Community Based Tourism Programmes Entrepreneurial Performance and Capabilities in Arusha,Tanzania
Mollel, Dud Ng'ida
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This study aimed to investigate entrepreneurial performance and capabilities for community based tourism programmes (CBTPs) and their supply chain businesses for communities located at close proximity to protected areas in Arusha, Tanzania. Specifically, the objectives were; to establish the CBTPs value chain and entrepreneurial intensity, to relate skills and resources with performance and to identify government related factors affecting community based tourism (CBT). Cross sectional sutv~ey design using both qualitative and quantitative paradigms. Cultural .,', practitioners were the study population. The sampling procedures included a multistage, probability, purposive and snow ball. Information was gathered from a sample of 210 respondents using both primary and secondary data sources. Both dependency and interdependency multivariate analytical techniques were used in data analysis. While independent variables were a set of entrepreneurial skills and local resources, dependent variables were sales and employment trends in the past three years. To overcome confounded effects on variables, Government factors were included in the scope. To examine the existing correlation between skills, resources and performance, correlation analysis, multiple regression, factor analysis were executed. It was found that CBTPs at close proximity to protected areas in Arusha have abundance of natural and cultural heritage that can provide unique experiences to tourists. The majorities of CBTPs depend On.inC:9J;l~,istemntembers and are owned by few individuals which lead to questions whether they. benefit the majority of local communities at the f" _~ ' destinations. There were no' dear entrepreneurial capabilities and the essence of CBTPs' performance as a pr,ocess of entrepreneurship is somehow debatable. It was found that entrepreneurial skills and CBTPs' performance were not positively related. At p = 0.01, organizing skills (beta = 0.197; t = 2.047) and managing skills (beta = 0.227; t = 2.785) were found to be significant predictors of performance. It was revealed that the owned local resources by the CBTPs at close proximity to Protected Areas in Arusha were positively related to the programmes' performance. The Cronbach alpha for government policies was high (0.767) with a correlation coefficient of 0.221 at p = 0.01, implying that they have a significant influence on CBTP development. Government involvement in CBT was seen as being driven by realization of existing potentials for more revenue collection. It was recommended that CBTPs owners have to be supported in terms of; programmes start-up and incubation, strengthen local institutions so that realized benefits may conform with ownership structures, collaborative networks, education and training so as to be empowered to realize their potentials by starting with mass awareness creation, CBTP demand creation, ability to compete with formal operators, human-wildlife conflicts, image and commodification challenges. Suitable and coherent policies that illuminate the whole tourism industry are crucial for successful performance of CBTPs.