MST-Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies

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    The Influence of Terrorism Activities on Muslim-Christian Relations in Garissa County, Kenya, 1998-2015
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-03) Ismail, Abdi Aden; Newton Kahumbi Maina; Margaret Gecaga
    Abstract
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    Roman Catholic Church Teaching on Sanctity of Human Life and its Bearing on Suicide Among Youth in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) Sunguti, Henry Khakavo; Michael T. Katola; Margaret Gecaga
    The primary goal of this study was to examine how the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church about the sanctity of human life relate to youth suicide. The World Health Organization stated on World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD) of 2022 that an estimated 703,000 persons attempt suicide each year (WHO,2022). Suicide ranks as the fourth most common cause of death for those between the ages of 15 and 28worldwide, with over 77% of instances occurring in low- and middle-income nations (WHO,2019). When faced with traumatic life events like suicide, many turn to religion as a protective coping mechanism that gives them comfort and significance. According to Roman Catholic doctrine, life is sacred and, as such, is the preserve of God, the author. The problem statement was: Can the RCC's teaching on sanctity of human life enhance the mitigation of suicide among youth in Ruaraka Deanery, Nairobi City County, Kenya? The general research problem was to examine why some youth resort to suicide even after being exposed to the teachings of the RCC on sanctity of human life through various pastoral programs. The study's specific goals were to determine the factors that contribute to youth suicide cases, find out how the RCC teaches the sanctity of human life in various youth programs, look into how the RCC handles successful and unsuccessful suicide cases, and, lastly, develop different strategies to reduce youth suicide in Ruaraka. The study utilized two interconnected theories of suicide: David Klonsky and Alexis May's (2015) Three-Step Theory of Suicide (3ST) highlighted the ideation to action path of a suicidal person, while Thomas Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS)emphasized the importance of an individual's social connections. The survey design employed in the study was descriptive. A purposive sampling strategy was employed in the Ruaraka Deanery to choose the ten parishes. Three methods were used to gather primary data: questionnaires, interview guides, and focus groups. The study's target group included the clergy, parish administration, youth, and catechists of Ruaraka Deanery. Youths were selected by simple random section, whereas clergy, catechists, and leaders were selected using a purposive sample technique. Consequently, the study findings showed: various factors lead to suicide cases and suicidal thoughts, social media and online sources, poor understanding of RCC teachings on sanctity of life, deficiencies in training of the catechists and ineffective methodology in teaching of the sanctity of human life. The study recommends: that the Catholic Deanery of Ruaraka needs to enhance the methodology of teaching the doctrine on sanctity of human life in catechism classes and other programs, the clergy availability to youth, and the government to step up efforts to enshrine religious teachings to address the problem of suicide in Kenya.
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    Inrtegrating Akamba and Pastoral Counselling Models to Mitigate Infidelity in Africa Inland Church Kitui County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) Munyoki, Dennis Mutua; Michael T. Katola; Philomena N. Mwaura
    Sexual infidelity is a world-wide phenomenon that adversely affects the sanctity of marriage. It seriously impacts the family, which is the basic unit of the society. Christianity and culture have always provided moral standards by which social behaviour is regulated. This has been through structured guidance and counselling to the members of the society. The counselling emphasizes on morality, sanctity of marriage and family as the locus of the society. However, marital challenges and especially cases of sexual infidelity are still rampant among members of Africa Inland Church. It is paradoxical having pastoral counselling structures emphasizing on sanctity of marriage in place and at the same time, rampant cases of sexual infidelity. In the Akamba indigenous society, the counselling system was effective in that members of the society were socialised into acceptable behaviour commensurate with the norms, values and beliefs of the society. Thus, cases of marital instability and especially sexual infidelity were minimal compared to today when the church is perceived to have grown. The question about how AIC pastoral counselling programs can produce positive results, especially in regard to marital sanctity remains critical in this study. This calls for an integrative counselling model that brings both counselling techniques together for a more formidable counselling model. To achieve this goal, three specific objectives guided the study: to investigate the causes of sexual infidelity among Christians couples; to find out the challenges resulting from sexual infidelity and to assess the Akamba counselling elements that can be incorporated in AIC Pastoral counselling model with a view to finding ways of mitigating sexual infidelity in Africa Inland Church, Kitui County, Kenya. Although extensive research has been carried out on Akamba and Pastoral counselling techniques, sexual infidelity menace is insufficiently explored. Literature reviewed confirmed that AIC counselling approach, content analysis and timelines is a matter of concern. The study employed a descriptive survey design. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedules, Focus Group Discussions and through analysis of documents retrieved from the library. The research used purposive and simple random sampling method. Purposive sampling selected participants on the basis of their significance to the research topic. Descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages were used in the analysis and presented through narratives, bar graphs and frequency tables. Mead's (1863-1931)Symbolic Interactionism theory, Emile Durkheim (1912) functionalist theory and Walker's (2020) Integrated Pastoral Counselling model, were applied to the data. These theoretical frame works were employed to articulate the fundamental role played by the church and community in socialization of individuals in the society and need to maintain theological integrity while doing integration. Key findings revealed that inadequate preparation before marriage, marital dissatisfaction, and geographical migration were among highly rated causes of sexual infidelity. The study concludes that the prevailing status of sexual infidelity in Africa Inland Church is likely to be addressed if the Church revisits and adequately reconstructs a pastoral-cultural integrative counselling model with a view of mitigating sexual infidelity for stability of Christian families in Kitui County, Kenya.
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    Roman Catholic Church Teaching on Sanctity of Human Life and Its Bearing on Suicide among Youth in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (kenyatta university, 2023) Sunguti, Henry Khakavo; Michael Katola; Margaret Gecaga
    The primary goal of this study was to examine how the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church about the sanctity of human life relate to youth suicide. The World Health Organization stated on World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD) of 2022 that an estimated 703,000 persons attempt suicide each year (WHO, 2022). Suicide ranks as the fourth most common cause of death for those between the ages of 15 and 28 worldwide, with over 77% of instances occurring in low- and middle-income nations (WHO, 2019). When faced with traumatic life events like suicide, many turn to religion as a protective coping mechanism that gives them comfort and significance. According to Roman Catholic doctrine, life is sacred and, as such, is the preserve of God, the author. The problem statement was: Can the RCC’s teaching on sanctity of human life enhance the mitigation of suicide among youth in Ruaraka Deanery, Nairobi City County, Kenya? The general research problem was to examine why some youth resort to suicide even after being exposed to the teachings of the RCC on sanctity of human life through various pastoral programs. The study's specific goals were to determine the factors that contribute to youth suicide cases, find out how the RCC teaches the sanctity of human life in various youth programs, look into how the RCC handles successful and unsuccessful suicide cases, and, lastly, develop different strategies to reduce youth suicide in Ruaraka. The study utilized two interconnected theories of suicide: David Klonsky and Alexis May's (2015) Three-Step Theory of Suicide (3ST) highlighted the ideation to action path of a suicidal person, while Thomas Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS) emphasized the importance of an individual's social connections. The survey design employed in the study was descriptive. A purposive sampling strategy was employed in the Ruaraka Deanery to choose the ten parishes. Three methods were used to gather primary data: questionnaires, interview guides, and focus groups. The study's target group included the clergy, parish administration, youth, and catechists of Ruaraka Deanery. Youths were selected by simple random selection, whereas clergy, catechists, and leaders were selected using a purposive sample technique. Consequently, the study findings showed: various factors lead to suicide cases and suicidal thoughts, social media and online sources, poor understanding of RCC teachings on sanctity of life, deficiencies in training of the catechists and ineffective methodology in teaching of the sanctity of human life. The study recommends: that the Catholic Deanery of Ruaraka needs to enhance the methodology of teaching the doctrine on sanctity of human life in catechism classes and other programs, the clergy availability to youth, and the government to step up efforts to enshrine religious teachings to address the problem of suicide in Kenya.
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    Integrating Akamba and Pastoral Counselling Models to Mitigate Infidelity in Africa Inland Church Kitui County, Kenya
    (kenyatta university, 2023) Munyoki, Dennis Mutua; Michael T. Katola; Philemona N. Mwaura
    Sexual infidelity is a world-wide phenomenon that adversely affects the sanctity of marriage. It seriously impacts the family, which is the basic unit of the society. Christianity and culture have always provided moral standards by which social behaviour is regulated. This has been through structured guidance and counselling to the members of the society. The counselling emphasizes on morality, sanctity of marriage and family as the locus of the society. However, marital challenges and especially cases of sexual infidelity are still rampant among members of Africa Inland Church. It is paradoxical having pastoral counselling structures emphasizing on sanctity of marriage in place and at the same time, rampant cases of sexual infidelity. In the Akamba indigenous society, the counselling system was effective in that members of the society were socialised into acceptable behaviour commensurate with the norms, values and beliefs of the society. Thus, cases of marital instability and especially sexual infidelity were minimal compared to today when the church is perceived to have grown. The question about how AIC pastoral counselling programs can produce positive results, especially in regard to marital sanctity remains critical in this study. This calls for an integrative counselling model that brings both counselling techniques together for a more formidable counselling model. To achieve this goal, three specific objectives guided the study: to investigate the causes of sexual infidelity among Christians couples; to find out the challenges resulting from sexual infidelity and to assess the Akamba counselling elements that can be incorporated in AIC Pastoral counselling model with a view to finding ways of mitigating sexual infidelity in Africa Inland Church, Kitui County, Kenya. Although extensive research has been carried out on Akamba and Pastoral counselling techniques, sexual infidelity menace is insufficiently explored. Literature reviewed confirmed that AIC counselling approach, content analysis and timelines is a matter of concern. The study employed a descriptive survey design. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedules, Focus Group Discussions and through analysis of documents retrieved from the library. The research used purposive and simple random sampling method. Purposive sampling selected participants on the basis of their significance to the research topic. Descriptive statistics, frequencies and percentages were used in the analysis and presented through narratives, bar graphs and frequency tables. Mead's (1863-1931) Symbolic Interactionism theory, Emile Durkheim (1912) functionalist theory and Walker’s (2020) Integrated Pastoral Counselling model, were applied to the data. These theoretical frame works were employed to articulate the fundamental role played by the church and community in socialization of individuals in the society and need to maintain theological integrity while doing integration. Key findings revealed that inadequate preparation before marriage, marital dissatisfaction, and geographical migration were among highly rated causes of sexual infidelity. The study concludes that the prevailing status of sexual infidelity in Africa Inland Church is likely to be addressed if the Church revisits and adequately reconstructs a pastoral-cultural integrative counselling model with a view of mitigating sexual infidelity for stability of Christian families in Kitui County, Kenya.
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    Roman Catholic Church teaching on sanctity of human life and its bearing on suicide among youth in Nairobi City County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-11) Sunguti, Henry Khakavo; Michael Katola; Margaret Gecaga
    The primary goal of this study was to examine how the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church about the sanctity of human life relate to youth suicide. The World Health Organization stated on World Suicide Prevention Day (WSPD) of 2022 that an estimated 703,000 persons attempt suicide each year (WHO, 2022). Suicide ranks as the fourth most common cause of death for those between the ages of 15 and 28 worldwide, with over 77% of instances occurring in low- and middle-income nations (WHO, 2019). When faced with traumatic life events like suicide, many turn to religion as a protective coping mechanism that gives them comfort and significance. According to Roman Catholic doctrine, life is sacred and, as such, is the preserve of God, the author. The problem statement was: Can the RCC’s teaching on sanctity of human life enhance the mitigation of suicide among youth in Ruaraka Deanery, Nairobi City County, Kenya? The general research problem was to examine why some youth resort to suicide even after being exposed to the teachings of the RCC on sanctity of human life through various pastoral programs. The study's specific goals were to determine the factors that contribute to youth suicide cases, find out how the RCC teaches the sanctity of human life in various youth programs, look into how the RCC handles successful and unsuccessful suicide cases, and, lastly, develop different strategies to reduce youth suicide in Ruaraka. The study utilized two interconnected theories of suicide: David Klonsky and Alexis May's (2015) Three-Step Theory of Suicide (3ST) highlighted the ideation to action path of a suicidal person, while Thomas Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (IPTS) emphasized the importance of an individual's social connections. The survey design employed in the study was descriptive. A purposive sampling strategy was employed in the Ruaraka Deanery to choose the ten parishes. Three methods were used to gather primary data: questionnaires, interview guides, and focus groups. The study's target group included the clergy, parish administration, youth, and catechists of Ruaraka Deanery. Youths were selected by simple random selection, whereas clergy, catechists, and leaders were selected using a purposive sample technique. Consequently, the study findings showed: various factors lead to suicide cases and suicidal thoughts, social media and online sources, poor understanding of RCC teachings on sanctity of life, deficiencies in training of the catechists and ineffective methodology in teaching of the sanctity of human life. The study recommends: that the Catholic Deanery of Ruaraka needs to enhance the methodology of teaching the doctrine on sanctity of human life in catechism classes and other programs, the clergy availability to youth, and the government to step up efforts to enshrine religious teachings to address the problem of suicide in Kenya.
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    Abandonment of Church by Youth-Believers in the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in Kisii County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Kireri, Douglas Omosa; Julius Gathogo; Francis Mwaniki
    The study sought to explore the rationale behind the abandonment of the Church, mainly among the youth-believers in the Adventist Church in Kisii County, Kenya. It has investigated why an otherwise committed youth, who faithfully used to attend the Church would suddenly stop showing up on a weekly, monthly and/or yearly basis, despite living in the neighborhood; yet they still claim to observe the Sabbath. This following objectives guided this research; to analyze the practicability of the Baptismal Class Sessions in the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in Kisii County, to explore the reasons why youth-believers abandon the Church after baptism in Kisii County, and to suggest solutions to the challenge of the phenomenon of youth abandoning the Adventist Church in Kisii County. The study reviewed the literature related to the Church and the youths. The study was theoretically informed by Emile Durkheim‟s Functionalist Theory, which argues that society is a system of related parts of social institutions, such as the family, religion, and the economy. Durkheim‟s theory concludes that religion acts as both glue and a lubricant to the social process. The researcher adopted descriptive design in analyzing the data. The target population in this study was the S.D.A Churches in Kisii County because it involved the youths in these Churches. Purposive sampling was conducted where youths in Churches were included in the study. In this regard, ten selected clergy and other Church members were purposively interviewed. The study used three types of questionnaires, that is, for the clergy, Church elders, and for the youths. The study also used interview schedules and Focused Group Discussions. Piloting was conducted in Kirenga Central S.D.A in Lari to test the validity and reliability of the research collection tool-questionnaire. In a nutshell, the study established the critical factors that make the youths abandon the Church. The main reasons include; failure of parental roles, boring worship service, misjudgment by elder members, dropping out of a ministry, poor role models, dropping out of a group, and gradual withdrawal. The study also explored potential solutions to the problem of youths in the vice of abandoning the Church. This includes: an emphasis on fundamental teachings, reorganization of baptismal classes, and making religious instructions pleasant among other solutions. The study will be crucial to the Church, the society and the country at large because it is geared towards attempts in remolding the moral uprightness of the society, as the Church partly plays the role of instilling morals to the youth. To the clergy, the study will help them to put up necessary measures in place in order to retain the youths in the Church. The research found out that the baptismal class sessions are in place in preparing new converts to become church members. It was also noted that there are a number of reasons that make the youth to abandon the church and solutions to these reasons were suggested. The research therefore recommended a number of issues that can be looked into to help in youth retention. These recommendations include improving the methods of preparing the new converts by making adjustments in the baptismal classes and also coming up with activities that will engage the youth in church to help in retention among other recommendations.
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    Evolution in the Religious Beliefs and Practices of the Abamarama of Kakamega County, Kenya, C. 1850–1960
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Otswondo, Wilberforce William; Gimode A. Edwin
    This study is a historical analysis of the evolution of religious beliefs and practices among the Abamarama of Kakamega County who belong to the larger Abaluyia ethnic group. The study traced the evolution and development of religious beliefs and practices of this community as occasioned by decades of encounter and interaction with Christianity. This study makes a contribution to our knowledge from a historical perspective of the Abamarama culture and the Christian missionary enterprise. Among the objectives addressed in this study were, to: analyse the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Abamarama from c. 1850-1885; examine the response of the Abamarama to mission Christianity, 1885-1930; establish the extent of adoption of western Christian beliefs and practices by the Abamarama 1930 to 1960. Literature on the cultural history of the Abamarama and other related studies were reviewed for purposes of establishing gaps of knowledge in this study. The research was informed in the Symbolic Interactionism theory and the Conflict theory of religion. The study employed qualitative research design in gathering data for this theses. The study used purposive-stratified and snowballing sampling techniques to select the informants. The study used both primary and secondary sources to gather information. Primary sources included oral interviews and archival sources from the Kenya National Archives and the Christian mission archives in Butere. Focus Group Discussions (hereafter FGD) and oral questionnaire for the interviews were employed as research instruments that assisted in gathering primary data. The data was analysed qualitatively because of the qualitative nature of this study. Data from the archives, oral interviews and library was analysed in corroboration with that from secondary sources. The research begun upon receiving authorization letter from Kenyatta University. Research permit was issued by the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation. The study acknowledged all the authors that were cited in this research. Names of informants were not shown on the interview guide sheets for purposes of confidentiality. From the study findings; Abamarama had developed social, economic and political organization in the pre-colonial period. They had well-established religious beliefs and practices based on ancestor veneration and the belief in the Supreme Being. The interaction between Abamarama and Christianity caused resistance from Abamarama who later accepted and blended Christian values with their indigenous culture and formed a new hybrid religion. The Christian community that was formed among the Abamarama by 1960 was not pure Christianity but a syncretic religion. The findings of the study may be used by other scholars to conduct studies on transformation of culture among other ethnic groups within Kenya.
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    Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Family Stability in Nyeri County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Muchiri, Beatrice Nyawira; Josephine Gitome; Joseph Nzau
    The impact of alcohol abuse on families is a dire concern, with breadwinners directing a significant chunk of their funds to drinking, and several individuals abdicating their family commitments. In Nyeri County, Kenya, alcohol abuse has adversely affected the county, with several livelihoods claimed through illnesses such as cirrhosis, negligence and suicides. Considering the significant influence that the church has on its faithful in this region, it could take a role in forestalling these worrying trends. The study focused on the Cathedral Parish households of Nyeri Catholic Archdiocese, where the effects of alcohol abuse on family stability had not received adequate attention. Guided by the following objectives, the study sought to: assess the Roman Catholic moral teachings on alcohol consumption; evaluate the Catholic church initiatives of safeguarding family stability; evaluate the causes of alcohol abuse; and to analyze the socio-economic effects of alcohol abuse on family stability in Cathedral parish households of Nyeri Catholic Archdiocese. The research also analyzed themes derived from peer reviewed literature on the topic of alcohol abuse and family, relating scholarly views to the objectives. The study applied the Family Systems Theory while targeting was 166 respondents. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were applied to select 31 Catholic Men Association, 70 Catholic Women Association, 18 youth members, 1 Bishop, 1 Catechist, 2 parish priests, 21 persons with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), 21 affected spouses and one prolife coordinator. Questionnaires, interview guides and focus group discussions were used for data collection with validity and reliability ensured by conducting a pilot study. Qualitative data was analyzed by sorting in terms of themes and ranked according to their frequent weight while quantitative data was analyzed through percentages and frequencies using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. The study ascertained that Catholic Church Moral and social teachings advocated for temperance in terms of alcohol consumption. Further, the Church strongly teaches followers on strong and stable family units. The teachings were understood by the parishioners, though social economic factors superseded the effectiveness of the teachings on alcohol abuse. The common socio-economic impacts of alcohol abuse in Nyeri were marital separation, high rates of domestic violence, children consumption of alcohol, high rate of school drop-out in the affected households among others. The study concluded that alcohol abuse significantly affected family stability in Cathedral Parish households of Nyeri Archdiocese. Therefore, the Catholic initiatives on alcohol abuse were critical in ensuring family stability. The study recommended that the church could establish comprehensive programs that involved collaboration with government and non-government agencies in order for them to work together for stability of the affected families in the households and the entire community. It was hoped that the information that the study provided would be useful to social workers, priests, scholars, counselors and practitioners dealing with family and social matters.
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    Roman Catholic Church’s Efforts in Addressing Violence against Women: a Case of Women in Marriage, Maragua Parish, Murang'a County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Mburu, Evan Njuguna; Ruth Muthei James; Humphrey M Waweru
    Violence against women (VAW) is a gender-based violence act resulting in physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women. VAW is a fundamental violation of human rights. This study was to investigate efforts of the Roman Catholic Church in covering violence against women in Maragua Parish, Murang’a County. Led by the following objectives, the study aims: to find out the prevalence of violence against women in Maragua Parish, to establish the strategies employed by the church to concentrate to violence against women in the parish, to suggest comprehensive mechanism which can be adopted by Maragua parish to address violence against women. The study was carried out in thirteen out station within the parish and it had specific focus on CWA, CMA, married individual not in the two association and the head priest. Radical feminist theory was used. The study employed the stratified sampling method. The target population according to the parish record (2014) was 5,420 as per the Morgan and Krejicie (1970) model determining sample size a total of 357 respondents were targeted to find the sample size per stratum. Data from church members was obtained using questionnaires and the interview schedule for the head priest. Analysis of quantitative data was done with the aid of descriptive statistics entailing frequencies and percentages. Inferential statistics entailed Chi-square tests as spearman and rank correlation order test to confirm the presence of casual relations between variables. The techniques were used to analyze qualitative data collected using interview schedules. Analyzed data was presented in the form of frequency, pie charts, percentages and tables. The study found that 74% of the respondents were aware of violence against women in the parish. Presence of pastoral counseling programs to confirm violence against women was legible as evidence from 32% of the respondents.67% of the respondents deemed themselves to have been aware of the Church teachings .54% of the respondents considered the Church teachings to advocate against domestic violence. The study recommended that the Roman Catholic Church should seek to implore the members to extol the virtues of love and tolerance in marriage as a prerequisite for harmonies coexistence in the households. Catholic Church should accelerate the counseling programs in place with the view to helping reverse the trend with regard to incidence of domestic violence. Activities like workshops, seminars and capacity building forums for the membership should scale up in the Church. The Catholic Church should seek to entrench the practice of involving women in positions of leadership. This may have a positive effective on building their confidence and self-esteem. It may infuse a sense of respect and belonging from the congregants who also include the male members of the community.
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    The Influence of Four Selected Muslim Non-Governmental Organizations on Education and Humanitarian Work in Mandera County, Kenya (1991-2018)
    (Kenyatta University, 2020) Kosar, Roble Oyow
    This thesis is entitled the influence of four selected Muslim non-governmental organizations on education and humanitarian work in Mandera East Sub-County (MESC), Kenya (1991-2018). The study was specifically aimed at exploring the involvement of Muslim NGOs in education and other humanitarian sectors in MESC, finding out the challenges facing them while carrying out education and other humanitarian activities, and establishing the involvement of the local community in the education and other humanitarian activities. The data of this study was obtained from primary and secondary sources. The study population was 220 participants. 202 beneficiaries of the Muslim NGOs’ activities, 30% from each NGO, were randomly selected from a list given by the Muslim NGOs. The other participants were four representatives of the Muslim NGOs, seven school principals and three elected Members of the County Assembly representing the areas in MESC where the NGOs operate. The study was guided by the Islamic State Welfare Theory and the Alternative Development Theory. The study was also guided by the principle of altruism as championed by the Islamic State Welfare Theory. Alternative development is development from ‘ below’ and below refers to both community and NGOs. The study used purposive sampling method in selecting the representatives of the four Muslim NGOs, the seven school principals and the three MCAs. The data was collected using questionnaires and interviews. SPSS method was used to analyse the questionnaires and coding categories was used to analyse the interviews. The collected data was presented using tables, graphs and figures. The study found out that sponsoring students in secondary schools and provision of relief food are the main activities carried out by the Muslim NGOs in Mandera East Sub-County. However, AMA engages in construction of classrooms and provides other limited facilities to schools such as books and furniture. AMA also engages in construction of wells and dams. Islamic Relief provides healthcare services such as training of medical staff, organizing medical camps, and immunization. The local community is not involved in the design and planning of the projects and selection of the educational beneficiaries of the Muslim NGOs. The Main challenges the NGOs face are lack of funds, insecurity, clanism, government restrictions and overdependence on donor. The study generally found out that few of the Muslim NGOs are engaged in capacity building measures and hence the methods they use in solving the humanitarian and educational needs of the local community lack sustainability.
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    Participative Leadership In Relation To Seventh-Day Adventist Church’s Growth In Kilifi County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2020-06) Muthuri, Peter
    This research set to explore participative leadership in relation to SDA Church‟s growth in Magarini Sub-county, Kilifi County, Kenya. Part of SDA‟s policy recognizes that authority rests in the entire membership. However, the situation on the ground is different since ordinary members are not allowed to participate in leadership. The research sought first, to examine the extent of members‟ inclusivity in leadership to enhance growth; second, to explore the causes and analyze the effects of lack of participatory leadership thus correlating members‟ involvement in leadership and church growth. SDA leadership style is exposed to forces and is affected by factors that undermine church growth. Team Leadership Model was considered an appropriate theoretical orientation for this study in order to highlight constant team analysis and improvement to cultivate church growth. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. To generate data, questionnaires were administered, besides FGD Guide and observation schedule. Nine SDA Churches took part in the study out of which 287 respondents satisfactorily participated. Data generated from field research were presented and analyzed as per the research objectives. It was observed that few members involved themselves in evangelism and opening of Sabbath schools respectively. However, not all Churches had up to date registers. Churches lacked serious Bible study divisions. Members and leaders lacked knowledge on team management. Obstacles to effective communication and socio-economic factors related to gender and family issues were prevalent. Leaders should work in groups by clarifying group roles and initiating more team independence, by taking actions that are goal-focused and which satisfy needs. They should resist forces that lead to exclusive leadership. Further, they should use a combination of various practices of leadership such as prayer life, Bible study, seminars/workshops, conducting time-frame schedules, visitation of members and attending revivals. Participative leadership motivates people and encourages them to be involved in activities; it engages in decision- making necessary for the growth of the church. It calls for team effectiveness where members manage activities corporately, respect church‟s beliefs and counsels, share information, deliberate on issues and agree before implementation of activities to enhance church growth.
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    Contributions of the National Independent Church of Africa to Socioeconomic Development in Kibugu Parish, Embu County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2020-09) M’arimi, Wilfred Mwenda
    The growing interest by scholars on the role of the Church in transformation of the society prompted this study to investigate the contribution of the National Independent Church of Africa (NICA) to socio-economic development in Kibugu Parish, Embu County, Kenya. Specifically, the study discussed the Biblical and pastoral basis guiding involvement in socio-economic development besides examining how NICA carries out socio-economic activities in the study area. Further, the study identified the challenges and the strategies adopted by NICA to overcome them. The study was justified by the need to find out how NICA fulfils Jesus’ mission of being the healer, comforter and feeder of the hungry by contributing to their social and economic development. It is hoped that the study findings will assist faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other religious groups whose aim is to engage in sustainable community development in rural areas. The study’s conceptual framework was drawn from the Structural Functionalism Theory of Religion. This theory holds that society is composed of various institutions such as religion which play the role of social control, cohesion, provide meaning and purpose to life. In this respect, the study used the theory to look at how NICA contributes to transforming the lives of Christians from a state of disempowerment to socio-economic empowerment. The researcher used the descriptive case study design because it intensively and exhaustively investigates the social unit. Purposive and simple random sampling methods were used to select a sample size of 124 respondents from a target population of 371. Qualitative data from the respondents was obtained using focused group discussions (FGD) and interview schedules while questionnaires were used in gathering quantitative information. The researcher adhered to ethical considerations while gathering responses from the informants. Collected data was analysed using descriptive statistics, narratives, and verbatim responses. Then it was coded and processed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). From the obtained data, the findings of this study revealed that NICA Parish engages in socio-economic development through sponsoring education, nurturing talents, extending love as well as praying and paying medical bills for the sick in hospital. Furthermore, the study revealed that NICA has no schools, vocational training institutions and hospitals in the area of study. Lack of adequate funds and long period of stay of a pastor in one Parish were among the challenges facing the Parish. The findings further suggests that NICA lacked a clear strategic plan that is critical in outlining her vision and goals. Despite the challenges, NICA’s efforts and commitment to changing the socio-economic welfare of people in the study area is commendable. This study recommended that the Church should formulate a clear strategic plan and have a long-term plan of establishing its own educational and health institutions. The strategic plan will enable the Church to understand her weaknesses, strengths, area where it has potential and the threats to its socio-economic development. Besides, NICA should organise seminars and workshops to educate the believers on better and modern farming practices as a way of economically empowering them.
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    Assessment of the Spread and Social Effects of HIV and AIDS among Muslims of Kibera Informal Settlement, Nairobi City County-Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2019) Omondi, Dinah Nyangweso
    The title of the study is assessment of the spread and social effects of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) among Muslims of Kibera Sub-county, Nairobi County, Kenya, authored by Dinah Nyangweso Omondi. HIV and AIDS is a social- health pandemic that has entered its third decade with an estimated 36.7 million people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) and 25 million AIDS- related deaths globally. Islam encourages fidelity by prohibiting some practices in an effort of up-bringing a morally upright society. Despite the Islamic proscriptions, some Muslims engage in the prohibited practices thus, causing a paradox between the teachings and the individual behavior since they are sometimes in conflict, hence, the need for this study. The general objective of the study is to assess the spread and social effects of HIV and AIDS among Kibera Muslims and how they mitigate them. The specific objectives are to examine the spread of HIV among Muslims of Kibera, discuss the influence of Islamic practices on the spread of HIV and AIDS, discuss the social effects of HIV and AIDS, and assess how Islam mitigates the spread and social effects of HIV and AIDS. The study employs a descriptive design and both quantitative and qualitative research methods are used to collect and analyze data. The independent variable for the study is the HIV risk behaviors, while the dependent variable was the HIV prevalence. The intervening variables are the knowledge, skills, beliefs, attitudes. The study is conducted in Kibera Sub- County, Nairobi County since Nairobi is one of the Counties well represented by all religions found in Kenya Islam included. Kibera Sub- County was suitable for the study because it has a larger Muslim population and a high HIV prevalence of 20%. The target population for the study is Muslims living with HIV and AIDS (MLWHA). Purposive, convenience and random samplings techniques were used to get the sample population. The data is collected through observation, questionnaires and focus group discussions. The findings are analyzed and presented manually using the narrative form, frequency tables and percentages. According to the study findings, Muslims of Kibera are among those infected by HIV and AIDS since the ratio of infected Muslims as compared to non-Muslims is 1:30. Muslim practices (prohibited and enhanced) can either mitigate or enhance the spread. Some of the HIV and AIDS social effects include among others; stigma, discrimination, orphans and poverty. To mitigate the HIV and AIDS social effects, Muslims make charitable contributions which are used to assist the less privileged in the society such as MLWHA.
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    Religious Approaches to Peace Bulding and Reconciliation in Areas affected by Ethnic Conflicts within Kuresoi North-Nakuru County, Kenya (1992-2008)
    (Kenyatta University, 2019-04) Chepkorir, Betty C.
    In Kenya, the issue of ethnic related conflicts seems to be very prominent. Its effects have been felt both at local and national levels. Religion represented by religious individuals and organizations is often at the heart of rural communities involving many people. Guided by the biblical principles of peace, love and justice, religion has an important role to play in peace building and reconciliation. Religion has the theology and language of healing, forgiveness and reconciliation. In areas affected by ethnic conf1icts globally, religion has helped ease tensions and heals wounds brought therein. Despite the role of religion in peace building and reconciliation however, ethnic conflicts continue to escalate from time to time. The main objectives of this study therefore is to evaluate various approaches used by the religious peace makers and organizations and factors which hinder their effectiveness in peace building and reconciliation in Kuresoi North –Nakuru County. The study was conducted among various religious leaders, individuals and groups represented by churches. The research was guided by a combination of Holton model, Montville and Burton theories. It is hoped that the study will be helpful to the Department of Philosophy and Religious studies, Kuresoi North community and the country at large in the process of peace building and reconciliation in areas affected by ethnic conflicts. In this study different variables were considered; Independent variables are peace building and reconciliation while dependent variables are the religious approaches. The study employed a mixed research design. The primary data were contained in duly filled questionnaires and interviews while the secondary data were in notes form. The sample size was that of one hundred and ninety-three drawn from the Roman Catholic Church, Pentecostal Assemblies of God and the Baptist Churches. Data was presented using frequency distribution and percentage tables, bar graphs and pie charts in relation to the research topic. The study established that the main causes of ethnic conflicts in Kuresoi North include competition for resources, political instigations, security and recognition and acceptance. The study’s findings indicated that religious methods such as, problem solving workshops, mediations and negotiations and confessions have been very effective in peace building and reconciliation. However, the study established that the religious approaches are not applied continually so as to promote peace and reconciliation. Religious leaders and organizations should therefore promote peace and reconciliation continuously and not wait for ethnic conflict to erupt so as to be relevant.
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    Contribution of East African Revival Movement to Evangelism in the Anglican Church of Kenya, Kisumu Central Archdeaconry, Maseno South Diocese, 1930 -1970
    (Kenyatta University, 2018-11) Omer, Elizabeth Akinyi
    The East Africa Revival Movement (EARM) has had a great impact on many of the protestant churches in Eastern Africa for many years, renewing their life and offering to individuals the challenge of a deeper experience of salvation in Christ and more radical commitment to Christian discipleship and evangelism. The Revival Movement is considered to have contributed significantly to the growth of the church in East Africa, despite having other revivals that emerged in the region. However, Christian discipleship and evangelistic activities in the ACK Churches in Kisumu Central Archdeaconry is in great danger of decline. ACK is currently struggling with massive controversies, wrangles and conflicts resulting to estranged relationship among EARM members and ACK leadership. There is limited research to explain this phenomenon especially in Maseno South Diocese, and specifically in Kisumu Central Archdeaconry. This study aimed at investigating the spread of EARM between 1930-1970 and the contribution of EARM teachings, beliefs and practices to the evangelism among the Anglican Churches in Kisumu Central Archdeaconry. It further aimed at investigating the challenges facing the spread of EARM among ACK churches in Kisumu Central Archdeaconry. The study employed a mixed research methodology with a descriptive cross sectional survey research design to collect quantitative data, while Focus Group Discuss and key informant interviews were used to collect qualitative data. The area of study has got nine parishes, out of which three parishes were sampled to represent the entire Kisumu Central Archdeaconry. Multistage sampling technique was used to sample the three parishes. A sample size of 143 respondents was used to obtain data. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were used to obtain qualitative data from the church members, church vicars and EARM leaders. Primary and secondary data, both published and unpublished literature relevant to the subject was consulted and reviewed. The qualitative data was analyzed using thematic content analysis. The study found that historical background of EARM was anchored on revival of the gospel that factored in the African values and ideas and because it got spread majorly through conventions, this could influence the spread of the word of God, given that through these conventions, major components of EARM, which was evangelism was championed. The spread of EARM was based on revival of gospel that was to be led in African way with responsibility of reaching out to the Africans and spreading the gospel to them. Further, it was noted that the historical background of EARM as a lay movement encouraged the importance of lay leadership and responsibility that encouraged evangelism in the church. It was also found that EARM taught about salvation of Jesus Christ and also emphasized the commitment to the Christian discipleship and centrality of Jesus Christ. EARM teachings and practices emphasized the conversion of sinners, spreading of the gospel from one nation to another. Although EARM influenced positively the spread of the gospel, it also encountered certain challenges such as corruption, gospel of prosperity and doctrinal conflict in the church. The study concluded that the Revival movements were mainly ignited following spiritual reflection, fervor and calling to repentance of sins and to preach the word of God to win the souls for Christ. The study recommends that there is need to bridge the doctrinal gap between EARM and ACK. All preaching and teachings within the fellowship should conform to its formularies like the historic creed. It also recommends that the church should take a firmer control of the Revival Movement.
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    Chaplaincy and Behaviour Change of Students in Church Sponsored Public Secondary Schools in Siaya County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2018-11) Otieno, John Obiero
    Many learning institutions around the world have endeavored to develop chaplaincy in the past decades. Literature reviewed however reveals that education systems in African countries and more specifically Kenya have been overburdened by rote learning which negates the real purpose of education that is to address secular, religious and ethical concerns coherent with world view. This denies an educational system a broader and inclusive approach to develop holistic students. This study was based on Structural Functionalism and Social Disintegration theories developed by Emile Durkheim that gave insight to the contributing factors for delinquency among students. Correspondingly, pilot study was carried out and feedback obtained was used to correct research instruments that were afterwards used to collect data in the field. Likewise, a descriptive survey design was utilized to analyze data both qualitatively and quantitatively using a computer software packages, SPSS version 22 and Microsoft Office excel 2007. The analyzed data revealed that a considerable number of learners were affected by cases boy-girl relationships, pregnancies, abortions, homosexuality, examination malpractices as well as drugs and substance abuse. Coupled with weak chaplaincy structures and nonchalant attitude in the society, many students were sometimes overwhelmed with stressful situations such as anger, revenge and suicidal thoughts thus distorting their moral reasoning. These occurrences also contributed to systematic declining of intra-psychic and social development of students. The study similarly revealed major challenges that inhibit school chaplains in their attempt to socially and spiritually develop students. To start with, majority of chaplains conducted their church services in schools’ dining hall once a week without the necessary church equipment. This minimized students’ participation and active involvement in chaplaincy activities. In the same way, there was no any instituted body at the sub-county level mandated to supervise, guide or tackle issues related to chaplaincy. Therefore, the researcher concluded that chaplaincy activities are based on chaplains’ own judgment, doctrines and traditions of the church sponsors that is contrary to chaplaincy principles. Therefore, church in conjunction with educational stake-holders need to work together to develop a joint chaplaincy curriculum to enable chaplains to carry out their responsibilities in a more structured manner. Finally, it is the objective of the study to contribute to the ever increasing intellectual debate on the area of chaplaincy in the world and particularly in Africa.
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    Contribution of Worth Village Banking to Economic Empowerment of Women in Salvation Army in Bungoma County, Kenya.
    (Kenyatta University, 2019-05) Kwemboi, Philip
    Economic empowerment of women is part of the holistic mission of the Salvation Army (SA) which evangelizes both in word and deed. The holistic mission of the SA aims at restoring the right relationship with God through redemption from both sin and economic disempowerment. In Kenya, particularly in Bungoma County, the SA executes her holistic mission through redemption from sin and economic empowerment of women using the Women of Worth (WORTH) program. This study explored the contribution of SA’s WORTH program to economic empowerment of women through WORTH village banks in Bungoma County, Kenya. The purpose of this study was to bring to light the activities of SA’s WORTH village banking program that economically empower women in the study area. Guiding objectives were first, to discuss the teachings of the SA on holistic transformation and redemption in relation to economic empowerment of women; second, to assess the contribution of the SA towards God’s mission of shalom in reference to economic empowerment of women. The third objective was to examine the nature of WORTH Village banking. Finally, the study sought to address the challenges facing WORTH village banking in its economic empowerment of women. The study is significant in assisting the SA in and outside the study area as well as other Christian denominations interested in coming up with sustainable economic empowerment initiatives for women and other vulnerable groups in the society. The study reviewed the literature related to the objectives. The study was conducted in Cheptais Ward, in Bungoma County because of poor penetration of formal women microfinance institutions. Holistic Christian Transformation and Social Gospel theories guided the study. Holistic Transformation theory advocates for transforming lives holistically and restoring relationships with God and humanity through the local church. The SA is an agent of this holistic transformation due to its ability to mobilize people for change. Through the WORTH Village banking program, it mobilizes women to accumulate savings and use them for investment in income generating activities (IGAs). On the other hand, the Social Gospel Theory attempts to bring the Kingdom of God on earth by using the Church to address the contextual social and economic realities in the society. The researcher employed the descriptive research design to gather both primary and secondary data. This was because it allowed the researcher to conduct in-depth interviews, focused group discussions (FGDs) and observations. Simple random and purposive samplings were used to select 136 respondents who participated in the study from a study population of 351 members and leaders of WORTH groups. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and presented in form of frequencies, tables, graphs and charts. Qualitative data was organized into study themes and presented in form verbatim and narratives. The study findings revealed that the SA’s WORTH village banking has enabled women to become economically independent by reducing the financial dependence on men. Further, inadequate skills and knowledge on investment as well as inadequate loan capital have thwarted efforts to investment in IGAs. The study recommends the need for WORTH groups to form linkages with formal microfinance institutions (MFIs) and Uwezo Fund so as to boost the loan capital. It also calls the successful investors through WORTH program to share their stories so as to inspire the other member.
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    The Influence of Catholic Theology of Sexuality on Teenage Girls in Njoro Deanery, Nakuru County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2017-11) Nyang’au, Onserio
    The main objective of the study was to investigate why the Catholic Church teenage girls in Njoro Deanery become pregnant yet a lot of efforts have been put in teaching them the right moral values. The guiding principle was the disconnect between the theory and practice of the professing Catholic teenage girls who become pregnant. The researcher assessed approaches used by the Church to disseminate the Catholic Theology of Sexuality to the teenage girls in Njoro Deanery, Nakuru County. Relevant literature was reviewed based on the objectives. It was found that various scholars have not addressed what brings about the disconnect between what the teenagers are taught and why they indulge in premarital sex. The study was guided by Kohlberg‟s (1958) theory of Moral Development. Kohlberg uncovered three levels of moral thinking and judgments each with two stages. These stages were pertinent in finding out whether the sexuality morals disseminated by the Church have helped the teenagers in their moral formation. The study employed descriptive study design. This design was suitable in collecting the participants‟ opinions and attitudes on the teachings of the Catholic Theology of Sexuality, effectiveness of the approaches used by the Church to disseminate the CTS, and the strengths and weaknesses of the approaches used to disseminate the CTS to teenage girls. Purposive and random sampling methods were used to select participants. The researcher used descriptive survey design. Oral interviews, focus group discussions and analysis of documents from libraries were used to collect data. There were 189 participants in the study. Based on the objectives of the study, overall data were collected, analyzed, interpreted and discussed in the light of Kohlberg‟s (1958) Moral Development Theory. Findings from the study revealed that the dissemination of the Catholic Theology of Sexuality has been hampered by: the moralizing agents (especially Catechists, YP and FLEP teachers) lack of training in theology; poor teaching methodologies such as lack of discussion, parents‟ lack of time and shying away from discussing sexuality issues. The findings have been used to recommend that: the Church should appoint persons of integrity to implement sexuality programmes; training of moral agents; programmes on sexuality to involve teenagers in discussions and role-taking; and the Church to expand Sexuality Education programmes beyond the Magisterium by liaising with other stakeholders in finding ways of inculcating the right moral values to both the Church-going and non-Church-going teenagers. These new approaches will go a long way in minimizing teenage pregnancies among teenage girls in Njoro Deanery.
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    Participation of the Catholic Church in Consumption of Avocado to Enhance Food in Evurore Division Mbeere North Sub-County, Embu County
    (Kenyatta University, 2017-11) Eugenio, Ireri Nyaga
    Availability of enough nutritious food is very essential at all times. Food security can be enhanced when all people participate in food production, preservation and consumption. This will be possible if people have adequate knowledge on various kinds of foods which would influence them to participate effectively in the production and consumption of such foods. This study was based on enhancement of food security in a famine prone region of Evurore Division of Mbeere-north Sub-county of Embu County, Kenya. The researcher identified avocado as one source of food that could be used to enhance food security in the region. Literature was reviewed under several themes such as, the causes of food insecurity, the religio-cultural beliefs and practices that influence avocado production and consumption and the Catholic Church‟s participation in food security. The researcher based his field work on these themes focusing Evurore division. Data was collected from primary and secondary sources. Field data was collected specifically in Evurore division from the farmers, Catholic priests and Catholic Diocese of Embu development coordinators. This was done by conducting interviews, Focus Group Discussions and administering questionnaires. Secondary data was obtained from text books, journals, magazines and also from the internet. The researcher employed mainly the purposive and stratified random sampling techniques to sample the respondents. There were 96 respondents sampled. The data was reviewed in the light of Robert Chambers‟ development model in creating a responsible well-being. A person who is able to produce sustain his or own food is a responsible well –being. Data was analysed using qualitative technique and presented thematically according to the objectives of the study. The study established that there are various causes of food insecurity in Evurore division. The researcher also established that avocado has not been effectively used to enhance food security in Evurore. The Catholic Church has participated in many fields that promote food security but has not effectively sensitized the community to consume avocado fruit and the need to abandon their religion-cultural beliefs and practices which do not help in promoting food security.