Trends towards gender equity in selected competitive sports in Uganda
Kateshumbwa, Eunice Ananura
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Participation of women in SPOHS has been very low as compared to that of men world over. Studies have shown that women are underrepresented in all fields of sports as managers, administrators, officials in sports organisations, coaches, and athletes (Njororai et al, 2003; Mwisukha, 2005). This study therefore aimed at establishing the current status and trends of gender equity in sports participation in Uganda. The study also sought to examine the causes of, and strategies that can be used to reduce gender disparity in sports in Uganda. A descriptive survey research design was used and the study was guided by five objectives. This study was delimited to national sports organisations in Uganda whereby a target population of 483 people in the sports field were considered. These included officials from the national sports organisations, national federations/associations, coaches and athletes at national level. A total of 350 respondents were sampled using purposive, stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaires and a document analysis guide which were validated by experts and through pre-testing were used to collect data. SPSS version 11.5 was used to code and analyse data which was presented as means, frequencies and percentages in tables for descriptive analysis. A multiple regression was used to conduct the forecast for the achievement of gender equity in selected competitive sports in Uganda. In addition, the null hypotheses were tested using the t-tests and one way ANOV A to establish the differences between views of different respondents at 0.05 level of significance. Post hoc tests using Tukey HSD was used to establish the differences between groups upon significant F ratios. The study found out that gender disparity exists and that there was a significant difference in the opportunities available for male and female participants, male (M = 3.454, SD = 0.446) and female (M = 2.889, SD = 0.220); t (14) = 3.21, at p = 0.006 with male participants being availed more opportunities. in 'sports than their female counterparts. The study also established a minimal increase in the humber of women participating in sports as compared to that of men and a small decrease in the gender imbalance. There was a significant difference between some of the views of the committee members, coaches and athletes on cultural factors that cause gender disparity in sports in Uganda. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the views of the committee members, coaches and athletes on the social, economic and political factors that cause gender disparity in sports in Uganda. The study recommended that national sports organisations in Uganda ought to establish gender equity policies and committees. There should also be a plan to sensitise the masses on the importance of gender equity in sports for the benefit for both men and women in Uganda. There should be deliberate efforts to recruit and bring more women into the sports field at all levels.