institutions in selected conservancies in Maasai Mara ecosystem, examining the socio-cultural factors influencing sustainable wildlife ecosystem and the distribution of income from Payment for ecosystem among men and women in the conservancies under study. The study was guided by feminist political ecology theory which demonstrates that gender is an important element in influencing access to resources, knowledge, and control over natural resources. The study used descriptive survey research design and mixed method research approach whose combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches provides a better understanding of the problem than neither approach can achieve alone. Research was conducted in four wildlife conservancies in Maasai Mara ecosystem namely: Nashulai, Pardamat conservation area (PCA), Olkinyei and Enoonkishu. Purposive, simple random and proportionate sampling were used to select the respondents, informants and participants from which a sample of 167 was drawn. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the wildlife managers whereas focused group discussions were used to collect data from adult men and women landowners in the conservancies. In-depth interviews were used to collect data from scouts and rangers. Reliability of the instruments was tested using test-retest and Cronbach‟s Alpha co-efficient was used to determine the internal consistency of the instruments which was 0.70 hence acceptable. The data collected quantitatively was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, frequencies and standard deviation. The findings were presented using percentages, graphs and tables. Qualitative data was analyzed continuously at the onset of the field work to establish patterns, categories and themes. The responses were integrated into the themes using narratives and verbatim reports. The findings showed that gender differentials exist in wildlife management and conservation institutions. Women were underrepresented as wildlife managers, landowners and rangers. The findings further revealed that women benefited less from payment for ecosystem income in conservancies. In addition, cultural norms, landownership and gender roles were revealed as the key factors that impacted on the wildlife ecosystem. The study also found out that the gender differentials aforementioned impacted both positively and negatively on the Maasai Mara wildlife ecosystem. The study recommends that the wildlife stakeholders should employ gender advocacy and empowerment programmes to facilitate gender equity and sustainable wildlife ecosystems. The study also recommends redistribution of payment for ecosystem income so as to ensure women also get a fair share of the income. Further, the study recommends that government and non-governmental institutions focusing on wildlife conservation should embrace culturally appropriate strategies to tackle the problem of wildlife habitat destruction focusing on the root cause rather than military approach.
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    Efficacy of Strategies that Mitigate Challenges Faced by Women Infected with Hiv/Aids in Majengo Urban Informal Settlement, Nyeri County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Wanjiru, Sarah Wanjiku; Mildred J. Lodiaga; Geoffrey M. Wango
    HIV and AIDS continue to devastate the world, particularly Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. The infection patterns rates are different for men and women because of biology, physiology, socially constructed gender norms, roles, unequal power relations and social-economic inequalities. This study investigates the efficacy of interventions strategies mitigating the challenges faced by women with HIV / AIDS living in an informal urban settlement in Nyeri County. The study applied the theory of social-economic factors, which show that economic factors greatly influence an individual’s sexual behaviour. The study design used was a descriptive study that utilised both qualitative and quantitative data. The study’s purpose was to find out how effective were the strategies that have been put in place to alleviate challenges faced by women living with HIV and AIDS in Majengo urban informal settlement in Nyeri county. This was also to assess knowledge and use of preventive measures against sexually transmitted infections and HIV among women living with HIV and AIDS. Besides, the study identified practices among the women living with HIV and AIDS, which were risk factors for the transmission of HIV, and identified appropriate strategies to help reduce further spread of the virus. The study collected information using structured questionnaires. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted, and a focus group discussion held with participants. Descriptive methods of analysis were used for data analysis. The study found out that the success of the HIV and AIDS intervention strategies in the community and among individuals depends largely on the success of various programmes. Majority of the respondents, 63.8% felt there was a need to have more gender-responsive strategies and improve on what is provided by the government and other stakeholders. The respondents noted that the essential thing was to maintain their health. The study recommends that more gender intervention strategies should be used on women, and especially those who live in informal settlements. The government and other stakeholders in the health sector should strive to improve the infrastructure of health facilities within and surrounding the informal urban settlements.
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    Influence of Prison Life on Rehabilitation Program Uptake by Inmates in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Mburu, Hellen Wairimu; Pacificah Okemwa; Casper Masiga
    Kenyan prisons' primary objective is to rehabilitate the offenders by equipping them with selfdependence skills to avoid reoffending. The conditions under which inmates live are quite challenging and stressful; therefore, negatively affecting the rehabilitation program uptake by inmates. This study sought to examine the influence of prison life on men and women inmates in their rehabilitation process. The following objectives guided the study: to describe the environment in which inmates rehabilitation is implemented, to examine the effect of prison programs on inmates rehabilitation, to analyse the gender-related challenges that inmates encounter, and to identify gender-responsive strategies on the rehabilitation of inmates. The study employed the deprivation theory by Sykes (1958) and Bandura's Social Cognitive theory (1986). The study used a descriptive survey research design. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using questionnaires, interview schedules, and Focus Group Discussions. This study targeted 500 inmates (both first time offenders and recidivists), 30 prison officers, and 4 key informants in Thika prison. The study first used stratified sampling to divide the population of inmates according to gender to get 300 men and 200 women inmates; then, stratified was used to subdivide the inmates according to length of imprisonment and simple random was employed in each stratum to pick inmates from jail register. Purposive sampling was further employed to select 20 men and 10 women recidivists from the prison register. The study used a sample size of 30% of the total population of men and women inmates and prison officers to get 90 men, 60 women inmates and 9 prison officers. Descriptive statistics such as percentages and mode were used to analyse quantitative data and were presented using tables and graphs. Qualitative data were analysed using themes and patterns formed and presented in narrative and verbatim forms. The study established that prison conditions were poor due to inappropriate accommodation status, inadequate food, and inappropriate health services contributing to inmates hardening. Moreover, inmates participated in elaborate prison programs which helped them ease the pain of imprisonment and assured them of employment after imprisonment making them hopeful. The study findings illustrated that both men and women inmates were dissatisfied because of visitation procedures, stigmatization and loss of employment. Women inmates were more affected by relationships and stigmatization while loss of employment heavily affected men. The study further revealed that the prison had good policies and programs for the inmates. However, the prison authority failed to clearly explain policies and practices that addressed the realities that men and women are biologically and socially different. This contributed to gender dissatisfaction contributing to reoffending. Therefore, the study recommended that courts should employ non-custodial sentences such as community service, probation sentences, fines, parole and bonding, and speed up delayed remand cases to ease prison congestion. The prison management should also sensitize inmates on the essence of the prison programs as they offer life skills which are supposed to help them when they go back to society. The government should improve the rehabilitative programs and more resources geared towards them. The prison authority should consider facilitating better visitation procedures to enhance familial relationships. Further, the government should set aside stipends to facilitate inmates to start a business after imprisonment. Finally, the prison authority should recognize that gender differences affect inmates' experiences and their rehabilitation process and, therefore, explain to the inmates their gender rights and provisions in prison. It is hoped that the study findings may enhance the on-going prison reforms to create a conducive environment for the correction of the inmates, both men and women. Moreover, the findings may urge the government to support rehabilitation program uptake to help reduce recidivism in the country.
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    Effects of Devolution on Food Security in Kericho County, Kenya
    (2020-07) Cheruiyot, Jael; Patrick Mbataru
    ABSTRACT This research aimed to examine the effects of devolution on food security in Kericho County, Kenya. The objectives that guided the study were: to examine the influence of devolution of agricultural sector on agriculture productivity in Kericho County; to determine the influence of the devolution of the agricultural sector on market information systems in Kericho County, and to examine the influence of the devolution of the agricultural sector on the distribution of food in Kericho County. Since the formulation of the new constitution, Kenya has continued to experience fundamental changes in its institutions. Institutions have now focused mainly on the redistribution of resources and economic development. However, the effects and changes in food security are not fully known. This project, therefore, intended to fill this gap. The entitlement theory of famine and the conflict theory are the two theories that the researcher employed in this study. A descriptive research design was adopted in this study as it enabled the researcher to explain, describe, and validate the research findings. Besides, the study used a survey method of data collection involving a target population of 100 residents of Kericho County. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used for data analysis. Further, the researcher used tables, graphs, and pie charts to present data. The study found that that there is a positive but insignificant correlation between the devolution of the agricultural sector and agricultural productivity; there is an insignificant but positive correlation between devolution of the agricultural sector and market information systems; and a positive and insignificant correlation between devolution of the agricultural sector and distribution of food. Therefore, the study concluded that the county government should enact policy on agriculture that will give incentives to farmers to improve agricultural productivity; that county government should strive to improve market information systems to have food security through regular training and seminars to equip the farmers with knowledge about the markets; and that the county government should ensure that food production is done in all parts of the county to ensure even distribution of food across the county. Additionally, the study recommended that similar studies should be conducted in other counties.
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    Ustainability in Rural Women Football: A Case of Teams Participating in Kass Tournament in Kericho County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Kirui, Aldad Kiprotich; Pacificah Okemwa; Peter Wanderi
    This was a case study of teams participating in the KASS tournament in the Bureti sub-county, Kericho County. The study was informed that, despite the effort and support offered by KASS Media Group, the government and other stakeholders' women football teams in the Bureti sub-county lack sustainability. Thus no women team from the sub-county has survived beyond a season of the tournaments. Therefore, the specific objectives of the study were: to establish and document the history of women participation in the KASS tournament, the process used to involve women and the factors influencing their participation in the tournament, to identify the challenges associated with organizing women football teams for the tournament and with finding out effective strategies to put in place to improve women's participation in the KASS tournament. The study was guided by Lorber's explication of the social construction of gender to analyze the history and the development of women's soccer, factors, and challenges influencing the participation and its importance in women's empowerment in African rural areas. The study employed the case study research design and utilized qualitative and quantitative approaches. Data collection instruments included: questionnaires and interview guides. The research targeted 56 women football players from rural parts of the Bureti sub-county selected using simple random sampling. Six officials were chosen randomly so that they could provide their views on the study. A pilot study was carried out to test and improve the validity and reliability of the research instruments before the actual study. To achieve the first objective, descriptive statistics were utilized to describe the history of women's participation in Football in the Bureti sub-county. In the second objective, both descriptive statistics were used to establish the frequencies to interrogate the process and factors that influence the involvement of women in Football. In the third objective, the study utilized descriptive statistics and found the challenges affecting women's football in rural areas. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) computer software, while qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Inferential findings from quantitative data are presented in tables and graphs, whereas qualitative data are presented in narratives. The study established a lot of interest in Football in women. Still, their involvement was deterred by the history of rural women Football and their household gender roles as they were not included in decision making. It also established that challenges emerged from lack of awareness, the patriarchal societal structure, lack of approval and support from family and community, and disparities from organizers and other stakeholders. Based on these findings, the strategies suggested include running campaigns to create awareness on the benefits of women football in rural areas, provision and improvement of incentives and rewards for women football teams, active involvement of women in decision making in mainstream leadership, setting aside resources for women football, organization, and management of women football leagues and tournaments. Therefore, the study's general conclusion is that there exist gender-related factors that impede the sustainability of rural women's football teams in the Bureti sub-county. Consequently, it is recommended that campaigns ensure the society stops socially conditioning the community into masculine and feminine roles and end the travesty and under-representation of women in sports leadership.
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    Determinants of Participation of Women in Employment Public Transport: A Case of Matatu Sub-Sector in Kiambu County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2017-07) Kariuki, Nancy Mukami
    Today, transport sector is an equal employer incorporation of both men and women. Despite the fact that women make up almost the half of the world population, they don't have opportunity to represent the same proportion in economic activities and employment. The purpose of the study was to investigate the determinants of women's participation in Matatu sub-sector of the transport industry in Thika Township, Kenya. The specific objectives were to: examine the working conditions that influence women's participation in Matatu sub-sector of the public transport in Thika Township; identify the societies' perceptions towards women's participation in Matatu sub-sector of the public transport in Thika Township; determine the experiences of women's participation in Matatu sub-sector of the public transport in Thika Township; establish strategies that can be used to encourage women to participate in Matatu sub-sector of the public transport in Thika Township. The study was anchored by Social Dominance and Cultural Modernity Theories. The research design used for the study was descriptive survey. The study targeted 30 registered SACCOs with 100 Matatu owners and 540 matatu workers all totaling to 670 respondents. Purposive sampling was used to select 10 SACCO managers and 30 matatu owners. A total of 164 matatu workers were also selected using simple random sampling. This .translated to a total sample of 204 respondents. The study used questionnaires and interview schedules as data collection tools. Piloting was done to check on suitability and the clarity of the questions on the instruments. Quantitative data were edited, entered into a computer and analyzed using descriptive statics such as frequency and percentages with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Tables were used to present the data. Qualitative data from open-ended items in the questionnaires, interview guides and focused group discussions were organized into common themes, presented in direct quotes and discussed as per the objectives of the study. Findings of the study revealed that not all women working in the transport sector worked in a good condition. There was a significant association between perceptions and women's participation in transport industry. Women also experienced various forms of violence including labeling and sexual harassment. The study concluded that schedules of matatus were not affected by gender difference since the services were routine. The study also concluded that women continuously experience harassment in all places including the work places despite the efforts that have been put placed to empower them. The study recommended that stakeholders in public transport sector need to redesign work conditions such as. schedules, time and flexibility challenges to enable women participate effectively to earn a living.