RP-Department of Environmental Health

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    Safety and Health Risk Management in Selected Kenya Tea Development Agency Factories in Bomet County, Kenya
    (AJRID, 2024) Kipkoech, Bett Hillary; Wanjohi, Anthony; Makau, Isaac
    Factory workers are faced with myriad of occupational safety and health risks as they carry on their day to day duties in their workstations. These safety and health risks are as a result of exposure to occupational hazards such as noise, organic dust, non-safeguarded or poorly safeguarded machines, poor ergonomics, poor floor conditions and falls, hot surfaces, among others. The objective of this research was to establish the safety and health risk management in Kenya Tea Development Agency Factories in Bomet County. The study used cross sectional analytical research design that allowed data collection at one point in time and involved photography, interviews, observation and measurements (air quality and noise) for data collection. The independent variables were classified under individual and system characteristics. Individual characteristics were the demographic variables while system characteristics were the hardware that make up a tea factory. The intervening variables were the system that make up safety and health management system and administration in the factory. The study was undertaken in Bomet County which has eight KTDA tea processing factories. The target population was employees in Tea Factories managed by KTDA. The study population was 1019 workers in tea factories in Bomet County with a sample size of 317 employees. Simple random sampling gave every worker a chance to be included in the study. The Yamane (1968) sample size determination formula was used in the study since the target population was less than 10,000 people. Authorization was obtained from Kenyatta University Graduate School and ethical clearance sought from Kenyatta University Ethical Review Committee while the research license was obtained from NACOSTI. Access to the KTDA Factories was granted by management through the managing director at the head office. Informed consent was sought from workers before participating in the study. Focus Group Discussion guide, interviewer administered questionnaires, noise meter and particulate counter was used for data collection. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics such as mean, frequencies and percentages. The inferential statistics; chi square and binary logistic regression model was used to test association between variables. Qualitative data was grouped according to emerging themes. Data was presented using charts and tables. The prevalence of occupational hazards in tea factories was 41.3%. The study statistically established that machinery without safeguards was the most prevalent occupational hazard at 40.5%. In the sampled factories and specific sections, Kapkoros Tea Factory and Withering sections recorded higher mean equivalent noise levels (91.4 dBA and 97.3dBA) above exposure limits (90.0dBA) stipulated under The Factories and Other Places of Work (Noise Prevention and Control) Rules, 2005 while both PM2.5 and PM10 levels in sampled factories were below OEL and generally high at the sorting section (0.34mg/m3 and 1.035 mg/m3) but within the exposure limits specified under The Factories and Other Places of Work (Hazardous Substances) Rules, 2007. The study established that provision of PPEs, workplace occupational audits, risks assessments, occupational trainings and occupational examination of workers were the mitigation strategies employed by the factories in safety and health risks management. Level of education (p=0.0001) and work experience (p=0.0001) were statistically significant socio-demographic characteristics and predicted safety and health risks management. The study recommends the employer to institute tests on the efficiency and adequacy of all safety risk mitigation strategies. The study findings can be used for policy formulation and institutionalize changes when managing OSH risks in Kenyan tea industry.
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    Effect of Post-Discharge Postnatal Educational Intervention on Maternal Self-Efficacy among Low-Income Primiparas Living in Informal Settlements in Nairobi County, Kenya
    (IJCMPH, 2024-03) Kamau, Immaculate Wambui; Keraka, Margaret Nyanchoka; Gitonga, Eliphas
    Background: Maternal knowledge and maternal self-efficacy (MSE) are crucial for the adoption of health-promoting evidence-based postnatal practices. Short hospital stay after normal deliveries curtails delivery of pre-discharge postnatal education thus inadequate knowledge and poor MSE. This is accentuated among low-income primiparas thus a need for post-discharge follow-up. Aim was to determine the effect of self-efficacy theory-based post-discharge postnatal education on low-income primiparas’ MSE. Methods: A Quasi-experimental study on low-income primiparas residing in selected slums in Nairobi, Kenya. The control and experimental sites had 118 primiparas each conveniently recruited on early discharge after normal delivery from health facilities serving the slums. An interviewer-administered entry questionnaire was applied to collect facility and demographic data. The intervention group received post-discharge PNE intervention and routine PNC while the control group received routine PNC only. Perceived maternal parental self-efficacy scale was used to measure MSE at 6 weeks. Focus group discussions were conducted for qualitative data. IBM SPSS was used to analyze data. Independent sample t-tests and multiple linear regression were derived. Results: There was a significant (t=12.322, p=0.000) difference in MSE between experimental and control groups. The intervention was a significant predictor of MSE (β=0.59, p=0.00). Respondents appreciated the multi-pronged learning methods, especially the community health volunteers. COVID-19 pandemic challenges such as loss of livelihood and disruption of social connectedness were highlighted. Conclusions: Self-efficacy theory-based follow-up PNE intervention improves MSE among low-income primiparas thus a valuable complement to routine care.
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    Mercury Levels in Groundwater near Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mines in Migori County, Kenya
    (EANSO, 2023-10) Omondi, George Zachary Ochieng; Nyamari, Jackim; Mugo, Judy
    In Migori County, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is an economic activity that uses mercury during the amalgamation process to obtain gold. The waste generated in the form of soil tailings and pan-pond water contains mercury and is located close to community boreholes. The proximity may predispose groundwater to mercury contamination. Boreholes are one of the main water sources in Migori County. Ingestion is one of the ways mercury can get into the human body. This study was conducted to establish mercury concentration in groundwater from boreholes, soil tailings and pan-pond water located near five mine sites in Migori County during dry and wet seasons in comparison with drinking water standards required by KEBS and NEMA effluents discharge standards. The five mines were: - Masara, Osiri Matanda, Macalder, Kitere and Kehancha. The study used a cross-sectional-analytical study design and focused on boreholes found within a distance of 6 km from each of the five mines. Fifteen boreholes were proportionately sampled to obtain groundwater samples. 20 pan-pond water and soil tailing samples were collected in both dry and wet seasons as per the respective sampling protocols applied. Inductively Coupled Plasma –Mass Spectroscopy (7900 ICP-MS) was used to measure mercury levels. A paired t-test was used to compare the means of the levels of mercury in groundwater obtained within the two seasons. The study established that during the dry season, all of the boreholes had groundwater mercury levels higher than the recommended limit by KEBS of 0.001 mg/L. There was a decrease in the levels of mercury in groundwater as distances from the mine increased. However, during the wet season, all of the boreholes had mercury levels below the limit of detection. The study established a significant difference in the levels of mercury in groundwater between wet and dry seasons at a 95% confidence level. Mercury levels in soil tailings and pan-pond water were above the NEMA effluents discharge standards of 0.05 mg/kg and 0.05 mg/L, respectively, in the dry season. During the wet season, all pan-pond water achieved the recommended mercury level of NEMA effluent discharge limits, while the soil tailings had mercury levels above the recommended limit. This study recommends that there is a need to implement mine waste remediation. Communities near the mines continuously conduct groundwater heavy metal analysis during the dry season to protect their health.
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    Occupational Safety Culture in Devki Steel Mills Limited in Athi River, Machakos County, Kenya
    (oalib, 2023) Amol, Daniel Aluora; Wanjohi, Anthony; Bichanga, Robert
    Workers in Devki are exposed to several occupational hazards resulting in an average of three workers going on sick leave monthly. The management sought to reduce these incidences using a leading indicator through Safety Culture. Determining the safety culture was the main study objective. Independent variables were artefacts, espoused values and basic assumptions. The study made use of an analytical cross sectional design. The study population was 800 permanent employees from which a sample of 260 respondents was selected through the stratified sampling technique. The study used an interviewer administered questionnaire and observation checklist to collect primary data. The data was analysed with aid of the SPSS software. Results were interpreted using a safety culture assessment tool provided by Worksafe. The tool categorised a score that lies between 0% and 49% as Poor , 50% and 74% as Average and above 75% as Good. Artefacts scored 76%. The aspired values scored 42.9% and Basic Assumptions scored 39.3%. Management commitment to safety had the highest correlation to safety culture at 51.2%. The study concluded that: 1) The artefacts were installed for regulatory compliance; 2) A lot of the stated values were not practiced; 3) Workers’ attitude towards safety was improving but a lot more should be done in the areas of resource allocation to safety programs. From the first three objectives, the Worksafe NSW Tool ranked the organisation as having an Average safety culture with a mean score of 52.7%; 4) From Pearson’s correlation, the most important attribute in building a good safety culture was Management commitment and injury management was the least important. The study recommends that: 1) The organisation incorporates use of care based artefacts; 2) Workers opinions on safety matters are sought, 3) The company should provide safety training; 4) The management should proactively promote safety.
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    Perceptions of caregivers on immunization in Ntungamo district, Uganda
    (Medip Academy., 2021) Topher, Byamukama; Keraka, Margaret M.; Gitonga, Eliphas
    Background: Immunization is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions to reduce child mortality and morbidity associated with infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions of caregivers on immunization in Ntungamo district. Methods: Quasi-experimental study was used with health centres assigned to intervention and control groups. Purposive sampling was used to select the two counties where the study was done. Proportional sampling was done to get study samples from each health facility, while systematic sampling was done to get study participants. A total of 787 children from twelve health facilities provided the study sample. A post intervention evaluation was conducted to determine the effect of these interventions. Association of variables was tested using Mann Whitney U-test and Chi-square. Results: On benefits, most caregivers in the intervention group (85.3%) and in the control group (54.3%) regarded immunization as very highly and moderately beneficial to their children respectively. On risks, most caregivers in the intervention group (85.5%) and control group (43.1%) regarded the risk factor associated with immunization as very low and moderate respectively. From hypothesis testing, there was a significant difference on the perceived benefits and risks of immunization between the intervention and control group. Conclusions: Most caregivers in the intervention and control group regarded immunization as very highly beneficial and moderately to their children respectively. Most of the caregivers in the intervention and control group regarded the risk factor associated with immunization as very low and moderate respectively.
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    Factors Associated with Health Seeking Behaviour for Reproductive Tract Infections among Young Street Females in Eldoret, Kenya
    (Kabarak Journal of Research & Innovation, 2021) Chepchirchir, V MARITIM; WANYORO, Anthony; NYAMARI, Jackim; MAINGI, John; ABALLA, Lillian; KIMANI, Eunice
    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs), among young women is a public health concern, especially in developing countries like Kenya. When a reproductive tract infection occurs, urgent treatment should be done to avoid short- and long-term consequences. However, few studies have evaluated factors associated with RTIs and healthcare seeking behaviors especially, among young street women in low and middle-income countries. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with healthcare seeking behavior for RTI infections among young street females in Eldoret town in Kenya. Descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. The study participants were young street females aged between 10-24 years. The independent variables were age, education, occupation, marital status, and healthcare associated factors such as distance to the facility, and health care perspectives on reproductive health were assessed. Informed consent was obtained from participants while assent was obtained from guardians for minors and persons in charge of street families. A total of 77 young street females were enrolled. Those aged ≤15 years were 10 (13%) while those aged ≥ 20 years were 48 (62.3%). The study established that participants aged between 16 to 19 years were less likely to report having had an RTI compared to those aged between 20 to 24 years (95% CI; 0.216 (0.070-0.671), p=0.006). Majority had heard of RTI (62, 80.5%). Out of the fifty respondents (65%) who reported having ever experienced RTI in their lifetime, 36 (72%) sought treatment for the illness with 46 respondents (94%) seeking treatment after two days post-onset of symptoms. Additionally, the main first points of seeking treatment were pharmacies (21, 43%) and health facilities (25, 51%). The study findings show there’s a high burden of RTIs among young street females in Eldoret.
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    Diarrhea Risk Factors Associated with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene among the Under Five in Kasarani, Nairobi County
    (science publishing group, 2019) Kimani, Humphrey Mbuti; Akunga, Daniel Nyagetiria; Anyango, Stephen Obiero; Ndwiga, Taratisio
    Provision of quality water continues to be a challenge in the developing Counties particularly in the informal settlements and Kenya is not an exception. This study assessed diarrhea disease attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) among the under five in Kasarani, Nairobi County. The main objective of this study was to establish the association between diarrhea among the under five and Water, Sanitation and hygiene. To achieve this goal Kasarani was categorized into four study environs namely low density high income, Medium density middle income, high density low income and informal settlement low income. Structured questionnaire and hygiene checklist were used as data collection instruments. Association and significant differences between variables were determined using inferential statistics and Chi-square tests. To compare quantitative variables (ANOVA) test was preferred. This study determined that water consumed in Kasarani was a risk for childhood diarrhea (p=0.019). Tap water showed a significantly higher contamination 13.7% than household water container 7.2% for T. Coli Bacteria. The amount of water a household consumed per day was an important risk factor for childhood diarrhea (P=0.001). Overall, Age of a child (P=0.046), water treatment method (P=0.002), method of storage of solid waste P<0.001, quantity and frequencies of water supply (P<0.001) were also found to be the most important risk factors for childhood diarrhea. The study concluded that there was a relationship between childhood diarrhea and water, sanitation and hygiene in Kasarani. The study recommended that Nairobi water and Sewerage Company institute programs that will facilitate adequate and wholesome water supply to HDLI and ISLI residential environs respectively.
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    Demographic Study of Ionizing Radiation Exposure of Quarry Workers in Some Selected Quarries in Nyamira County, Kenya
    (Environmental Health Insights, 2020) Makori, Kerubo Ruth; Warutere, Peterson Njogu; Nyamari, Jackim; Arika, Wycliffe
    Cumulative effects of exposure to ionizing radiation results in oxidative-induced damage and genetic mutations that are prerequisites for many pathologies including cancer. An understanding of term “ionizing radiation,” its injurious effects and mitigation measures is therefore, imperative. The present study aimed at investigating the awareness of the term “ionizing radiation,” its injurious effects and preventive measures among quarry workers within Nyamira County, Kenya. An analytical cross-sectional study design was adopted and data collected through administration of questionnaires. The results revealed that majority of the sampled quarry workers indicated inadequacy in understanding the term “ionizing radiation,” its injurious effects and preventive measures against ionizing radiation exposures. However, it was noted that level of education and working experience of quarry workers positively correlated with the understanding of the term “ionizing radiation,” injurious effects and intervention approaches against ionizing radiation exposures irrespective of gender and age. Therefore, there is need for stakeholders to build capacity on ionizing radiation, its effects, and preventive measures against exposures to ionizing radiation among the quarry workers and the general public.
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    The Quality of Kiserian Slaughterhouses’ Effluent and Its Implication on Kiserian Dam Water in Kajiado County, Kenya
    (IPRJB, 2023-05-25) Ngare, Leah Wangui; Kitur, Esther L.
    Purpose: Wastewater from abattoirs, municipal, agricultural and industrial effluents is a major source of environmental pollution as they consume large amounts of fresh water for meat processing and hygienic purposes. The main objective of the study was to assess the quality of the effluent from Keekonyokie and Kiserian slaughterhouses and its effect on the quality of water in Kiserian dam. Methodology: The parameters measured were pH, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, dissolved oxygen and fecal coliforms (E. coli). Samples were collected from 4 sampling sites three times a week for three months. SPSS (ANOVA) for their significant differences. Onesample t-test used to compare the parameter means with NEMA 2006 standards. Pearson Correlation used for correlation among the parameters. Findings: The mean fecal coliforms 2215.206 mg/l, Phosphorous 47.379 mg/l, Nitrates 36.71 mg/l, TSS 387.57 mg/l which were above the standards of NEMA 2006 of nil, 2, 2 and 30 mg/l respectively while DO was 8.58 mg/l and pH 6.86-7.0 both of which were below the NEMA 2006 standards of 30 mg/l and 6.5- 8.5. The results of all parameters were significantly different among the sites (p=0.00). There was significant difference between the parameters and the NEMA 2006. ANOVA results on parameters showed the all coliforms increased with increase in rainfall with the highest levels in September with a mean 18662.7 mg/l and in July with the lowest of 12962.5 mg/l. Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: The study can be used by slaughterhouses developers and management on slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. To be used by slaughterhouses licensing authorities on SWW requirements before licensing. To be used by Public Health Department for disease surveillances and Water Regulatory Management Authority on domestic water treatment.
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    Determination of Knowledge Based on Aflatoxin Poisoning among Broiler Farmers in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Microbiology Research Journal International, 2023) Chepkosgei, Ruth; Njogu, Warutere Peterson; Nguhiu, Purity; Ojola, Patroba; Kirinyet, Joel; Koskei, Peter
    Background: There is a scarcity of information concerning knowledge of aflatoxin contamination of feeds among farmers even in aflatoxin-prone regions in Kenya. Thus, knowledge of aflatoxins in feeds among poultry farmers is of paramount importance in designing plans to minimize risks of aflatoxin exposure. Therefore, this study sought to assess the Determinants of Knowledge on Aflatoxin Among Broiler farmers in Nairobi City County, Kenya. Methodology: The study utilized an analytical cross-sectional study design. A total of 240 farmers were sampled from a population of 600 farmers within Nairobi City County. A structured questionnaire was administered to farmers within Nairobi City County. SPSS version 26 was used to analyze the data descriptively. Results were presented in tables and figures. Ethical approval was sought from relevant authorities and parties before the commencement of the study. Results: Results from the study show that the majority of the farmers (58.2%) had knowledge of aflatoxin. There was a significant association (p<0.05) between the socio-demographic characteristics of farmers and knowledge of aflatoxin. Conclusion: The study concludes that the farmers had adequate knowledge of aflatoxin occurrence in feeds and methods to reduce the contamination. There is a need for continuous sensitization of farmers on aflatoxin, particularly on feed management practices by the Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Health Division of Public Health in Kenya
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    Aflatoxin Bioaccumulation in Broiler Chicken Meat and Organs from Selected Farms in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (International Organization Of Scientific Research (IOSR), 2023) Chepkosgei, Kirinyet Ruth; Njogu, Warutere Peterson; Nguhiu, Purity; Ojola, Patroba; Kirinyet, Joel; Koskei, Peter; Ndiritu, Alex Karuiru
    Background: Food safety is a worldwide concern not only to policymakers but also to the general population. Food is regarded as safe when there is assurance that no damage will accrue from its consumption. Aflatoxins pose a major risk to the health of both humans and animals. Studies on residue levels in broiler chicken are limited in Kenya hence grounded on this knowledge, this study sought to determine aflatoxin residue levels in broiler meat and organs in Nairobi City County. Materials and Methods: The study employed a longitudinal study design for a period of six weeks. A total of 42 broilers were sampled. Samples were analyzed using the LC-MS/MS technique. Data was analyzed using STATA version 12. Tukey Kramer post hoc test was used for comparison of means and statistical significance was determined at 5%. Ethical approval was sought from relevant authorities before commencement of the study and consent was sought from the participants before taking part in the study. Results: Results from the study show that there was a significant association (p<0.05) in AFB1 and Total Aflatoxin levels in the gizzard, liver and muscle per week. AFB1 levels in the gizzard were below the WHO/FAO limit of 5 ppb however they were above the EU limit of 2ppb in week 5 and 6. In the liver AFB1 levels were above the EU limit in week 4, 5 and 6 and above the WHO/FAO limit in week 6.In the muscle AFB1 levels were all below the WHO/FAO and EU limit. Total Aflatoxin levels in the liver were above the EU limit in week 4, 5 and 6 and above the WHO/FAO limit in week 6. In the muscle Total Aflatoxin levels were all below the WHO/FAO and EU limit. Conclusion:The results of the study suggest that there were appreciable levels of aflatoxin in the liver and gizzard hence there is need for continuous surveillance and monitoring of aflatoxin levels in feed by regulatory bodies, county and national government to prevent carry over in meat.
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    Carry Over Effect of Aflatoxin from Broiler Feed to Broiler Meat and Organs in Chicken raised in Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (IOSR, 2023) Chepkosgei, Kirinyet Ruth; Njogu, Warutere Peterson; Purity, Nguhiu
    Background: Aflatoxin is a threat and a food safety concern particularly in developing countries due to the climatic conditions that favor the growth of the aflatoxin fungi. Consequently, this is a major risk to feed ingredients used in the manufacture of animal feed and subsequently a great risk to human consumers due to the detrimental effects of these toxins. Since there are no documented studies on carry over effect of aflatoxin in broilers in Kenya, a study to establish the carry over effect of aflatoxin in broiler chicken was carried out in Nairobi City County. Materials and Methods: The study employed a longitudinal study design where by broiler chicken were followed for a period of six weeks. The broilers were sampled from six farms in six sub counties within Nairobi City County hence, a total of 42 birds were sampled.The samples obtained were meat (muscle, liver and gizzard), feed and water and were analyzed using the LC-MS/MS technique to determine the Aflatoxin levels.The carry over effect in this study was determined statistically. STATA version 12 was used to analyze the data. Tukey Kramer post hoc test was used for comparison of means and statistical significance was determined at 5%. Results:There was a statistical significant difference (p<0.05) in the carry over ratio of aflatoxin per week. The highest carry over ratio of >10% was observed in the liver, followed by the gizzard and the least was in the muscle.The highest transfer ratio was observed in week 5 and 6 in the liver and in week 6 in the muscle. The carry over ratio in the muscle was below 1%. Conclusion:The study concludes that it is less safe to consume the liver and gizzard as the transfer is high however it is safer to consume the muscle as the transfer is low. There is need to constantly monitor aflatoxin levels in feed and feed ingredients hence prevent carry over into animal tissues consequently reducing risk to humans.
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    Social Demographic Factors Associated with Adherence to Treatment among Urban and Rural Tuberculosis Patients in Kenya
    (ijmshr, 2020) Mbuti, Humphrey; Mwaniki, Elizabeth; Warutere, Peter; Oguya, Francis; Midigo, Ronnie
    Tuberculosis is a Global Public Health concern with serious Economic and Social Burden to the Patient and the Household. Because of the long duration of Standard Treatment there is a Risk of Treatment Default by Patients. The Objective of the Study was to determine the Social Demographic Factors Associated with Adherence to Treatment among the Urban and Rural Tuberculosis Patients in Kenya. The Cross Sectional Study Design was adopted. The Study applied the Multi-Stage Sampling Technique. Random Sampling Method was used to select the TB Clinics that Participated in the Study. Simple Random Sampling according to Probability Proportionate to TB Patient’s Population was preferred to select the Study Participants. Chi-Square Test determined Association between the various Social Demographic factors and the Adherence to treatment while ANOVA Test demonstrated the overall Association of Social Demographic factors and Adherence to TB Treatment. Statistical Significance was evaluated at p<0.05. Descriptive Statistics summarized and described the data. The Study established that Demographic Factors were Associated with adherence to TB treatment. Specifically, Gender, Level of Education, Place of Residence were found to be Significant (P<0.05). Age, Marital Status, Primary Occupation and Household Head were not Significantly Associated with adherence to TB treatment (p>0.05). These Findings will persuade the TB Management Policy towards developing Intervention Programs directed at the Social-Demographic Characteristics of the TB patient for improved Treatment Outcomes.
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    Risk Factors Associated with Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Rosterman, Kakamega, Kenya
    (Scientific & Academic Publishing, 2020) Makokha, Winnie Rabera; Nyamari, Jackim Matara; Makau, Isaac K.
    Occupational injuries, though preventable, have been described as a major public health problem. In artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), little is known about the risk factors to injuries. In 2018, we examined injuries and the potential risk factors among ASGM workers in Rosterman, Kakamega County, Kenya. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted and three hundred and thirteen (313) ASGM workers were interviewed regarding their occupational injuries experiences over the preceding 1 year. Data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaires with the aid of open data kit (ODK) platform. Injury rates were estimated at 44.7 injuries per 100 person years. The most affected body parts were hands, upper and lower limbs at 62.14%, 30% respectively. The risk factors associated with injuries included; having an alternative source of income (p=0.027), an individual personal safety culture (p=0.021) and use of hammer or mallet as tools (p=0.022). In conclusion, injuries are prevalent among ASGM workers with several body parts being affected, the upper limbs being the most commonly affected. The study also demonstrated that there are various risk factors associated with injuries in ASGM. In view of those findings, the study recommends that injury prevention should be made a priority in ASGM intervention programs in order to reduce the burden of occupational injuries and also sensitize the workers on the risk factors they are exposed to.
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    Socio-Demographic And Water Handling Practices Affecting Quality Of Household Drinking Water In Kisii Town, Kisii County, Kenya
    (Elsevier ltd, 2022) Akunga, D.N.; Ondieki, J.K.; Warutere, P.N.; Kenyanya, Omanga
    Household drinking water quality is dependent on a number of determinants which could be arising at the source, during transportation or due to storage and handling practices. The challenge of unsafe water is even big in urban settings that are often characterized by exponential population growth, increased urbanization, industrialization and poor sanitary facilities. Contaminated water is a leading cause of water borne diseases which are a major public health and policy makers concern. In fact, Water borne diseases are third cause of mortality in Kenya whereas they are ranked second in Kisii. The study was designed to investigate the factors affecting household drinking water quality in Kisii Town that has four main zones which include: Mwembe, Jogoo, Nyanchwa and CBD. Demographics, level of awareness in terms of water quality as well as hygiene and sanitation practices of the study population were studied using questionnaires. The questionnaires were filled by interviewing household heads from 422 sampled households. Qualitative data was also obtained by use of Focused group discussions (FGDs). Perspectives of key people such as public health officers were acquired through Key informant interviews (KIIs). The study found a significant relationship between household size and water quality in terms of presence of total coliforms. The following hygiene and sanitation factors were found to be having significant relationship with presence of E. coli in household drinking water; source of water (p ¼ 0.002), transportation container (p ¼ 0.029), covering during transportation (p ¼ 0.012), storage container (p < 0.001), method of drawing from storage container (p < 0.001), feces disposal (p ¼ 0.001) and garbage disposal method (p ¼ 0.04). The conclusion of this study is that good hygiene and sanitation practices are important in ensuring total safety of drinking water at the point of use. There is therefore need for more capacity building in this region to ensure that people do not consume contaminated water which is a major contributing factor to water-borne diseases.
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    Compliance to Occupational Safety and Health Practices among Workers in Flower Farms in Embu County, Kenya
    (Full Length Research, 2021) Gechemba, Barongo Bevalyne; Warutere, Peterson Njogu; Makau, Isaac K
    The implementation of occupational safety and health in workplaces is of significance in improving safety working condition in horticultural sector in Kenya. The main objective of the study was to assess the level of compliance to occupational health practices among flower farm workers in Embu County, Kenya. Specific objectives were to determine risk identification and assessment practices among flower farms in Embu County, Kenya, to determine the level of compliance on surveillance of worker’s health among flower farms in Embu County, Kenya and to determine the degree of occupational safety and health awareness among flower farm workers in Embu County, Kenya. A descriptive crosssectional research design was used. The study population was 859 comprised of employees working in flower farms in Embu County. A sample size of 300 selected through stratified random sampling. Structured questionnaires, observational checklist, FGD and KII were also utilized to collect data. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistic technique and inferential analysis technique Pearson’s Moment Correlation and regression. The study revealed that there is a strong, significant positive correlation between OSH Risk identification and assessment practices and compliance with Safe Work Environment (r=0.799, P=0.001<0.01). The study established that Surveillance of workers’ health had a strong, significant, positive influence on compliance with occupational Safety and health practices in Flower farms in Embu County (r=0.711, P=0.021<0.05 ). Further, the study established that the degree of awareness on safety and health has a strong, significant and positive correlation with Compliance of Occupational Safety and Health practices (r=0.721, P=0.037<0.05. The study concluded that there was a high level of risk identification and assessment practices thus improving the level of compliance with OSH practices in the flower farms in Embu County. The study concluded that there exists a health surveillance program indicating compliance to OSH practices in the flower farms in Embu County. From the results, there was high level of employee awareness on safety and health among the workers a predictor of level of compliance with OSH practices in the flower farms in Embu County.
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    Occupational Noise in Selected Tea Factories and Reported Health Effects on Workers in Kericho County
    (Full Length Research, 2022) Gitau, Patrick Martin; Iseme, Rosebella Alungata; Nyamari, Jackim M
    Noise is one of the most common physical hazards experienced in workplaces. Occupational noise is generally the factory noise received by employees when they are working within an industry. Employees working in tea factories are exposed to the health risks resulting from industrial noise. This study was conducted in selected tea factories in Kericho County to assess the impact of occupational noise on employees' health. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design. The study targeted 259 employees in the production department working for a minimum of eight hours from the selected tea factories using a random sampling technique. The noise level was measured using an ND-9 Digital calibrated sound level meter. The generation of output in the study was achieved by using SPSS version 25. A univariate Chi-square test of independence was used to evaluate the association of noise levels and reported health effects among the workers in the production department of selected tea factories. The predictive ability of the study relied on the binary logistic regression to establish adjusted odds ratio (AOR) that reported a 95% confidence interval. Inferential statistics were presented using charts and tables of percentages, statistical means, and standard deviations. The study considered a P value of below 0.05 as significant. From the findings, most of the respondents were exposed to occupational noise for long hour sometimes for more than 4 hours due to lack of shifts or enough qualified personnel to relieve them at their duty stations. This led to increased risk to the effects of noise pollution on their health. A Chi-square test to determine the independence of health effects to occupational noise was significant at p<0.05 for noise levels (r=0.108, p<0.05), and days worked in the same place (r=0.109, p<0.05). Higher noise levels in a tea factory and more days an employee worked in the same work station were more likely to develop negative health effects. The correlation analysis was not significant between negative health effects produced from exposure to occupation noise and use of PPEs (r=0.146, p<0.001). Understanding the negative effects of occupational noise motivates the use of PPE, reducing the possibility of developing health effects from noise exposure. Therefore, the study concluded that exposure to occupational noise occurs in tea factories because of running machines with constant noise levels. The study recommends that tea factories administration and management should implement a proactive process that will provide guidelines for assessment and management of occupational noise risks, use of PPEs, and implementation of ergonomic solutions like conducive working conditions, initiate shifts in different working areas, always involve the workers in regular health check-ups, and reduce working hours.
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    Comparison of Pesticide Residue Levels in Tomatoes from Open Fields, Greenhouses, Markets and Consumers in Kirinyaga County, Kenya
    (Research Gate, 2022) Momanyi, Nakhungu Violet; Keraka, Nyanjoka Margaret; Atieno, Abong’o Deborah; Warutere, Njogu Peterson
    The study was carried out to determine and compare pesticide residue levels in tomatoes from Mwea Irrigation Scheme. Thirty five tomato samples of Rambo variety randomly collected from open fields, greenhouses, markets and consumers were analyzed using QuEChERS method. Results showed that pesticide residue leve;s from greenhouse tomatoes was higher compared to open fields, markets and consumers. Alpha-cypermethrin level in greenhouse tomatoes (0.0871±0.0087mg/kg) was significantly (p<0.01) higher than from consumers (0.0218±0.0061mg/kg) while difenoconazole from greenhouse tomatoes (0.2597±0.0522 mg/kg) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than from the open field (0.0295±0.0014 mg/kg). Carbendazim level in greenhouse (1.2341±0.1667 mg/kg) tomatoes was significantly (p<0.001) higher than from open fields (0.0596±0.0178 mg/kg), markets (0.1160±0.0490 mg/kg) and consumers (0.0494±0.0155 mg/kg). Imidacloprid in greenhouse tomatoes (0.1446±0.0086 mg/kg) was significantly (p<0.001) higher than from the markets (0.0236±0.0019 mg/kg) and consumers (0.0170±0.0017 mg/kg). High pesticide residue levels in tomatoes are a health concern for consumers. Enforcing the food safety laws, enhancing farmer training on safe use of pesticides and creating awareness on pesticide risks would promote production of uncontaminated crops consumed locally.
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    Environmental Factors Predisposing Rural Community Members to Tungiasis in Murang’a East Sub County, Murang’a County
    (International Peer Revied Journal and Book Publishers, 2018) Wambani, Zablon; Nyamari, Jackim; Kimani, Harun
    Purpose: To determine environmental factors predisposing rural community members to tungiasis in Murang’a East Sub County, Murang’a County. Materials and Methods: The study utilized cross sectional descriptive study design. The research adopted systematic random sampling design to identify the households to be studied where a total of 334 households were selected to participate in the study as determined by Fisher et al 1998 formula. The study was carried out in Murang’a East Sub county where household heads or their representatives were interviewed using interview schedule and observation checklist gathered data on environmental factors related to tungiasis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the collected data. Results: The study found out that Majority of those who had tungiasis were living in temporary houses which had earthen floors. Majority (21%) of the respondents were aged between 20 to 29 years followed by those aged between 30 to 39 years that accounted for 19.2%. Majority (71.3%) of respondents were females while 28.7% were males. 39.5% of them were living in semi-permanent houses, 37.1% were living in temporary houses while 23.4% were living in permanent houses. However, for those who were jigger infested, 83.3% were living in temporary houses and 16.7% were living in semi-permanent houses. 88.6% of households had domestic animals (chicken) out of which 57.7% reported that the chicken slept next to the living house while 36.6% reported that their chicken slept away from the living house. 68.9% of the households’ surrounding was clean. Unique contribution to theory, practice and policy: The study recommends that the county government of Murang’a should consider subsidizing house improvement particularly for those households that experience persistent tungiasis cases
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    Influence of Short Message Service Reminders on Utilisation of Focused Antenatal Care Among Women in Rural Kenya: A Randomised Controlled Trial
    (AFRICAN Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 2020) Gitonga, Eliphas; Nyamari, Jackim; Warutere, Peterson; Wanyoro, Anthony
    Background/Aims The short message service is a part of mobile health, which is defined as medical and public health practices that are supported by mobile devices, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, and other wireless devices. Mobile health has documented positive outcomes on other health services, including focused antenatal care. The focused antenatal care model emphasises quality of care rather than quantity of antenatal visits, and the World Health Organization recommends a minimum of four targeted antenatal visits. This study examines the influence of short message service reminders on utilisation of focused antenatal care in rural Kenya. Methods This was a randomised controlled trial with 118 respondents in each of two study arms, intervention and control, conducted in Tharaka Nithi, Kenya. The study group were pregnant women attending their first antenatal care visit in Tharaka subcounty health facilities. The intervention was three short message service reminders a week before the scheduled visit. Structured questionnaires were used to collect baseline and exit interviews. The chi-square test and logistic regression were used to check associations between uptake of antenatal care and participant characteristics at 5% significance level. Results Three quarters (75%) of the respondents in the intervention group completed the four targeted antenatal visits, whereas only 10% of respondents attended the required four visits in the control group. None of the sociodemographic variables were found to have any association or influence on focused antenatal care attendance. Short message reminders increased the chances of attending the recommended visits by 27 times (P<0.001). Conclusions Short message service reminders have a positive influence on utilisation of focused antenatal care. This research paper recommends that policymakers and health managers use short message service reminders to increase the uptake of focused antenatal care.