The Role of Church of Scotland Mission in the Establishment of Formal Education at Tumutumu Mission Centre, Nyeri County, Kenya: 1908 - 1963
Muthoni, Kabiru Margaret
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Before the advent of colonialism, Kenyan communities had their systems of education. The African indigenous knowledge was essential in preserving and transmitting culture from one generation to another. In the last quarter of the nineteenth century, Christian missionaries came to the Kenyan coast to convert Africans to Christianity. Christian missionaries laid the foundation of modern education in Kenya to encourage the spread of Christianity. The Christian roots of education in Kenya have never been in doubt. The presence of missionaries in Kenya and Africa had been anchored in the gospel’s spread. This study sought to investigate the role of the CSM in establishing formal education in Tumutumu Mission Center, Nyeri County, Kenya, between 1908 and 1963. Specifically, the study sought to document the missionary activities of the CSM in Kenya between 1908 and 1963. Additionally, the study sought to determine how the establishment of schools by the CSM influenced the educational aspirations of the local community in Tumutumu Mission Center between 1908 and 1963. This study also sought to examine the influence of African teachers and evangelists on the development of formal education in Tumutumu Mission Centre, Nyeri county, between 1908 and 1963. Besides, the study sought to document the challenges the Church of the Scotland Mission (CSM) faced in the contribution to formal education in Tumutumu Mission Centre, Nyeri county, between 1908 and 1963. Using the status inverse, modernization, and cultural lag theories, this study was conducted in Tumutumu Mission Centre in present-day Nyeri County and adopted the historical research method. The target population for this study were members of the local community in Tumutumu. Both primary and secondary data were collected. Interview guides were utilized to collect primary data. Secondary data sources comprised archived documents at the PCEA Saint Andrew’s Church in Nairobi, books, meeting minutes, annual government education and inspection reports, and communication between the CSM in Kikuyu and Tumutumu. A purposive sampling method was used to identify informants. In addition, qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data in line with the research questions. The findings of the study revealed that the CSM contributed immensely to the development of formal education in Tumutumu. Their main activities comprised teaching the locals how to read and write, imparting technical skills such as masonry and carpentry, providing health care services, and ultimately spreading Christianity. The study also found out that the work of the CSM was instrumental to the people of Tumutumu and encouraged many locals to join the schools. The study also found that the CSM African teachers and evangelists played a significant role in furthering the mission agenda of spreading Christianity through education. Nonetheless, the work of the CSM was faced with numerous challenges, which included: initial resistance by the locals, Second World War II, inadequate qualified personnel, delayed and scarce funding, and pressure from the commissioning organizations. The study recommends that the government of Kenya continue partnering with the churches.