A study of the factors that impede and affect effective inspection and supervision of primary schools in Kwisero division of Butere/Mumias district of Western province in Kenya
Kenyakisa, Anthony Etindi
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A study of the factors that impede and affect effective inspection and supervision of primary schools in Khwisero Division of Butere/Mumias District of Western province in Kenya. THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of the study project was to investigate into the factors that impede and hinder effective inspection and supervision of primary schools in Khwisero Division. The purpose was categorized into six areas. These are:- i. The qualifications and pre-service training objective of serving inspectors. ii. The inservice training objectives that is given to serving inspectors. iii. The internal inspection objective conducted by headteachers and subject panel leaders iv. The resources and other materials used by inspectors. v. The attitude objective between teachers and inspectors vi. The understaffing objective being experienced by inspectors. The review of related literature showed that the factors that affect effective inspection and supervision of schools are many and varied. This made it necessary for the researcher to use three kinds of research instruments in order to get a balanced sampled of these factors. The research instruments used were:- i. Headteachers questionnaire ii. Assistant teachers questionnaire iii. Education officers interview schedule An hour's sessions was arranged individually for the ten education officials. This consisted of prepared questions where the responses were recorded by the researcher. The questions were based on the review of related literature and the set objectives of the study. The headteachers questionnaire consisted of three parts. These included the headteachers general information, the inspection and supervision attitude scale and the general information about the school. The Assistant teachers' questionnaire consisted of two parts. These included the general information about the teacher and the inspection and supervision attitude scale. The sample population consisted of ten headteachers, three assistant teachers and ten education officials. The ten schools were randomly selected for the study. The education officials, headteachers and assistant teachers were selected with gender equity in mind. This means that the researcher selected both males and females for the study. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The Division of Khwisero has fifty-six schools. The researcher used a sample of ten headteachers whose schools were randomly selected. The researcher used thirty assistant teachers and ten education officials. The inadequate time of two months did not allow for a detailed and more elaborate research project. The University had set a time limit of two months for the study to be completed and submitted. The inadequate resources such as money and writing materials were a limiting factor. The money allowed and used for this study was ten thousand Kenya shillings only. This amount was a limiting factor considering the many journeys the researcher had to make to the selected schools. The writing materials and the secretarial services used and the high cost of computer services were a real limiting factor. Given more time and more money the researcher would definitely have done an excellent job than what is realized. 1. The researcher found out that serving headteachers, TAC Tutors and Inspectors receive no pre-service training apart from the induction courses mounted for them on their appointment to Inspectorial duties. 2. The schools verses Inspector ratio was less than the recorded thirty schools per inspector. It was also found out that some schools were larger than others and the distance from one school to the other also varied. 3. The researcher also found out that some schools were inspected more frequently than others. 4. The research also revealed that inspectors favour teachers with higher grades than those with lower ones. 5. It was also found out that most teachers had a negative attitude towards inspectors and inspection. 6. The research revealed that most headteachers had a positive attitude towards inspectors. 7. Lack of transport and poor roads limit inspectors' frequent visits to the schools. 8. Internal Inspection and Supervision was rarely conducted by both headteachers and subject panel leaders. 9. Schools closer to education offices were frequently visited than those that were far. 10. Some inspectors were still wearing on the colonial autocratic approach to inspection. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The training of inspectors is very important. There is therefore, need to provide both pre-service and in-service training to inspectors and supervisors of Schools. 2. Inspectors and Supervisors should read intensively and extensively for them to be more informed of the changing methods of approach to inspection. 3. The relationship between teachers and inspectors should be made more positive if inspection has to assist in setting, maintaining and improving the general and academic standards of education in schools. 4. Routine inspection should be advisory and friendly. 5. The colonial inspectorial legacies adopted at independence should be discarded at all costs. 6. Promotion and appointed of headteachers and inspectors should be done on merit. 7. Adequate facilities should be made available to headteachers and inspectors for them to excel in their performance. 8. Teachers' attitude towards inspectors should change. The training of teachers and inspectors can assist to realize this positive attitude. 9. Induction courses and seminars should be conducted to up-date teachers and inspectors on the changes that continually take place on the curriculum. 10. Schools should be made more accessible through the provision of means of transport and good roads. 11. The head teachers' teaching load should be reduced for them to excel as internal inspectors. 12. Zonal inspectors should be assigned up to twenty schools for them to excel in their roles. 13. All schools should be inspected without bias. 14. All teachers should be inspected regardless of their grades. 15. Headteachers should involve subject panel leaders, class teachers and subject teachers in the supervision of curriculum implementation. 16. Non-performing Inspectorial personnel to be relieved o their duties and responsibilities.