Anti-mosquito and antimicrobial nor-halimanoids, isocoumarins and an anilinoid from Tessmannia densiflora
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The nor-halimane diterpenoid tessmannic acid and its methyl, 2-methylisopropyl and 1-methylbutyl esters, the unusual isocoumarins 8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-pentylisocoumarin and 7-chloro-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-pentylisocoumarin, and 5-pentyl-3-methoxy-N-butylaniline were isolated from the stem and root bark extracts of Tessmannia densiflora Harms (Caesalpiniaceae) that showed mosquito larvicidal activity. The structures were determined on interpretation of spectroscopic data. Tessmannic acid and its methyl ester exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. The compounds also caused high larvae and adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoe mortality effects, and stronger mosquito repellency than that shown by the standard repellent DEET, hence indicating Tessmannia species to be potential sources of bioactive natural products.