A study of the methods used in teaching for valuing to standard seven pupils through primary social studies (G.H.C.) and Christian and Religious Education in Runyenjes division, Embu district
Nyaga, Margaret M
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This study was motivated by the concern that despite the emphasis in the national goals of education and the school curricular objectives on inculcation of desirable values, there was still a lot of talk about the failure of schools to bring about responsible and well-behaved youth, well fitting into the present-day society and respecting the inherited cultural values of the Kenya society. In view of the above concern the investigator formulated some broad research questions and specific objectives of the study as outlined in Chapter One of this report. These questions and objectives dwelt on issues of teacher preparation at pre-service and in-service levels in regard to valuing education; the methods used to teach for valuing in GHC and CRE at standard seven level; the time and resources used to teach for valuing and the effect of the assessment system on teaching for valuing at standard seven. Chapter two-reviewed literature related to the problem of teaching for valuing at standard seven through GHC and CRE. A theoretical framework on how to teach valuing effectively as well as research findings on teaching methods in social studies GHC and CRE were presented. To achieve the objectives of the study the investigator administered questionnaire and observation instruments to thirty primary school teachers who teach standard seven classes in Runyenjes Division of Embu District, as Chapter Three of this report details. The responses of the research subjects and the classroom observations, which were presented in Chapter Four, provided useful data for the study. The data collected revealed that: (a) The pre-service and in-service training given to teachers is inadequate for teaching on the valuing domain; (b) The methods used to teach GHC and CRE are mainly expository, hence, unsuitable for teaching at the valuing domain; (c) Teaching - learning resources needed for effective valuing education are lacking in the schools; (d) The current assessment and examination systems discourage the teachers from teaching and the pupils from learning effectively in the valuing domain as their emphasis is almost entirely on cognition; and that (e) There were constraints of scarcity of time, heavy teaching loads, subject-matter overloading and high pupil enrolment, all of which cannot allow for in-depth discussions on value issues or individual attention to the pupils during allocated GHC and CRE lessons in class seven. From the findings of the study it was recommended in Chapter Five that the Ministry of Education should review and take necessary action on the following: a. The pre-service and in-service training to give conscious attention to the teaching methodology for valuing education so that the new and the older teachers can be helped to effectively teach at the valuing dimension; b. The provision of the basic resources for effective teaching-learning for valuing failing which schools should be advised on how the said resources could be procured or improvised; c. Reduction of the content load in GHC and CRE to leave only what is indispensable, granted the limited amount of time for pupils to achieve the cognitive, psychomotor and effective objective without sacrificing any of the three; d. The inclusion of value education items in the national examinations so that all parties concerned may give education the serious attention it deserves. Further research studies related to this problem were suggested, whose findings may shed more light into the important issue of valuing education for the primary school pupils.