Density changes upon crystallization of Ge2Sb2.04Te4.74 films
Njoroge, W. K.
Wöltgens, H. W.
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The density of sputtered Ge2Sb2.04Te4.74 thin films upon annealing has been precisely determined by x-ray reflection and compared to the values determined from x-ray diffraction (XRD) data. The film density increases in two steps around 130 and 280 °C upon annealing up to 400 °C. These increases are consequences of phase transitions from amorphous to NaCl type and from NaCl type to hexagonal structure, respectively, as revealed by XRD. Average density values of 5.87±0.02, 6.27±0.02, and 6.39±0.02 g/cm3 were measured for the amorphous, NaCl-type, and hexagonal phases, respectively. This corresponds to density changes upon crystallization of 6.8±0.2% and 8.8±0.2% for NaCl-type and hexagonal phases, respectively. The accompanying film thickness reductions were determined to be 6.5±0.2% and 8.2±0.2%, which compares very well with the density changes. The corresponding XRD values are determined to be 6.43–6.48 and 6.48 g/cm3 for NaCl-type and the hexagonal phases, respectively. This shows that nearly void-free films are formed.