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dc.contributor.advisorHarun Kimanien_US
dc.contributor.advisorAlloys S.S Oragoen_US
dc.contributor.authorMbithi, Annastacia Nduku
dc.date.accessioned2023-02-08T09:32:31Z
dc.date.available2023-02-08T09:32:31Z
dc.date.issued2022
dc.identifier.urihttp://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/24715
dc.descriptionA Research Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Masters of Public Health (Epidemiology and Disease Control) In the School of Public Health and Applied Human Sciences of Kenyatta Universityen_US
dc.description.abstractChronic (CKD) is a kidney disease worldwide public health issue with high prevalence (8% and 16%) among adults. The risk factors, prevalence, severity and management of CKD are less characterized in Kenya. Therefore, the study aimed at determining risk factors, prevalence, severity and management of CKD among outpatient attendees in selected hospitals in Nairobi County. An analytical cross sectional study design was used. The study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi and Mater Misericordiae Hospital among 336 CKD patients and 27 key informants. The sample size in the selected hospitals was obtained proportionately. Adult CKD outpatients aged 18 years and above who attended nephrology clinics between January and July, 2020 were recruited using a simple random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social-demographic, risk factors and factors influencing the management of CKD while data on severity and clinical features were retrieved from patients’ files of those who had given an informed consent. Key informant interviews we also conducted among nephrologists and nephrology nurses. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using statistical package of social science version 26.0. The qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis. Notably, the study reported a CKD prevalence of 9% among outpatients of selected hospitals. Majority of CKD patients (61.9%) had severe disease. Diabetic nephropathy (OR 3.43, 95% CI; 1.72, 5.67), glomerulonephritis (OR 2.52, 95% CI; 2.07, 4.05), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (OR 1.95, 95% CI; 1.87, 3.11), polycystic kidney disease (OR 1.26, 95% CI; 1.12, 2.61) and systemic lupus erythematosus (OR 1.16, 95% CI; 1.06, 1.39) were independently associated with severe CKD. Also, age (OR 2.73, 95% CI; 1.12, 6.67), sex (OR 2.62, 95% CI; 1.97, 6.05), family history of diabetes (OR 2.52, 95% CI; 1.2,7, 4.30) and hypertension (OR 1.16, 95% CI; 1.04, 1.93), tobacco smoking (OR 2.52, 95% CI; 1.27, 4.30), alcohol use (OR 2.01 95% CI; 1.83, 3.95), herbal medicine use (OR 1.73, 95% CI; 1.32, 2.27), obesity (OR 2.11, 95% CI; 1.52, 3.63), irregular nephrology consultation (OR 1.42, 95% CI; 1.12, 2.01), physical inactivity (OR 2.62, 95% CI; 1.97, 5.73) and poor diet (OR 1.16, 95% CI; 1.09, 2.41) were confirmed as independently associated with severe CKD. Furthermore, social (87%), physical (52%), economic (77%), emotional (46%) and hospital based factors (32%) were identified as the factors that affected provision of care to patients with CKD. Therefore, the patients with these features need proper follow up and treatment to slow down progression of CKD to severe stages. Kenyan Ministry of Health should design policies for early CKD screening on high risk populations, include CKD among the prioritized non communicable diseases and train more nephrology workers.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherKenyatta Universityen_US
dc.subjectRisk Factorsen_US
dc.subjectPrevalence,en_US
dc.subjectSeverityen_US
dc.subjectChronicen_US
dc.subjectKidney Diseaseen_US
dc.subjectOutpatientsen_US
dc.subjectHospitalsen_US
dc.subjectNairobi City Countyen_US
dc.subjectKenyaen_US
dc.titleRisk Factors, Prevalence, Severity, and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease among Outpatients in Selected Hospitals in Nairobi City County, Kenyaen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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