|dc.description.abstract||The resistance of bacteria and fungi to antimicrobial agents is a world-wide medical problem (WHO, 2004).
Currently there are emerging multiple drug resistant (MDR) typhoid outbreaks, especially in developing countries.
Tuberculosis is also becoming an unstoppable epidemic due to MDR strains that have emerged. In addition to these,
there are many bacteria that have developed drug resistance including Staphylococcus aureus and most of the
Enterobacteriaceae, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae (WHO, 2004). More than 70% of the bacteria causing infections
are resistant to at least one of the drugs commonly used to treat them (WHO, 2004). This situation has been
worsened by HIV/AIDS pandemic, poverty, an upsurge of new and re-emerging infectious diseases, high costs and
side effects of available drugs (Humber, 2002). This has resulted in increased severity of infectious diseases and high
mortality rates from certain infections. All these have necessitated studies on potential sources of effective, safe and cheap antimicrobial alternatives, and plants are one of these sources that have not been exhaustively utilized
(Thangadurai et al., 2004).
The genus Tabernaemontana comprises of about 100 species distributed throughout the tropical regions of
the world (Grover, et al., 2002). Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten is a tree of up to 21 meters high and commonly
found in disturbed forests (Beentje, 1994). Information obtained from Keiyo traditional medical practitioners in
Kenya indicate that this plant is locally known as “mobonet” and its roots and stem barks are used in the treatment
of abdominal problems, sexually transmitted infections and upper respiratory tract infections (Omino and Kokwaro,
1993). The fruits of this plant are edible.
There has been no systematic study on T. stapfiana with no information reported on chemical and
biological studies. In this study, the methanolic extracts of leaves, root, and stem barks and the sequential (hexane,
dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) extracts were assayed for antibacterial activity and screened for
phytochemicals. The alkaloid rich fractions were also assayed against selected bacterial test organisms.||en_US