Gender Disparities in the Flow of Students in Primary Schools in Kinangop Division, Kinangop District
Njoroge, Wang’ombe Paul
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Globally basic primary education is recognized as a fundamental human right. There is evidence that all nations through out the world are making efforts to attain universal primary education (WCEFA 1990), and this has resulted to increased enrollment in primary education. This is because education is seen as cornerstone of economic development. It improves the population, health and nutrition. Education also improves on the value of efficiency of the labour. Education is also an effective vehicle for national development, hence policy makers and civil society have emphasized on need to invest more on education and ensure that systems of education are efficiently managed and that cost-recovery measures are adopted. The central problem, of the study was that although the government is providing direct grants to primary schools under the free primary (F.P.E) financing scheme, internal efficiency challenges inform of dropouts and repetition continue to be pervasive. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors contributing to gender disparities in the flow of the pupils in public primary education in Kinangop division of Kinangop district. The study also addressed low enrollment and dropout of girls at primary level of education. Comparing gender enrollment in 1999 and 2000 cohorts would do this. The problem of the study arises from the fact that there are considerable non-enrollment and drop out in public primary schools in Kinangop division (divisional education office).The study used descriptive survey design and employ questionnaire interview guides and discussion groups for data collection. The study sample was made up of 20 primary schools, 100 parent’s representatives, and 200pupils by gender. The data collected was edited and analyzed and tabulated using descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages. The tables used show the flow of pupils from one level to the next. Different tables for female and male pupils were used. The study revealed that majority of the parents had no formal education therefore were not in a position to assist and motivate their children to progress in schooling. The implication is that women, who are key players in development in the society, would continue to be disadvantaged in leadership position, starting from root level, hence, the level of poverty would also continue increasing as years go by instead of reducing with time. This affects socio-cultural, economic and political lifestyles of the people. In addition with low levels of education there is likely to be high population growth, spread of HIV/AIDS pandemic and other diseases and high crime rate in Kinangop division. To increase girls participation in education the following strategies need to be used: boosting the quality of teachers through short term courses and seminars, improving the learning materials in the first year of school to avoid formation of negative attitudes, identifying pupils with learning difficulties and providing special support for them. A further diagnostic study of the program involving the experienced boys and girls who did not enroll or who dropped out of schools. Their experience would give a more comprehensive understanding of the current problem. There is need to focus on more division to determine precisely the flow of pupils in public primary schools in Kinangop district.