PHD-Department of Gender and Development

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    Determinants of Utilization of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services among University Students, Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (kenyatta university, 2023) Ongwae, Joshua; Grace Okongó; Casper Masiga
    Despite the efforts universities are putting in place to address the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) concerns and needs of their students, the rate at which students are engaging in casual unprotected sex is reportedly high. This has resulted in increased rates of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions among the student population. It is against this background that this study sought to assess the determinants of utilization of sexual and reproductive health services among university students, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Universities provide the best avenue for training young people who will form a big part of Kenya’s future workforce and therefore, provide an opportunity for enhancing the students’ wellbeing by enhancing their utilization of SRH services. The objectives of the study were to: identify the SRH concerns, needs and priorities of young people in universities; examine the association between sexual behaviour, attitudes and university students’ (male and female) utilization of SRH services; determine awareness of SRH policy frameworks that impact on the provision and utilization of SRH services among university students (male and female); assess the relationship between SRH policy frameworks and utilization of SRH services in universities in Kenya; and identify strategies that will lead to increased awareness and implementation of SRH related policies and utilization of SRH services. The Social Economic Model (SEM) guided the study in understanding the problem while the Andersen and Newman Framework of Health Services Utilization guided the study in identifying possible solutions to the challenges identified. The targeted population was staff and students studying in universities with main campuses in Nairobi City County. Stratified random sampling was used to select the four public and private universities (Kenyatta University, Multimedia University of Kenya, United States International University - Africa and KCA University) which were part of the study from the six public and five private universities in Nairobi City County. The study was guided by cross-sectional and exploratory research designs. The target population was 192,193 students. Stratified random sampling was used to select the three hundred and seventy (370) students who completed the study questionnaires. Sixteen key informants were purposefully selected from staff and students to participate in-depth interviews while four focus group discussions (FGDs) of either gender of between 8 - 12 students in each FGD participated in the study. The tools for the study were questionnaires, key informant interview and FGD guides. Qualitative data was analysed according to themes while descriptive statistics was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data was presented in narrative and verbatim forms. Reporting for quantitative data was done in both textual and visual formats such as diagrams, percentages, graphs and tables. The study established that university students are most concerned about getting infected with HIV/AIDS followed by getting pregnant or impregnating someone. The study established that what the students need the most is access to condoms, pills and contraceptives for pregnancy prevention and youth friendly services. Moreover, the findings revealed that university students prioritize confidentiality, the cost of SRH services and being attended by friendly healthcare providers in this order. Also, the results established that sexual behaviour determines utilization of SRH services. Further, the study found that there were low levels of awareness among university students of national and university SRH policy frameworks that impact on the provision of SRH services. The findings indicate no or negligible relationship between awareness of national SRH policies and services utilized. Based on the findings, the study made recommendations that included: universities to allocate resources for SRH programs, integrate gender and digitize SRH services and programming to improve service provision and utilization. It is expected that the adoption of the recommendations will lead to improved utilization of SRH services resulting to improved SRH outcomes for the students
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    Determinants of Utilization of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services among University Students, Nairobi City County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2023-09) Ongwae, Joshua; Grace Okong'o; Casper Masiga
    Despite the efforts universities are putting in place to address the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) concerns and needs of their students, the rate at which students are engaging in casual unprotected sex is reportedly high. This has resulted in increased rates of unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions among the student population. It is against this background that this study sought to assess the determinants of utilization of sexual and reproductive health services among university students, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Universities provide the best avenue for training young people who will form a big part of Kenya’s future workforce and therefore, provide an opportunity for enhancing the students’ wellbeing by enhancing their utilization of SRH services. The objectives of the study were to: identify the SRH concerns, needs and priorities of young people in universities; examine the association between sexual behaviour, attitudes and university students’ (male and female) utilization of SRH services; determine awareness of SRH policy frameworks that impact on the provision and utilization of SRH services among university students (male and female); assess the relationship between SRH policy frameworks and utilization of SRH services in universities in Kenya; and identify strategies that will lead to increased awareness and implementation of SRH related policies and utilization of SRH services. The Social Economic Model (SEM) guided the study in understanding the problem while the Andersen and Newman Framework of Health Services Utilization guided the study in identifying possible solutions to the challenges identified. The targeted population was staff and students studying in universities with main campuses in Nairobi City County. Stratified random sampling was used to select the four public and private universities (Kenyatta University, Multimedia University of Kenya, United States International University - Africa and KCA University) which were part of the study from the six public and five private universities in Nairobi City County. The study was guided by cross-sectional and exploratory research designs. The target population was 192,193 students. Stratified random sampling was used to select the three hundred and seventy (370) students who completed the study questionnaires. Sixteen key informants were purposefully selected from staff and students to participate in-depth interviews while four focus group discussions (FGDs) of either gender of between 8 - 12 students in each FGD participated in the study. The tools for the study were questionnaires, key informant interview and FGD guides. Qualitative data was analysed according to themes while descriptive statistics was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data was presented in narrative and verbatim forms. Reporting for quantitative data was done in both textual and visual formats such as diagrams, percentages, graphs and tables. The study established that university students are most concerned about getting infected with HIV/AIDS followed by getting pregnant or impregnating someone. The study established that what the students need the most is access to condoms, pills and contraceptives for pregnancy prevention and youth friendly services. Moreover, the findings revealed that university students prioritize confidentiality, the cost of SRH services and being attended by friendly healthcare providers in this order. Also, the results established that sexual behaviour determines utilization of SRH services. Further, the study found that there were low levels of awareness among university students of national and university SRH policy frameworks that impact on the provision of SRH services. The findings indicate no or negligible relationship between awareness of national SRH policies and services utilized. Based on the findings, the study made recommendations that included: universities to allocate resources for SRH programs, integrate gender and digitize SRH services and programming to improve service provision and utilization. It is expected that the adoption of the recommendations will lead to improved utilization of SRH services resulting to improved SRH outcomes for the students.
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    A Phenomenological Evaluation of the Strategies that Create Spaces for Male and Female Hearing-Impaired Persons in Uasin Gishu County
    (kenyatta university, 2021) M.Phil., Enoch Harun Opuka; Catherine Ndungo; Mary Runo
    The study focused on the spaces that lead to the inclusivity of the Deaf within Uasin Gishu County. In particular, the study specifically undertook to evaluate the strategies that can create spaces for inclusivity of this group of persons within Uasin Gishu County. The study was guided by four objectives. These were; to assess the opportunities the national government has availed in Uasin Gishu for the education of the Deaf, evaluate the effectiveness of the interpreters of the county government of Uasin Gishu that empowers the Deaf, evaluate the current measures that the county government of Uasin Gishu and the national government have taken to mainstream gender in Uasin Gishu and finally determine measures the county government and the national government in Uasin Gishu can put in place to create spaces for inclusivity of the male and female. Two theories were used to guide the study. The cognitive theory which examined the correlation between learning and the environment and the Ricoeur’s Theory of Interpretation which states that the interpreter must be aware of the purpose of the interpretation and that both the original message and the target message have dissimilar cultures. Meaning the interpreter must be aware of the two cultures. The research design was phenomenological and used both qualitative and quantitative approach. It was found that the national government has one primary school for the Deaf, with no other institution within Uasin Gishu streamed or otherwise. Although the school was large enough to accommodate more students, it was found that parents prefer their children to learn in spaces near their homes rather than in boarding facilities. There was no single employee who is deaf in both county government and the national government. There were two supervisors employed to supervise the Deaf who also acted as interpreters, though not trained in KSL. The study found that there were more male Deaf accessing education than their female counterparts. Parents preferred to have their daughters at home for safety. The study recommends policy change to address the Deaf group specifically. The study also recommends that the national government introduce the Deaf stream in the local primary schools for easy access. The national government and the county government should create public awareness on the need to take the deaf girls and boys to school. They should also employ qualified interpreters in their offices. The study concludes that the Deaf are a marginalised group whose disability is communication and therefore any meaningful intervention must be related to communication.
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    Gender Differentials in Adoption of Alternative Livelihood Strategies among Pastoralists in West Pokot County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2022) Kondoltiony, Emmanuel Psongol; Pacificah Okemwa; Leah N. Wanjama
    This study sought to investigate gender differentials in adoption of Alternative Livelihood Strategies (ALSs) among pastoralists in West Pokot County, Kenya. This is because the differentials have persisted in spite of concerted efforts to address them, thereby impeding adoption of ALSs, a process considered the best pathway out of the community‟s socioeconomic challenges. The study, specifically, endeavoured to: assess the status of adoption of ALSs by men and women; examine the factors that influence adoption of ALSs by men and women; evaluate the effects of adoption of ALSs on households and identify gender-responsive strategies that would enhance adoption of ALSs in the Pokot pastoral community. The study was guided by Structural Functionalism Theory, complemented by two gender analysis frameworks: Capacities and Vulnerabilities Analysis (CVA) and the Harvard Analytical Framework (HAF). Both quantitative and qualitative research approaches were applied. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design and the target population was all adult household members in West Pokot County. Multi-stage cluster sampling technique was employed to sample 371 respondents from the households while 15 key informants and nine (9) groups for FGDs were selected purposively. Data were collected using questionnaires, key informant interview schedules, and focus group discussion guides. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS version 23. The analyzed data were presented in Tables and Charts. Thematic grouping was employed for qualitative data analysis which was presented in narrative and verbatim forms. The study findings revealed that adoption of ALSs in the pastoral community was characterized by gender differentials. Thus, women were faster and had adopted more ALSs than men. Nonetheless, men made most of the decisions to adopt ALSs and it was easier for them to access the resources needed for adoption. Further, men controlled the benefits accrued from adoption ALSs and despite being slower than women, the few ALSs they had adopted, were of higher returns. Given the necessary resources, women were more willing than men to adopt ALSs. The differentials were caused by pull and push factors that impacted men and women unequally. These included sociocultural, environmental, and technological factors as well as the development strategies applied by development agencies. The study also established that adoption of ALSs had both negative and positive effects on households. While the positive effects included narrowed gender gap and increased income streams, the negative ones were suspicions of infidelity and adultery and increased cases of spousal separation and divorce. The strategies that could bolster adoption of ASLs included the National Government‟s education and training programmes, education services by the Catholic Church and the pastoral community‟s elite-led mentorship programme, which were gender-responsive. The study concluded that huge gender differentials have slowed down adoption of ALSs. It, therefore, recommends that all development stakeholders should ensure that the strategies employed in adoption of ALSs are gender-responsive. This can be achieved through gender mainstreaming and affirmative action in ALSs projects and programmes.
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    Effects of Socio-Economic Characteristics on the Resilience of Displaced Population; Internally Displaced Population in Nakuru Pipeline, Nakuru County, Kenya
    (2022) Okere, Eric Israel; Francis Kerre; Daniel M. Muia
    Although internal displacement of persons (IDPs) have been witnessed in Kenya over the years, the 2007/08 episode was the most severe with estimated 660,000 displaced persons; out of which 360,000 (53%) went to displaced camps and 300,000 (47%) were designated as integrated IDPs. Part of the displaced population in 2007/08, was resettled temporarily at the Nakuru Pipeline Complex, Nakuru County, Kenya. With over ten (10) years, the temporarily resettled population provided opportunity to examine the nature of resilience and recovery. This study was carried-out therefore to examine characteristics of the internally displaced population, nature of resilience (reasonable recovery) and aspects that enhanced resilience and socio-economic wellbeing. The theory of environmental and displacement vulnerability was used. The study was a survey design. From a resettled population of 810 households, a sample of 260 was determined through Yamane (1967) formula for small or finite populations. Systematic sampling was used to draw each sample from resettlement register. Questionnaire which included household displacement deprivation scale, key informant guide and the Focused Group Discussion guide were used. Over sixty-one percent (61.2%) respondents were married, 14.6% single, 6.5% separated and 17.7% widowed. Religious affiliation was the strength of character that aided hope and ability to overcome displacement challenges consisting 73.8% Protestants, 17.7% Catholics, 3.8% Muslims and 4.6% unclassified faiths. Over 56.0% displaced households earned below KES 3,000.00, 27.0% earned between KES 3,001.00 and KES 6,000.00 while 0.5% earned over KES 30,000.00 a month. Indicators that were rated worst (i.e. severely or rarely available or accessible) at the time of the initial settlement in 2008 included loss of self-esteem (82%), loss of income (82%), loss of employment (78%), lack of shelter (81%) and loss of property (71%), By 2018, there were considerable improvements (recovery) that included housing (72.0%), food access (63.0%), water (57.0%), clothing (54.0%) compared to initial crises periods. Most of the households own their houses and could accommodate extended family members. Other indicators of resilience or reasonable rate of recovery included spiritual growth (53.6%), self-employment (42%), trade (41.6%) and education for children (38.6%). Conversely, four (4) other indicators namely access to livelihoods, access to welfare support, access to opportunities to improve wellbeing, and adjustment to living at the Camp reflected low or negligible recovery. Post-displacement occupations consisted of subsistence and commercial farming (46.0%), small and medium enterprises (26.0%), casual labor (18.0%) among others. Further, 57.0% household heads belonged to self-help groups, participate in crops cultivation, commercial and savings endeavors to augment their incomes and settle bills. The study recommended that Displacement Policy in Kenya and the UN Displacement Protection and Support Framework (DPSF) will need to be improved to enhance measures to support resettlement of the displaced population; to enforce mechanisms to enhance resettlement and socio-economic resilience
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    Participation of Men and Women in the Management of Domestic Solid Waste in Kiandutu Informal Settlement, Kiambu County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Mwangi, Willy W.; Grace Okong’o; Christine Majale
    The study sought to investigate levels of men’s and women’s involvement in the management of domestic solid waste in Kiandutu Informal Settlement in Kiambu County, Kenya. Specifically, the study aimed to determine the knowledge men and women had, examine the waste management practices by men and women, establish what challenges both men and women encountered and propose strategies that would enhance community involvement among men and women in the management of domestic solid waste. The study was guided by two theories namely the Identity Theory and Social Context Theory. While the former assumes the rigidity of gender, the latter assumes it’s flexibility. The study employed exploratory research design whose choice allowed an in-depth view of the generation of both qualitative and quantitative data. Random sampling of the villages and purposive sampling of the respondents were used to identify the study sample. A sample size of 264 households representing 10% of the total number of households in the randomly sampled villages was selected for the study with each village being apportioned its quota. The unit of analysis was the household, with the household heads, male and female being the respondents. Key informants comprised community health workers, village elders and local administration. Guided questionnaires, interview guides and observation checklists were used to generate data. Qualitative data was thematically coded and analysed using SPSS V24. Hypothesis was tested at p ≤ 0.05. The study found out that both men and women had a variation of knowledge on domestic solid waste management exhibited gendered domestic solid waste management and practices mostly influenced by as socio-cultural processes alongside demographic characteristics. Challenges which recurred among men and women included: low knowledge base, misconceptions in domestic solid waste management, use of unorthodox waste management methods as well as congestion of the households. The study concluded that early stereotyped socialization negatively contributes to men’s participation in the management of domestic solid waste. The study also perceived that low levels of domestic solid waste management knowledge among men and women were linked to poor management of the solid waste. The study recommends a strategic gender awareness raising for effective management of domestic solid waste. The Kiambu County government should develop relevant gender sensitive policies with the aim of raising awareness in the management of domestic solid waste and the environment. Building new and strengthening the existing social structures can strategically be used for the mobilize of men and women. The Kenya National Environment Management Authority should collaborate with the Kiambu County Government and other relevant stakeholders to prepare training packages for raising awareness on suitable domestic solid waste management in the informal settlements.
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    Influence of Microfinance Training Programmes on Acquisition of Financial Skills among Women in Self-Help Groups in Kiambu County-Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Mwaniki, Tabitha Wawira; Grace Wamue-Ngare; Pacificah Okemwa
    Microfinance training plays an important role in imparting financial skills to women. However, women in Self-Help Groups in Kiambu County still lack adequate skills in finance. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of microfinance training programmes on the acquisition of financial skills among women in Self-Help Groups in Kiambu County. The objectives were; to determine the levels of financial competencies among women in SHGs; to examine the influence of microfinance training models, training processes of microfinance programmes, gender-related challenges, and gender-responsive strategies on financial skills acquisition among women in Self-Help Groups. The study was based on gender relations, endogenous growth and knowledgebased theories. The research applied a mixed methodology approach and was guided by an exploratory research design. The study targeted 31 Credit Officers from 31 Registered MFIs in Kiambu County, 16, 967 women in SHGs as well as 100 Key Informants (Training Officers) which totaled 17, 098 respondents from which a sample of 384 respondents was determined using Yamane’s Formula. Stratified sampling was applied to create 12 different strata (sample frames) based on the number of sub-counties in Kiambu County. From each sub-county, two (2) Credit Officers, two (2) key informants (Training Officers) and two (2) SHGs comprising of 14 women were selected using purposive sampling. This procedure yielded a sample size of 336 women in SHGs, 24 Credit Officers and 24 Training Officers. To collect data from women, focus group discussions and interviews were used, interviews for Credit Officers whereas questionnaires from Training Officers. Piloting was conducted among 39 respondents in Murang’a East sub-county in Murang’a County to establish validity and reliability. A reliability index, r = 0.782, was calculated using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Method. Qualitative data were analyzed based on objectives and were presented in narrations and verbatims. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies and percentages and inferentially using One-Sample t-test with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Science and were presented using tables and charts. The study found that majority of women in SHGs manifest inadequate cash-flow management (76.5%), financial investment (71%), pricing and costing projection (47%) and e-financing skills (77%) necessary to manage their personal and household finances as well as to develop and manage entrepreneurial activities. The study further found that microfinance training is important in equipping women with financial skills despite the challenges which characterize the training models and processes. Thus, the study recommends that, besides developing a training schedule with clear training blocks for women to fit in depending on their daily chores, microfinance institutions (MFIs) should adhere to a set schedule and indicate specific activities to be undertaken during training. Besides, there is a need to ensure capacity building for trainers to improve skills not only in financial training but also in gender areas and concerns that often stand in the way of women’s financial skills. MFIs should develop policy frameworks that incorporate gender perspectives.
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    Evaluation Frameworks for Education Access and Performance Focussing on Gender and Equity: Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Siaya County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2021) Ponge, Cannon Awuor; Catherine Mwihaki Ndungo; Mildred Jennifer Lodiaga
    Studies have been conducted in Kenya in the area of gender and education, but few have focused on gender and equity in the evaluation of education access and performance. This study sought to establish the availability of education frameworks that outline how evaluation of secondary education in Kenya is done through a gender and equity focused angle. It sought to review the existing evaluation frameworks available for secondary education from a gender perspective; review how access and performance are evaluated in secondary schools from a gender perspective; and suggest ways of improving gender and equity focus in evaluation of education access and performance. The theoretical framework for this study is based on a framework developed by Beatrice d’Hombres that assesses the vertical dimensions of equity through information on admission and enrolment and the education learning outcomes. The d’Hombres framework was complemented by the Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) framework to ensure gender equity. This study employed a phenomenological research design using mixed methods of data collection – both qualitative and quantitative. Secondary data was analysed from available literature touching on education and gender equity, access of education and performance in examinations in Kenyan secondary schools. Primary data was collected from a sampled number of secondary schools in Siaya county and from local education offices and officials. This study covered secondary schools in Siaya county in the western Kenya region. The total population for the study was 226 secondary schools in the county, and 13 schools were sampled based on an inclusive criterion, representing the different categories or types of schools, ensuring that no school category-type was left behind. For secondary data, a review of the relevant literature was conducted, while for primary data, the tools used for data collection were the school survey questionnaire and the key informant interview guide. The data collected was analysed qualitatively through thematic identification and isolating emerging issues under the identified themes. For the quantitative data, analysis was done using SPSS software and exported to Excel, and results presented in tables that capture comparative data. This study concludes that the evaluation system as presently constituted does not recognise the varied abilities of learners. The current evaluation strategies are merely academic-centred and do not give room for consideration of extra-curricular activities. The system also does not recognise the individual socio-economic conditions as factors that can affect both education access and performance. The study recommends inter alia, for the development of a comprehensive education evaluation framework; evaluation based on competency of the students; inclusivity in evaluation processes; assessment based on language of instruction; enhancing ICT for evaluating inequity in education, involvement of teachers in evaluation processes; innovative approaches to evaluation processes and adoption of a schools’ self–assessment mechanism for evaluation. It contributes to knowledge in the area of evaluating education access and performance, given the emerging importance of equity focus in evaluation practice. For future studies, it recommends undertaking a study on the gender dynamics in enrollment patterns in schools.
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    Influence of Organizational Practices on Time Management and Outcomes: the Federal Inland Revenue Service In Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria
    (Kenyatta University, 2020-03) Bello, Bashir
    Organizations are primarily designed to achieve some specific goals. The fact remains that workers in every organization have a role to play for the purpose of achieving goals which organizations are designed to achieve. Directly or indirectly, therefore, workers‟ commitment to the realization of organizational goal is a major parameter that can be used to measure the performance of organization. One of the indices of workers commitment to the realization of organizational goal is their ability to report to work on time and leave work at the appropriate time. Although, there are other factors that may affect realization of organizational goals, workers‟ management of time remain vital area of focus. The study objectives were to: identify how workers‟ time management influenced the performance outcome, examine the performance and targets (outcomes)in FIRS, examine how characteristics of the workers influenced time management; examine the influence of Federal Inland Revenue practices on workers time management; and establish ways to improve time management and performance in service organization. The study adopted the following questions: What has been the target and performance in service organizations? To what extent has time management influenced the performance outcome? To what extent has the characteristics (Age, gender, education, marital status) of the workers influenced time management? To what extent has the organizational practice (Recruitment, promotion, motivational incentives, training, competence and sanction) influence workers‟ time management? Both the quantitative and the qualitative methods were used to conduct the research. The researcher employed the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20), STATA, tables, graphs, frequencies, percentages, Likert scale, analysis of variance and regression process to analyze the collected data and measure the relationships) between the dependent and independent variables (the hypotheses). The researchers also employed the use of Nvivo software (Version 10) to process and analyze the qualitative data collected. The findings of the study revealed that workers‟ time management has influence on organizational outcome. The research identified that organizational practices such as recruitment, promotion, motivational incentives, basic salary, allowances, training, competence, sanction and penalty as well as the characteristics of workers such as the age; sex; marital status; level of education; occupational status and the number of years in employment influence workers‟ time management. The study also found that there was need to improve on the various organizational practices because these practices had a lot of influence on how workers managed their work time. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the management should improve the organizational practices so as to improve workers‟ commitment to work as well as improve the outcome of the organization. It was also recommended that there should be penalties for workers who poorly managed organizational time. Key word: Organization‟ Outcome, Organization practices, Workers characteristics, Time management
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    Gendered Access and Control of Land, Dairy Products and their Influence on Household Welfare in Murang’a County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2020-06) Mwangi, Judy Wambui
    This study sought to investigate the gendered access and control of land and dairy products with a focus on their influence on household welfare. The study was done in Murang’a County-Kenya, guided by the following objectives: to establish the status of access and control of dairy products and land by men and women; to examine the status of welfare in households practicing dairy farming and perceptions of men and women on the influence of access and control of land and dairy products. Additionally, the study identified strategies that can be put in place to enhance access and control of land and dairy products for improved household welfare. Four null hypotheses were also tested to establish the relationship between gender and access as well as control over land and dairy products. The study was guided by the Marxist feminism theory advanced by Friedrich Engels (1884) and Women Empowerment Framework (WEF) by Sarah Longwe (1991). The study utilized cross-sectional research design while purposive sampling technique was used to select Kigumo Sub-county as the area of the study. Further, simple random sampling technique was used to select four hundred and forty-two (442) male and female headed households practicing dairy farming in the Sub-county to participate in the study. Selected community leaders and key county officers were included as key informants. To generate the required data, the study utilized interview schedules for the selected male and female household heads, a guided questionnaire for the key informants and an observation checklist. Quantitative data was analyzed through the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) while qualitative data was analyzed on the basis of study objectives. The study established that the main dairy products included dairy cows, milk, manure, calves and biogas which were found to be differently accessed and controlled by men and women. It is these differences in the control and access to the land and dairy products that were found to have differential influence on household welfare. The household welfare was gauged on the basis of the parameters drawn from the Kenya Constitution 2010 Article 43 on social and economic rights namely health, housing, food, water and education. In this respect, the study established that women and men’s access and control over land and dairy products had a relationship with the provision of household welfare based on the above parameters, as further confirmed by the testing of the null hypotheses. Male and female household heads were found to hold different perceptions on gender and access/control to resources with a bias against women, mostly influenced by culture, religion, awareness on legal requirements and individuals’ level of formal education. The study identified and recommended gender awareness raising, enhancement of adult education program, enforcement of legal requirements on human rights as the main strategies for enhancing gender equity on access and control over land and dairy products for enhanced household welfare.
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    Gender Gaps in Transfer of Improved Bee Keeping: A Case of the Maasai Community in Trans Mara, Narok County, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2019) Miriti, Lydiah C.
    In Kenya, beekeeping is well established and can be successfully carried out in about 80% of the country. The improved enterprise has many advantages and can be practiced favourably by resource poor men, women, and youth. However, the bee sector remains largely underdeveloped due to the fact that in many parts of the country, it is still carried out traditionally and passed through inheritance. Consequently, since it is a male domain, men mostly inherit it leaving women and youth who are new in the enterprise vulnerable. This study sought to explore gender gaps in the transfer of improved bee keeping among the Maasai community in Trans Mara, Narok County. This was achieved through identifying the levels of participation of men and women in Improved Bee Keeping, decision making power among bee keeping households (HHs), and the challenges they face. Investigative survey design was used with both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The target population included men and women in improved bee keeping groups. The study used Blumberg (1984) gender stratification theory which argues that gender inequalities are intertwined at various levels from households to local communities. Stratified random sampling was used for HH surveys. A total of 372 respondents were interviewed. Structured and semi-structured questionnaires were used for Household (HH) surveys. Data collected was analysed using SPSS and Stata computer software. The study found that while women are actively involved in bee keeping, their participation in accessing improved equipment, trainings and better marketing channels is low in comparison to men’s. This is due to capital constraint, gender related factors such as mobility and time, and cultural perceptions, factors that challenge them more than men. Consequently, their level of participation remains low in parts of the chain where value is high. In male headed households (MHHs), men make most or all decisions concerning purchase and sale of productive assets including land and cattle. They also control most productive resources including income from bee products. Most women make decisions concerning purchase and sale of chicken while none own land or cattle. The major challenges in improved bee keeping are lack of access to; capital, trainings, ready markets, and domination by middlemen (brokers). Consequently, women are more vulnerable which continues to widen the gender gap in the bee keeping value chain. The study recommends that improved bee keeping projects should collaborate with other stakeholders such as extension officers, research institutions and county governments in order to adopt gender responsive strategies that can enhance participation, equity in access to trainings and benefits accrued from bee products and access to ready and better markets. Household and neighbourhood empowerment, for instance, sharing improved equipment, construction of training cum collection centres within localities, formation of marketing associations to minimize middlemen, are some of the strategies suggested.
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    Public Perceptions of the Effectiveness of Policing and the Social Costs of Crime in Nairobi Policing Region, Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2019-05) Mwaeke, Panuel
    Over the last few years, there has been a concern among the public in Kenya about increasing rates of crime and the rising social costs of crime. This study assessed public perceptions of the effectiveness of policing and the social costs of crime in Nairobi policing region. The research adopted a cross sectional study design. It targeted both middle and low income residential areas of Nairobi policing region in jurisdictions of two police divisions, namely; Buruburu and Kajiado. In Buruburu Division, the middle class was represented by Buruburu Estate while the lower class was represented by Dandora Estate. In Kajiado Police Division, the middle class was represented by Kerarapon Estate while the lower class was represented by Gichagi slum. Stratified random sampling design was used to select a sample that comprised 384 informants. The household was the main unit of analysis because the brunt of the social costs of crime is first felt at family level. The study also included police officers, victims who were living in pain and community policing committee members. Questionnaire, Pain Assessment Scale and Focused Group Discussion guides were the main tools of data collection. The study tested four hypotheses using Chi-Square as the test statistic. Out of the four hypotheses tested, two showed significant difference in perceptions of police effectiveness and that of the social costs of crime between the Kajiado and Buruburu police divisions; The second hypothesis results showed a significant difference in public perceptions of what constitutes effectiveness of policing in Kajiado police division relative to Buruburu police division (χ2 = 15.004, p=0.001). The third hypothesis which sought to test for differences in public perceptions of the social costs of crime between Kajiado and Buruburu police divisions also showed significant results (χ2 = 6.69, p=0.01). There were two major components of effective policing in the Kenyan context but which were lacking in Nairobi policing region; professionalism and adequacy of coverage. In addition, as a result of criminal victimization, there were increased perceptions of the social costs of crime that contributed to suffering and pain at both individual, family and community levels. The study concluded that ineffectiveness of policing was also costly to the police service itself. According to the study there were perceptions that increase of police effectiveness would automatically reduce that of the social costs of crime. The study made major recommendations to improve police effectiveness that include the establishment of a national team whose job is to frequently gather public views, refine them and turn good ones into government policy. In consultation with the National Police Service Commission (NPSC), this national team may also be tasked with frequent benchmarking especially from developed countries on best policing practices and modern state of the art equipment to improve on police effectiveness.On a professional front, and to restore Police integrity; credibility, public trust and confidence, there is need to establish human rights policies in the National Police Service. This may include frequent inter-institutional fora between National Police service, National Police Service Commission, Independent Policing Oversight Authority, and Kenya National Commission on Human Rights body to enforce on human rights especially with regard to the right to life. This would avert police excesses such as extra judicial executions.
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    Gender Outcomes of The Community Led Total Sanitation Approach in Selected Counties in Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2019-05) Wamera, Elizabeth Ketty
    Inadequate sanitation and hygiene contribute to morbidity and mortality. The Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach is used by the Ministry of Health to increase access to sanitation and hygiene in Kenya. This study sought to assess the gender outcomes of the CLTS approach in three sub counties in Kenya. CLTS is considered successful in Kenya, yet its impact on men and women has limited literature available. Therefore, this study sought to document the impact on gender relations as a result of the CLTS implementation in Siaya, Nambale and Teso North Sub Counties. The Moser Framework, the gender socialization concept and the Gaventa Power Framework were applied. A complete census of the households was done, followed by cluster random sampling to determine the households to be interviewed. The Z-Score was used to determine the respondents. Further, 3 Focus group discussions were held with Village Health Committees and 12 key in depth interviews with Public Health Officers from the Ministry of Health. 384 Structured interview guides and observation check lists were applied in the sampled households. Quantitative data yielded was analysed by statistical package for social science and qualitative data was analysed through Atlas t 6.0 and Open Code 3.4. The data was presented in tables. The study found that the Kenya Environmental Sanitation Policy and the CLTS Trainers‟ Handbook did not address gender needs adequately yet CLTS was considered a success in Kenya. That 75% PHOs who were mandated to deliver CLTS were gender blind. That 67% of PHOs made decisions based on general data as they did not have gender disaggregated data on CLTS interventions. Further, it was found that men led in decision making at all levels of CLTS implementation. 64% of PHOs were men at county level and 85% at sub county level. 80% of the people present at community triggering were men and 70% of households reported that men led the decision-making process at the household level in relation to sanitation and hygiene interventions. Men were recognized more during the ODF celebrations as compared to women. 56% of VHCs are women who work without pay. The women provided sanitation and hygiene services in the home as part of their reproductive role and served as VHC resulting to unequal division of labour in CLTS with the women shouldering the heaviest burden. Women faced challenges with limited access to key sanitation resources, such as land and building materials where in households interviewed, 23% were women in Nambale, 15% in Teso and 25% in Siaya. Besides, women had limited access to the latrines and bathrooms, such that it curtailed the benefits at 36% in Nambale, 29% in Teso and 37% in Siaya. Participation of women in decision making in CLTS was tokenistic, whereby there was only an increase of 2.3% of women invited in the decision-making space with minimal strategic benefits, they were not able to claim any space or autonomy in CLTS implementation. The study concluded that despite CLTS being considered a great success in Kenya at 58% as reported by PHOs, it was not applied in a gender sensitive manner thus entrenching unequal outcomes. Teso registered at 23% ODF and Siaya and Nambale registered 93% ODF. The study recommends that there should be a review of the KESH policy and CLTS manual to integrate gender responsive impact assessments and initiate critical enablers. Also, all PHOs should be trained on gender mainstreaming. Similarly, gender mainstreaming should be integrated into CLTS intervention through having flexible gender strategies that would ensure equitable outcomes. The study therefore contributes to the existing literature on community led total sanitation and may inform policy formulation and implementation by the relevant stakeholders.
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    Gender perspectives in counseling services among university students in Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2015-12) Njeri, Kamunyu Ruth
    This study investigates gender perspectives in counselling among university students in Kenya. Due to changes in traditional social set up, individuals have been alienated from their extended family and community that provided the necessary support system, thus an increase in the number of people, both males and females seeking professional therapy. University students who are largely young adults experience emotional and psychological challenges that require counselling. The objectives of this study were: to establish prevalence of students seeking counselling services in universities, investigate the gender preference of students seeking counselling services, investigate factors that influence the gender preference of the counsellor by the client, to determine the issues that are taken to men/women counsellors by either gender, and, suggest recommendations for gender counselling. The study is guided by Person Centred and Social Learning Theories. The study applied descriptive survey research design using quantitative and qualitative data. Stratified, simple random and purposive sampling methods were used to sample three universities, 310 students and seven student counsellors. Data was collected using questionnaires, in-depth interview schedules and Focus Group Discussions Guide. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and is presented in Tables, Pie charts and Bar graphs. For qualitative data, emerging patterns of the content analysis is presented thematically according to research objectives. The study reveals that students are faced with many counselling issues such as academic, psychological, social, personal, economic, health, physical, vocational and spiritual. However, only 35% of students with issues in both private and public universities seek counselling services. The findings also reveal huge gender discrepancies among university counsellors where 57% are women compared to 43% men. The study reveals gender discrepancy among students seeking counselling in the universities where more female students than males seek counselling services according to 86% counsellors and 97% students. Factors which influence gender preference of the counsellor by the client include: nature of issues to be addressed by either gender, communication skills, previous counselling experience of the student, methods used and availability of any gender of the counsellor. The study findings reveal that 54% of students prefer female counsellors as compared to 27% that prefer male counsellors. Female counsellors are preferred for being caring, nurturing and understanding. Issues that students discuss with university male counsellors are academic, family, personal, peer relationship, economic and physical problems. Issues that male and female students discuss with university female counsellors are psychological, social, spiritual, and education/academic challenges. The study recommends that: university counsellors should initiate vigorous campaign to encourage male/female students to seek for counselling services. Intake counsellors should be gender sensitive and allocate the preferred gender according to presenting problems.
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    Participation of Men and Women in Fisheries Value Chain in Nairobi City County
    (Kenyatta University, 2016-06) Kizito, Paul
    This study sought to establish the status of men and women in the entrepreneurial fisheries activities in Kenya. The study focused specifically in Nairobi City County, and was guided by the following objectives, namely; to map out specific areas within fisheries value chain that men and women participate in; to identify socio-economic factors that influence participation of men and women, to assess the socio-cultural factors that determine participation of men and women in those specific ventures within fisheries value chains; to identify institutional factors that influence participation of men and women entrepreneurs; and to establish the strategies to enhance equal and effective participation of men and women entrepreneurs in fisheries value chain. The social structural theory developed by Connell (1987) guided the study; the women economic empowerment framework advanced by Longwe (1995) provided bench marks for enhancing women empowerment on the basis of which the impact of participation on the entrepreneurial value chain was assessed. The descriptive survey design used was considered suitable for this study given the ability to examine information on the experiences of men and women in the fisheries value chain. The study focused on three zones and purposively selected market areas based on the socio-economic characteristics, namely; affluent class, middle class and lower class; where the respectively sampled markets were City, South C-Mugoya and Kariobangi markets. Eight men and eight women involved in fisheries value chain from each of the sampled markets were selected for the focus group discussion. Other respondents were 204 men and 174 women comprising 20% entrepreneurs in fisheries value chain; and personnel from the ministry and county government sampled for questionnaire and interview schedule respectively. The focus group discussions, questionnaires, interview and observation schedules were used to collect data. The qualitative data were categorized into patterns, categories and themes based on the study objectives. The SPSS version 16 was used to analyze quantitative data; where cross-tabulations, chi-square and post hoc tests were carried out to demonstrate the relationship between variables. The study findings showed that men were prominent in economically high end City market and South C market while women were more in the marginal Kariobangi market. The findings revealed that men had controlled the competitive value chains namely; aquaculture/fish harvesting, transportation, distribution, middle trade, and large scale while women were more on the lower end value chain namely; grading/sorting/gleaning and market sellers. Gender, age, formal education, marital status and income per month were established as the socio- economic factors affecting the participation of men and women in the fisheries value chain. The chi-square test result showed a significant association between gender and large scale (p-value=0.001); age and aquaculture/fish harvesting (p-value=0.001); marital status and aquaculture/fish harvesting (p-value 0.036); education and transport (0.036); and income per month and distributor (p-value=0.006); and large scale (p-value=0,004). The study revealed that men compared to women had control over factors of production, capital and credit, hence; invest in high end value chain. The study recommended county government’s facilitation to men and women to have equal access to formal education, capital and credit. The study also recommended that stakeholders to facilitate access to strategic information on entrepreneurship, adequate distribution of labour resource and representation in leadership and decisions.
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    Gender differentials in crime: a case study of Kiambu county.
    (Kenyatta University, 2015) Mainah, Florence Muthoni
    This study is on gender differentials of crimes committed in Kiambu County, Kenya. It was inspired by the fact that, due to stereotype, gender-type expected behaviour, the society associates women with minor crime and men with major crime. Documented Information shows that social and behavioural scientists tend to focus on stereotyped male crime and generalise their findings on women. Therefore, there is carcity of studies on women's involvement in crime, especially in Kenya. This study addressed the gaps by examining gender differences in crime in Kiambu County. It presents a situational analysis of the types and causes of crime so as to establish its pattern(s) among men and women in Kiambu County. It explores the motives behind criminal activity and the effectiveness of the strategies put in place to curb it. The study was informed by Gender-based Schema Theory of criminal behaviour which in essence is a gender stereotype of what it means to be a man or woman in the society. The study used a case study design, employing triangulation method to collect gender disaggregated data (quantitative) and gender analytical information (qualitative data) as a way of gaining insight both at micro and macro levels of understanding crimes. The study samples were selected through non- probability. A total of 268 respondents were sampled. However, 263 responded. Quantitative data was collected through content analysis of Occurrence Book (OB) crime files recorded between January 2011 to December 2012, in Kiambu and Lari police divisional headquarters as well as questionnaires administered to the police officers working in crime department. Qualitative data was gathered through focus group discussions held with members of community policing committees, in-depth interviews with Officer Commanding Police visions(OCPDs) and Officer Commanding Stations(OCSs) and interviews with men and women convicts. Quantitative data was coded and analyzed. Qualitative data was presented thematically according to research objectives. The findings indicate that contrary to Gender Schema Theory and societal expectation, women, just like men, committed minor as well as major crimes. This study established that gender schema organization determined the pattern of crime committed, in terms of choice of victims' I' gender and age, time, season, venue, and methods. It also emerged that there were gender differentials in motive to commit crimes. It was clear that strategies put in place by stakeholders neither addressed the root cause nor were they gender specific, hence ineffective in curbing crime within the region. The study recommends that Kiambu County requires empowerment projects for men and women, gender studies to be introduced in the police training curriculum and other management strategies that are not only gender responsive but also tailored to suit the prevailing conditions.
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    Influence of Informal Finance on Mothers’ Healthcare in Mtwara, Tanzania
    (Kenyatta University, 2015) Ngugi, Daniel
    This research explored the influence of informal finance on mothers‟ healthcare in Mtwara-Mikindani in Tanzania. Informal financial institutions (IFIs) are meant to assist in solving financial problems of members after their full participation in regular contributions, meetings and repayment of the loaned amount. In Mtwara-Mikindani, women engage in informal groups that supplement their financial ability and boost their socioeconomic developments. However, they face financial constraints during the maternal period. This research therefore sought to determine the role of informal financial institutions in alleviating financial constraints. Objectives of this study were: to identify the financial problems that mothers undergo during the maternal period, identify factors responsible for these financial problems, investigate the role of informal financial institutions in alleviating the problems and suggesting appropriate schemes suitable for informal financial institutions that cater for mothers. The Women Empowerment Framework guided this study. The study took a descriptive design in Mtwara-Mikindani in Tanzania covering mothers in informal financial institutions using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Findings from this study show that most women are involved in small and medium enterprises that are domestic related and are actively involved in informal financial institutions to boost their financial capacity. Household expenditure, medical and education expenses are found to be the most common financial constraints during the maternal period caused by low productivity, low businesses performance and emerging maternal costs. Informal financial institutions are supportive economically and socially to the mothers during this period. However, the contributions are not adequate to cover maternal health costs thereby creating financial constraints. The study recommends that mothers should be aware of the maternal period and should prepare for it financially and socially IFIs should create awareness of maternal the period through maternal trainings and financial trainings. This study is an important additional knowledge in this gender field concerning financial institutions and addressing their role in alleviating maternal financial challenges that would improve the socioeconomic development in a nation.
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    Determinants of Gender Disparities in Industrial Occupations in Kenya
    (Kenyatta University, 2015-01-22) Muchangi, Denis Jamleck
    Studies indicate that gender differences continue to persist in the various dimensions of industrial occupations both in Kenya and other parts of the world. This is in spite of the various efforts undertaken including the enactment of the various gender-based laws, and policies. Despite some notable gains, women representation in wage employment remains low forming less than 30 % of wage employment in Kenya. In addition, despite the policies framework, including the two thirds rule in the constitution and the new labour laws, gender disparities in employment continue to persist leading to underutilization of human resources. The differentials tend to firmly favour men over women yet meaningful development can only be achieved if all players are not only represented but if their capacities are well utilized. While gender balance is wide in all aspects of social, economic and political life, this study examined gender disparities in industrial occupations in Kenya. The main objective of this study was to identify the levels and the factors that influence gender disparities at the selected organizations in the manufacturing, the service sector and the related trade unions in Kenya. The disparities were examined at three levels, namely; the operational, the management and the trade union. Although several factors influencing gender disparities at work have been enumerated, the study investigated their relative importance to the industrial occupations in the selected organizations and the respective trade unions in Kenya. The study was guided by the structuralism theory and the concepts of socialization, particularly the division of labor. The fundamental conceptual proposition was that social structure influence socialization which may lead to gender disparities and the related division of labour. The study used the descriptive survey research design to obtain data from the manufacturing and the service sector industries as well as the related trade unions. The four organizations selected from these industries were the East African Portland Cement Company, the Telkom Kenya Limited, the Kenya Chemicals and Allied Workers Union (KCAWU) and the Communications Workers Union (CWU). These companies have both a national and international outlook and provide an opportunity for examining gender disparities in an environment of modern technology and business process re-engineering (BPR). Primary data were obtained from 360 respondents drawn from operational, management and trade unions levels using interviews, questionnaires, while organizations‟ records were used for secondary data. The data was then coded and converted to numerical codes which represent the attributes of the various variables of the proposed study. The findings revealed that despite the many strategies employed, gender disparities continue to persist in formal employment in Kenya. The margins of disparities were seen to increase up the organizational hierarchy and at the trade unions levels. Organizational and social factors were identified as main causes of gender disparities in Kenya. Some of the identified possible causes of disparities include recruitment procedures, job descriptions, long working hours, lack of appeal systems in promotions, poor implementation of policies, lack of health and safety provisions for expectant mothers, and family responsibilities. The key recommendations made included the introduction of the flexi-time working arrangements, enforcement of the two third rule at all organizational levels, introduction of the nomination in the election of trade union officials and regular labour inspections by the ministry in charge of labour.
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    Gender relations in access, control and utilisation of microfinance resources: a case of women in Kiharu Constituency, Murang’a County, Kenya
    (2014-11) Kamau, Pauline W.
    The study sought to investigate gender relations in access, control and utilisation of micro-finance resources among women in Kiharu Constituency, Murang’a County of Kenya. Specifically, the study set out to determine the factors that influence access, control and utilisation of microfinance resources, identify challenges that women face in accessing MFIs resources, those that MFIs face in extension of resources to women and strategies that can enhance access, control and utilisation of resources among women in Kiharu. The study was guided by the feminist conflict theory. It targeted women who had accessed microfinance resources from MFIs with a total study sample of 140 respondents consisting of 90 women beneficiaries of MFIs and 20 male spouses of women beneficiaries. Others were 4 key informants who were MFI officers and 2 government Chiefs who were opinion leaders. There were two focus group discussions involving 12 women beneficiaries each. An interview schedule was used to collect data from women beneficiaries, their spouses, whereas key informant guides were used for key informants and opinion leaders. Focus group discussion guide and observation checklist were also utilised. Qualitative data was analysed using themes and quantitative data using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study findings established that age, women’s marital status, the level of formal education and number of children depending on women influenced access to microfinance resources. In addition, patriarchal ideologies, community perceptions of gender roles, gender-based violence and religion also impacted access to microfinance resources. On the other hand, lack of assets for collateral, access to information, gender division of labour in households, high interest rates, women’s attitude to MFI debts and short repayment periods were challenges that women faced in accessing resources. Diversion of loan and high default rates were some of the problems that MFIs face in extension of resources to women. The study concludes that gender relations influence access, control and utilisation of resources. These includes cultural expectations that dictates the power relations at the household level, lack of assets for collateral among women beneficiaries and unfriendly policies, especially for the borrowing and repayments, and interest rates.On the basis of the findings, the study recommends that: MFIs should formulate gender sensitive policies - among which is the alternative means of collateral for women to access resources; review the loan repayment period in accordance to the ability of one’s business; review the strict weekly meetings and introduce women friendly modes of information dissemination on MFI products and procedures. Further, the Government, NGOs and Civil Societies on the ground should sensitise community on gender equity and human rights using community-based structures.
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    A critique of John Dewey's theory of work and leisure with special reference to education in Kenya
    (2012-04-17) Njoroge, George Kanari
    Education being basically a human endeavour must be viewed in the context of what its various aspects deemed to be important mean to persons in the world. Such aspects are, for examples, work and leisure. These are viewed to be important values achievable in education in Kenya. They therefore exist as components of our educational policy as articulated in sessional papers and school syllabus. However, they are flawed in that they are antithetically adumbrated. The goal of the study is therefore to give a philosophical; orientation and thus a fundamental basis to work and leisure, both from an ethical as well as metaphysical perspective. Man is used to viewing various aspects related to education in an antithetical perspective, for example, theory and practice, body and mind, reason and sense, play and work. So is the purview of work and leisure. This is the case in education in Kenya. This study takes this view to be an artificial antithesis, which is misdirected and therefore eliminates or de-limits a holistic realization of man's endeavour in the world as he goes about his self-discovery. Thus, in the context of the centrality of work and leisure in man's life and especially in the manifestation of his creative capacity, it is important to correct the misconception associated with the relationship between these two values. One of the philosophers who have contributed greatly to the unitive perspective of work and leisure is John Dewey. His work is studied especially his theory of man which over-emphasizes behaviorism. This reduces man to almost an observer in his world where he is ideally expected to find his meaning. For Dewey, the question is, What is Man? The inadequacies in Dewey's theory are complimented by a highlight of an African perspective of work and leisure, which is based on a holistic understanding of both man and his world. The question in this perspective is, Who is Man? This views man as an actor and one who is ready to find his own meaning in the world. He is not just a natural being as Dewey's what is man? Implies, but, also cultural. In this sense, his capacity for creation is acknowledged. Finally, an education that is based on a balanced and holistic perspective of work and leisure for man is proposed. This helps man to find fulfilment in his life. He is able to answer the question, Who is Me?